Term

Definition
The art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data. In business, it gives managers a better understanding of business enviroment, enabling them to make more informed and better desicions. 


Term

Definition
The facts and figures that are collected, analyzed and summarized for presentation and interpretation. all the data collected in particular study 


Term

Definition
The entities of which data are collected 


Term

Definition
AN attribute or characteristic of an entity 


Term

Definition
The set of measurements for a particular element # is equal to # of elements The number of measurments obtained for each element is queal to the number of varibles. total # of data items= # of observations multiplied by the # of variables. 


Term
What is the scale of measurement? 

Definition
determines the amount of information contained in the data and indicates the data summarization and statistical analysis that are more appropriate. Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio 


Term

Definition
data are labels or names can be numeric or nonnumeric 


Term

Definition
The data have the properties fo nomral data and cab be orderedin some meaningful way. RANKED Ex. Survey: Excellent, Good, Poor 


Term

Definition
The data have the properties of interval data and contain an absolute zero value resutling in meaningful ratios. Ex. Distance, Height, Weight, and Time 


Term
Which Scales of Measurement describe Qualitative Data? 

Definition


Term
Which Scales of Measurement describe Quanitative Data? 

Definition


Term
What is Qualitative Data? 

Definition
use labels or names to describe an attribute of an element 


Term
Categorical Data can also be referred to as.. 

Definition


Term
What is Quantitative Data 

Definition
It indicates how much or how many it can be discrete or continuous. 


Term
Why does the Statistical Method used for summarizing data depend on whether the data is qualitiative or quantitative 

Definition
Qualitative variable is limited in terms of statistical analysis because its nominal. Its hard to do arthematic on the data. Quantitative variables you are able to find the mean, median, mode, etc. as well as add, divide, mulitply, etc. 


Term
What is crosssectional data? 

Definition
Data that is collected at approximately the same time 


Term
What is time series data? 

Definition
Data that is collected over a period of time or series of time periods... ex. Weather throughout the Year in San Diego 


Term
Statistical Studies are classified as either.. 

Definition
Experimental or Observational 


Term
When a Statistical Study is Experimental.. the researchers... 

Definition
control one or more independent varible (IV) to measure their influence on a dependent variable(DV) 


Term
When a Statistical Study is Observational.. the researchers.. 

Definition
make no attempt to control the independent variable. ex. survey for a restruant. 


Term
What are descriptive statitistics? 

Definition
summaries of data that may be tabular, graphical, or numerical 


Term
What is the most common numerical descriptive statistic? 

Definition


Term

Definition
The set of all elements of interest in a particular study. 


Term

Definition
It is the subset of the population. 


Term

Definition
the process of conducting a survey to collect data for the entire population. 


Term
What is the process of conducting a survery to collect data for a sample called? 

Definition


Term
What is Statistical Inference? 

Definition
The process of taking data from a sample and using it to make estimes and test hypotheses about the characteristics of a population. 


Term
What are some unethical behavior for statistical practice? 

Definition
 inappropriate analysis of the data
 Development of misleading graphs
 use of inappropriate summary statistics
 biased interpreation of the statisical results
 multiple tests until a desired result is obtained



Term
you must always be ________ when conducting an experiment or you may have a bias on the interpretation of the statistical results. 

Definition


Term
percent of statistics that are made up on the spot 

Definition


Term
What are Sample Statistics? 

Definition
numerical measures computed from a sample (eg. the sample mean, and the sample standard deviation 


Term
What are the population parameters? 

Definition
Numerical measures computed from a population (eg. the population mean, and the population standard deviation) 


Term
What is the point estimate in Statistical Inference? 

Definition
The sample statistic used to estimate the corresponding population parameter (eg. the sample mean is often used as a point estimate of the population mean) 


Term

Definition
arithmetic average or average value of a variable ** Most important measure of location** add up the numbers and divide by the total number of participants. The data can be skewed with an outlier. 


Term
The Sample Mean is the _________ of the population mean 

Definition


Term

Definition
The middle value when the data is sorted in ascending order. To compute the median, sort the data in ascending order: if n is odd, the median is the middle number if n is even, the median is the average of the two middle numbers 


Term
Which measure of location is resitant to outliers? 

Definition


Term

Definition
The value occurs at the greatest frequency. ** There is NO MODE if no number is repeated** *There can also be MULTIPLE MODES** (ex. 1,2,2,3,3,5) mode 2&3 


Term
If the bell curve is ________, the mean and median will equal eachother 

Definition


Term
If the _______ and ________are equal to eachother, that does not mean that the _____________ is symmetrical. 

Definition
(1)mean (2)median (3)bellshape curve 


Term

Definition
if a set of data has 2 modes 


Term

Definition
if a set of data has 3 or more modes 


Term
What measure of location used as the most important in qualitative data 

Definition
Mode ex. distribution of soft drinks. Want to know which soft drink is purchased most frequently.. Coke Classic 


Term

Definition
the p^{th} percentile is a value that at least p percent of the observations are ≤to this value and at least (1p) percent of the observations are ≥ to this value ex. 67 percentile 67 percent fall below this percentile while 33 percent are above this percentile. 


