Term
Financial Ratio (Trend) Analysis includes 

Definition
(1) Historical and normalized BS over period being analyzed, detailing each BS line item (2) Historical and normalized adjusted IS over the period being analyzed, detailing each IS line item (3) Commonsized IS (% of Net Sales) (4) Commonsized BS (% of Total Assets) (5) Historical and normalized adjusted cash flows from operating activities (on the basis of operations and adjusted for owner/manager discretionary items such as compensation and perquisites) over the period being analyzed 


Term
5 Categories of Key Financial Ratios 

Definition
(1) Internal Liquidity (2) Operating Efficiency (3) Operating Profitability (4) Business Risk (Operating) Analysis (5) Financial Risk (Leverage) Analysis 


Term

Definition
(1) BS line items as a % of Total Assets (2) IS line items as a % of Net Sales (3) Facilitate comparison with other companies in the same industry (4) Fundamental step in developing ratio (trend) and comparative analyses 


Term
Ratio (Trend) Analysis  effective toold to answer 3 questions 

Definition
(1) How well is the company doing? (2) What are its strengths and wealnesses? but won't identify ALL (3) What are the relative business and operating risks to the company? 


Term
Ratio (Trend) Analysis  benefits 

Definition
(1) Measures the relative health or sickness of a business. (2) Integral tool in trend analysis (3) Integral tool in comparative analysis 


Term
Ratio Analysis as Tool in Trend Analysis 

Definition
(1) Compares the company's own ratios to itself over time (2) Identifies the company's strengths and weaknesses (but not all of them) (3) Assists in establishing appropriate capitalization rates (helps to identify risk factors particular to subject company) 


Term
Ratio Analysis as Tool in Comparative Analysis 

Definition
(1) Assists in making comparison's with other companies' or industry averages (2) Assists in selecting appropriate price/earnings ratios or price/asset multiples relative to the company's indicated performance to compare to comparable companies or industry averages 


Term
Use of Historical data in Ratio Analysis 

Definition
(1) preferable 5 years or the length of the natural business cycle of the subject company and industry (2) more than 5 if analyst deems appropriate (3) less than 5 if info unavailable 


Term

Definition
(1) Obtain and analyze GAAP basis or tax basis financial data (2) List and prepare summaries by year for key financial statement accounts (BS & IS) (3) Select, compute and compare the relevant financial ratios for each year (4) Analyze and develop conclusions 


Term
Internal Liquidity Ratios (Solvency) 

Definition
Measures a firm's ability to pay its nearterm financial obligations (1) Current Ratio (2) Quick Ratio (3) Cash Ratio (4) Receivable Turnover (5) Inventory Turnover (6) Payables Turnover (7) Cash Conversion Cycle 


Term

Definition
(1) Current Assets/Current Liabilities (2) Provides a good measure of solvency if AR and inventories are liquid 


Term

Definition
(1) (Cash + Marketable Securities + Receivables)/Current Liabilities (2) If inventories are not easily liquidated, the quick ratio provides a better indicator of solvency 


Term

Definition
(1) (Cash + Marketable Securities)/Current Liabilities (2) Most conservative measure of solvency, used if neither AR nor inventories are liquid 


Term

Definition
(1) Net Sales/Avg Receivables (2) Measures how many times AR are collected (or turned over) during the period being examined (3) Divide Turnover rate into 365 = average time required to convert receivables to cash (4) ie 30 days credit, if avg collection time = 41 days then collection lagging but if 60 days credit then collections are ahead 


Term

Definition
(1) COGS/Avg Inventory (2) Measures number of times a company sells (or turns) its inventory during the year (3) A high Inventory TO and low GP often go tohether maning a low GP requires a higher volume of business to produce a satisfactory ROA (4) High TO can also indicate better liquidity or superior merchandising or a shortage of needed inventory for sales (5) Low inventory can indicate poor liquidity, possible overstocking or obsolete inventory or a planned inventory build up may be occurring to avoid material shortages (6) Divide Turnover rate into 365 = average time required to convert inventory to cash 


Term

Definition
(1) COGS/Avg Payables (2) Measures the number of times a year that a company pays its Avg AP balance (3) If ratio is too high, firm may be paying too quickly and not taking advantage of interest free credit available for AP (4) If ratio is low, then then the firm may be a credit risk and/or losing valuable discounts (5) Divide Turnover rate into 365 = average time required to convert payables to cash (paying payables) 


Term

Definition
(1) DIO + DSO  DPO (2) Inventory TO Period + Days to Collect Receivable  Payable Payment Period (3) Measures the time between the outlay of cash for inventory and the collection of cash from the sale of that inventory 


Term
Operating Efficiency Ratios 

Definition
(1) Net Fixed Asset Turnover (2) Total Asset Turnover 


Term

Definition
(1) Net Sales/Avg FA (2) can be an indication of management's ability to effectively utilize fixed assets (3) a low ratio can be an indication of obsolete or impaired fixed assets 


Term

Definition
(1) Net Sales/Avg Total Assets (2) an indication of management's ability to effectively utilize total assets (3) a low ratio can be an indication of obsolete or impaired assets 


Term
Operating Profitability Ratios 

Definition
Used in the evaluation of management performance (1) Cost of Sales/Sales % (2) Gross Margin % (3) Operating Expenses/Sales % (4) Operating Margin % (5) Return on Assets % (ROA) (6) Return on Equity % (ROE) 


Term

Definition
(1) Cost of Sales/Net Sales (2) an indication of the subject company's operating environment and operating efficiency (3) if increasing, may indicate competition is forcing company to cut profit margins or it may indictae the company is unable to pass its increasing costs to its customers. 


Term

Definition
(1) (Net Sales  Cost of Sales)/Net Sales (2) Expands on the issues found by anlyzing the cost of sales ratio (3) Note that the COS + GM = 100% 


Term
Operating Expenses/Sales % 

Definition
(1) Operating Expenses/Net Sales (2) often used as a measure of management's ability to control its operating expenses 


Term

Definition
(1) Income from Operations/Net Sales (2) expands on the issues identified by analyzing the operating expense ratio. 


Term

Definition
(1) Net Income/Avg Total Assets (2) an important test of management's ability to earn a return on assets funded from all sources (debt and equity) (3) the NI figure should be before deducting int exp 


Term

Definition
Net Income/Avg Common Equity 

