# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

CA Physical Science-Energy and Work
Energy and Work Terminology and Concepts
37
Science
10/02/2009

Term
 Energy
Definition
 The ability to do work or cause a change
Term
 Kinetic
Definition
 Energy in the form of motion
Term
 Potential
Definition
 stored energy
Term
 the position of the object above Earth's surface
Definition
 Graviational potential energy depends on _____________.
Term
 the position of the atoms within the chemical
Definition
 Chemical potential energy depends on ____________________.
Term
 the position or conditions of the object     example: a compressed spring has potential energy stored in its compressed coils
Definition
 Mechanical potential energy depends on ______________
Term
 Work
Definition
 The transfer of energy through motion
Term
 force, distance
Definition
 In order for work to take place, a ____ must be exerted through a ____.
Term
 W=F x d
Definition
 Formula for calculating work
Term
 Joules
Definition
 Energy and work are measured in _____.
Term
 Joule
Definition
 The work done when One Newton acts through a distance of One meter   1 Newton-meter
Term
 First Law of Thermodynamics   or   The Law of Conservation of Energy
Definition
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed by ordinary means, but can be transformed from one type of energy to another
Term
 Mechanical energy
Definition
 The TOTAL amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system
Term
 Heat
Definition
 Friction and Air resistance can change mechanical energy to ______ energy.
Term
 Thermal Energy
Definition
 The TOTAL amount of energy of the particles within a material
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter
Term
 increases, decreases
Definition
 As particles within a material begin to speed up the temperature ______, and when they slow down the temperature _____.
Term
 temperature and mass
Definition
 What two factors determine the amount of thermal energy in an object.
Term
 Situation #1: object with the greater mass   Situation #2: object at the higher temperature
Definition
 Which object has the greatest amount of thermal energy? (assume all objects are made of the same material)   Situation #1:Two objects of different masses at the same temperature   Situation #2:Two objects of the same mass at different temperatures
Term
 bonded together
Definition
 Different kinds of matter have different thermal energies, even at the same mass and temperature due to the way the particles are ________.
Term
 True
Definition
 True or False The kinetic energy of an object itself is unrelated to the thermal energy of the particles within the object.   Example: A ball sitting on a table can have the same thermal energy as a ball hurling through space, yet their mechanical kinetic energy is different. (Assuming they are made of the same material, have the same mass and are at the same temperature)
Term
 Heat
Definition
 thermal energy tht flows from material with a higher temperature to a material with a lower temperature
Term
 Joules
Definition
 Heat is measured in ___.
Term
 Specific Heat
Definition
 The amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of one kilogram of the material one Kelvin (or 10C)
Term
 J/kg.K
Definition
 Specific Heat is measure in ____.
Term
 Q = m x ΔT x Cp
Definition
 Formula for calculating changes in thermal energy
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 The transfer of energy through matter by direct conduct of particles
Term
 Solids, because the particles are closer together
Definition
 What phase of matter conducts heat best? Why?
Term
 Convection
Definition
 The transfer of energy by the bulk movement of the matter in currents
Term
 less dense
Definition
 Warmer material will rise in the presence of cooler material because it is ________.
Term
 fluid (gases and liquids)
Definition
 Convection occurs in materials that are _____.
Term
 Convection current
Definition
 the circular movement of warmer (less dense) and cooler (more dense) materials
Term
Definition
 the transfer of energy in the form of waves
Term
 True
Definition
 True or False   Any material with thermal energy can emit radiant energy.
Term
 Situation #1: dull object Situation #2: dark-colored object   Shiny and light-colored objects are more likely to reflect the radiant energy
Definition
 Which object is able to absorb radiant energy more easily?   Situation #1: shiny object vs. dull object   Situation #2: dark-colored object vs. light colored object
Term
 Insulators   Examples: air, wood, plastic
Definition
 materials that reduce the flow of heat energy
Term
 Conductors     Examples: metals
Definition
 materials that allow heat to move through them easily
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