Shared Flashcard Set


Cardiovascular System A
Undergraduate 4

Additional Nursing Flashcards







Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)



Most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease in adults.


Non modifiable risk factors: age, gender, family history of heart disease.


Modifiable factors: smoking, hypertension, elevated serum cholesterol levels, inactivity, obesity, diabetes mellitus.


Atherosclerosis causes ischemia results in angina, myocardial infarction (MI), and sudden cardiac death. 

Focus is to prevent diseae by modifying modifiable risk factors 

The nurse performs discharge teaching for a patient with angina. It is MOST important for the patient to report which of the following?
Answer: A change in the character of the pain


The nurse understands that the CABs of CPR stand for which? 




Answer: Compressions, airway, breathing. 





The nurse understands that the primary purpose of promoting rest following a myocardial infarction includes which rationale?




Answer: Decreases the workload on the heart. 




Myocardial Infarction 



Formation of localized necrotic areas withtin the myocardium, usually following the sudden occlusion of a corornary artery and the abrupt decrease of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle. 


Indications include: severe crushing chest pain, may radiate to arms and/or jaw and/or neck and/or back, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, gastric discomfort, indigestion, apprehension, restlessness, fear of death. 


Nursing care includes: providing thrombolytic therapy, relieving family's anxiety, bed rest, monitoring vital signs and intake and output, instructing about modification of lifestyle: stop smoking, reduce stess, regular physical activity. 



The nurse perfoms diet teaching for a client diagnosed with myocardial infarction. The nurse determines that teaching is effecive if the client selecs which of the following menus? 




Answer: Sliced turkey, reen beans, pear. 



Rationale: all are low in cholesterol and low in salt; other meals are high in cholesterol and salt (ham, cheese, milk, apple, fish, creamed spinach, custard, chicken, green beans, ice cream). 



The nurse care for patients on the medical unit. Propranolol (Inderal) is ordered for a patient. Which of the following information found in the patient's history should cause the nurse to intervene? 




Answer: The patient has had ashtma since childhood. 


Rationale: one of the side effects of lnderal is bronchospasm; possible side effects must be avoided in patients with asthma. 




Propranolol (lnderal)




Beta-andrenergic blocker


action: block sympathetic impulses to heart.


Use: hypertensive, dysrhythmia, angina


Side effects: weakness, fatigue, hypotension, bronchospasm, bradycardia, heart failute, psychological depression, confusion, gastic pain, impotence, vivd dreams, visual hallucinations. 


Nursing considerations: monitor for depression and psychological disturbance, provide rest periods.


Client education: take pulse before each dose, hold if under 60bpm, taper dose before discontinuing, take with meals. 


Monitor blood gluclose because blocks normal signs of hypoglycemia, warn males of impotence potential. 




The nurse instructs a patient about hypertension. Which of the following statements, if made by the patient to the nurse, indicates teaching is successful? 




Answer: "I know that i must see my physcian on a regular basis".


Rationale: hypertension is a serious conditon that must be constantly monitored. 







Persistent elevation of the systolic blood pressure


Normal is below 120/80.


Prehypertension is 120-139/80-89.


Hypertension (stage 1) is 140-159/90-99 mm Hg.


Hypertension (stage 2) is 160 and higher/100 and higher. 


May or may not have symptoms.


Symptoms may include: headache, dizziness, anginal pain. 


Nursing care incldues: administering antihypertensive medication, teaching about medication adverse effects, weight control, moderate alcohol intake, physcial activity, smoking cessation, importance of health care follow-up.



The nurse instructs a client in the outpatient clinic about a stress test. Which of the following statements by the nurse is BEST? 




Answer: "The stress test will determine the amount of stress that your heart can tolerate" 


Rationale: during the treadmill test, the client runs on a motorized treadmill while heart rate and blood pressure are monitored; physician can determine if cardiac ischemia is occurring, and get an estimate of the workload or stress this person's heart can tolerate. 



The nurse cares for a client diagnosed with angina. The nurse understands that nitroglyverin is used in the treatment of angina pectoris for which reason? 




Answer: Decreases preload. 


Rationale: by dilating the peripheral vessels, blood pressure is decreased thereby decreasing preload; the heart does not have to pump as hard to eject blood and therefore the wok load of the heart is decreased relieving angina. 









Use: angina pectoris


Action: dilate veins and arteries and thereby reducing ischemia and relieving pain by decreasing myocardial O2 consumption


Side effects: throbbing headache, flushing, hypotension, tachycardia


Client education: appropiate administration (time, technique, dosage), storage, expected pain relief, possible side effects, ointment is applied to skin, rotate sites to avoid skin irritation. 


Has prolonged effect up to 24 hours. 



The office nurse prepaes a client for resting electrocardiogram (EKG). Which of the following statements by the client indicates teaching is successful? 




Answer: "The more still i can lie, the better the results will be"


Rationale: EKG assesses overall and detailed cardiac fxn; resting EKG (vs. ambulatory or Hotler monitoring or excerise EKG or stress test) requires client to lie as still as possible during the test to ensure the heart is being monitored in its resting 



The nurse supervises the nursing student caring for the client who had femoropoliteral bypass graft in the right leg 12 hours ago. The nurse should intervener if the student perfoms which intervention?


Femoropopliteal Bypass: means of circumventing a clot or obstruction in the femoral and/or popliteal artery; blood flow is shunted from the proximal femoral artery to the distal popliteal artery bypassing the clotted area. 



1. The nursing student places the client in a chair for 30 minutes. 


4. The nursing student obtains a Doppler evaluation of the client's right leg every two hours. 




1. Bending the hip and knee are contraindicated due to possible thrombus formation. 


4. assess hourly 



The nurse in the student health service of a college is planning a series of brief presentations on reducing health risks. One of the topics is going to be toxic shock syndrome (TSS). It is MOST important for the nurse to target which of the followin groups in marketing this program?




Answer: All females. 


Rationale: since toxic shock syndrome is primarily concerned with tampon use and snce this is a college-age campus, all women should be TSS is a type of distributive shock resulting fom inadequate vascular tone due to staphylococcus aureus infection; in addition to tampons, various contraceptive devices, postpartum conditions and nonmenstrual vaginal conditions have been associated with TSS

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