# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

byu statistics
exam one
60
Mathematics
02/06/2011

Term
 1. The basic unit of an experiment upon which the treatment is applied.
Definition
 1. What is the individual.
Term
 2. An experimental condition where neither the subjects nor the diagnosticians know which treatment each subject received.
Definition
 2. What is double blind.
Term
 3. A weakness in experiments where the setting of the experiment does not realistically duplicate the conditions we really want to study.
Definition
 3. What is lack of realism.
Term
 4. An experimental design where all experimental units are assigned at random to treatments.
Definition
 4. What is completely randomized.
Term
 5. A study in which treatments are imposed on the individuals before responses are measured.
Definition
 5. What is an experiment.
Term
 6. The grouping of experimental units according to some similar characteristic. The random allocation is carried out separately within each group.
Definition
 6. What is blocking.
Term
 7. A treatment where no experimental condition or a placebo treatment is applied to the units in order to determine whether the active treatments work. This enables the researcher to “control” lurking variables.
Definition
 7. What is a control.
Term
 8. A study in which data are gathered without imposing treatments on the individuals.
Definition
 8. What is an observational study.
Term
 9. A variable that is studied to determine whether it affects (explains) the outcomes of a study.
Definition
 9. What is the explanatory variable.
Term
 10. A variable that has an effect on the response variable but is not of interest to the researcher and yet must be taken into account.
Definition
 10. What is a lurking variable.
Term
 11. The response of patients to any treatment that has no physical effect.
Definition
 11. What is placebo effect.
Term
 12. A method of assigning experimental units to treatment groups that eliminates bias and gives each unit the same probability of being assigned to any treatment group.
Definition
 12. What is randomization.
Term
 13. Results of a study that differ too much from what we expected because of randomization to attribute to chance.
Definition
 13. What is statistically significant.
Term
 14. A situation where the effect of one variable on the response variable cannot be separated from the effect of another variable on the response variable.
Definition
 14. What is confounding.
Term
 15. The application all the treatments to more than one individual within an experiment.
Definition
 15. What is replication.
Term
 1. Type of sampling required for inference.
Definition
 1. What is a probability sample.
Term
 2. Using results from a sample to draw conclusions about the entire population.
Definition
 2. What is inference.
Term
 3. A sampling scheme where the population has been divided into strata according to some characteristic and a simple random sample is selected from each strata.
Definition
 3. What is a stratified sample.
Term
 4. A sample selected using a random device and not human subjectivity.
Definition
 4. What is a probability sample.
Term
 5. A method of sample selection that consists of people choosing themselves by responding to a general appeal.
Definition
 5. What is a voluntary response sample.
Term
 6. A condition that occurs when the design of a study systematically favors certain outcomes.
Definition
 6. What is bias.
Term
 7. The entire group of individuals about whom we desire to collect information.
Definition
 7. What is the population of interest.
Term
 8. A subgroup of the population that we actually examine and about whom we gather information.
Definition
 8. What is the sample.
Term
 9. A sample of size n selected from the population in such a way that each possible sample of size n has an equally likely chance of being selected.
Definition
 9. What is a simple random sample or SRS.
Term
 10. A sample type where the researcher contacts those subjects who are readily available and does not use any random selection.
Definition
 10. What is a convenience sample.
Term
 1. An observation that falls outside the overall pattern of the data set.
Definition
 1. What is an outlier.
Term
 2. A measure for the center of the data that “balances” the data.
Definition
 2. What is the mean.
Term
 3. A measure of the center of data that splits the data in half.
Definition
 3. What is the median.
Term
 4. A location measure of the data that has one fourth or 25% of the data below it.
Definition
 4. What is the first quartile or Q1.
Term
 5. A location measure of the data that has one fourth or 25% of the data above it.
Definition
 5. What is the third quartile or Q3.
Term
 1. The symbol for sample mean.
Definition
 1. What is x.
Term
 2. The symbol for population or distribution mean.
Definition
 2. What is μ.
Term
 3. The symbol for response variable.
Definition
 3. What is “y”’.
Term
 4. The symbol for explanatory variable.
Definition
 4. What is “x”.
Term
 5. The symbol for sample standard deviation.
Definition
 5. What is “s”.
Term
 6. The symbol for population or distribution standard deviation.
Definition
 6. What is σ?.
Term
 7. The symbol for correlation coefficient.
Definition
 7. What is r.
Term
 8. The symbol for sample size.
Definition
 8. What is “n”.
Term
 9. The symbol for the first quartile.
Definition
 9. What is “Q1”.
Term
 10. The symbol for the third quartile.
Definition
 10. What is “Q3”.
Term
 1. A representative measure of the deviations of the data about the mean.
Definition
 1. What is standard deviation.
Term
 2. The maximum observation minus the minimum observation.
Definition
 2. What is range.
Term
 3. A measure of the “average” or typical deviation of the observations about the mean.
Definition
 3. What is standard deviation.
Term
 4. The difference between the third quartile (Q3) and the first quartile (Q1).
Definition
 4. What is interquartile range or IQR.
Term
 5. The measure of variability that should be used for strongly skewed data or data with outliers.
Definition
 5. What is interquartile range.
Term
 1. A curve that is mound shaped symmetric used to model data from measurements on animal species.
Definition
 1. What is a Normal distribution.
Term
 2. A normal distribution that has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.
Definition
 2. What is the standard Normal distribution.
Term
 3. A measure of the number of standard deviations of a value or observation from the mean.
Definition
 3. What is z-score.
Term
 4. In a Normal distribution, the percentages of values that are within one standard deviation of the mean.
Definition
 4. What is 68%.
Term
 5. In a Normal distribution, the percentage of values that are within two standard deviations of the mean.
Definition
 5. What is 95%.
Term
 1. A graph for categorical data.
Definition
 1. What is bar graph.
Term
 2. A plot of data that incorporates the maximum observation, the minimum observation, the first quartile, the second quartile (median) and the third quartile.
Definition
 2. What is a boxplot.
Term
 3. A distribution where the left side of the distribution extends in a long tail.
Definition
 3. What is left skewed.
Term
 4. A list of the possible values of a variable together with the frequencies of each value.
Definition
 4. What is a distribution.
Term
 5. The shape of a distribution where the mean exceeds the median.
Definition
 5. What is right skewed.
Term
 6. A plot used to provide a picture of one variable quantitative data
Definition
 6. What is a stemplot, a dotplot, a histogram or a boxplot.
Term
 7. The shape of a histogram where the median exceeds the mean.
Definition
 7. What is left-skewed.
Term
 8. The shape of a histogram where the mean equals the median.
Definition
 8. What is symmetric.
Term
 9. The recommended plot for displaying small quantitative data sets.
Definition
 9. What is a stemplot.
Term
 10. The preferred measures of spread and center for strongly skewed distributions or distributions with outliers.
Definition
 10. What are median and interquartile range.
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