Term
how do you calculate the p^{th} percentile? 

Definition
1. sort data in ascending order (small to large) 2. compute an index i i= (p/100)n *p= percentile of interest, n=# of observations/times, i= the item which is in the P percetile 3. (a) if i is not an interger, round up.the next interger greater than i denotes the position of the p^{th }percentile. (b) if i is an interger, the p^{th} percentile is the average of the values in positions i and i+1 


Term
The 50th percentile is also known as the... 

Definition


Term

Definition
Specific percentiles, seperated in 4. 25,50,75 


Term
What are the division points of Q_{1, }Q_{2,} and Q_{3?} 

Definition
Q_{1= first quartile, or 25th percentile } Q_{2= second quartile, or 50th percentile (median)} Q_{3= third quartile, or 75th percentile} 


Term
What are the measures of variabilty? 

Definition
range, interquartile range, variance, standard deviation, coeffecicent of variation (cv) 


Term
What is the simplist measure of variability? 

Definition


Term
how do you calculate range? 

Definition
largest value smallest value 


Term
How do you computer the Interquartile Range, and what is it? 

Definition
IQR=Q_{3}Q_{1} Its the range for the middle 50% of the data. It overcomes the dependency on extreme values 


Term

Definition
measure of variabiltiy that utizles all the data. its the difference between the value of each observation (x_{i}) and the mean 


Term
What is the difference between each observation(x_{i}) and the mean called? 

Definition


Term
The __________ is useful in comparing the variabiltiy of two or more variables 

Definition


Term
For any data set, the sum of the deviations about the mean will... 

Definition


Term
The sample standard deviation is the ______________ of the population variance. 

Definition


Term
What is the Coefficient of Variation? 

Definition
its a relative measure of variability; it measures the standard deviation relative to the mean. 


Term
The coefficent of variation is a useful statistic for comparing the variabiltiy of variables that have... 

Definition
different standard deviations and different means 


Term
Use the _______ and the _________ together, we can learn about the relative location of observations in a data set. 

Definition
mean and standard deviation 


Term
When data is skewed, you want to use the 

Definition


Term
The _________ is resitant to outliers. 

Definition


Term
the _____________ represents a more accurate number of the population. 

Definition


Term

Definition
often reffered to as the standardized value. it is a number of standard deviations an observation is away from the mean. it tells you the location. 


Term
Z scores should normally be used only in ____________ distributions 

Definition
normal exception: can sometimes be used in similar distributions 


Term
(1)If Z score is positive, its ______ the mean (2)If Z score is negative, its ______ the mean 

Definition


Term
What are the distributions within the empirical rule? 

Definition
µ±1σ(_{STD DEV)}≈68% µ±2σ(_{STD DEV)}≈95% µ±3σ(_{STD DEV)}≈99.7% 


Term
you can use ___________ to identify outliers. 

Definition


Term
a data value is an outlier if it is ________ from the mean. 

Definition


Term
What is in a 5 number summary? 

Definition
1. Smallest Value 2. First Quartile (Q_{1}) 3. Median (Q_{2}) 4. Third Quartile (Q_{3}) 5. Largest Value 


Term
A _________________ is a graphical summary of data that is based on a fivenumber summary. 

Definition


Term

Definition
it describes the linear association between two or more variables. 


Term
What is the correlation coefficient? 

Definition
The correlation tells us the relationship between the two variables. it further develops covariance. 


Term
If the Correlation Coefficient is _________, the variables go in the same direction. / If the Correlation Coefficient is _____________, the variables go in the opposite direction. \ 

Definition


Term
if the correlation coefficient is approx. 0, x and y are.... 

Definition


Term

Definition
the mean is comuted by giving each observation a weight that reflects its importance. 


Term

Definition
a measure of variability based on the squared deviation of the data values about the mean. 


Term
What is the experimental outcome when you... Toss a Coin Select a part for inspection conduct a sales call roll a die play a football game 

Definition
heads/tails defective/nondefective purchase/ no purchase 1,2,3,4,5,6 win, lose, tie 


Term

Definition
its a numerical measure of the likelhood that an event will occur 


Term
Probability values are always assigned on a scale from _____to______ 

Definition


Term
A probability near zero indicates an event is ____________ to occur 

Definition


Term
A probability near 1 indicates an event is ________________ to occur 

Definition


Term
in probability, what is an experiment? 

Definition
its a process that generates welldefined outcomes 


Term
on any single repeitition of an experiment, how many possible experimental outcomes will occur? (in reference to probability) 

Definition


Term
what is the sample space for an experiment? 

Definition
the set of all experimental outcomes. 


Term
experimental outcomes are also called... 

Definition


Term
What is the counting rule for Multiple Step Experiements? 

Definition
if an experiment can be described as a sequence of k steps with n_{1} possibile outcomes on the first step, n_{2} possible outcomes on the second stpeh, and so on, then the total number of experimental outcomes is given by (n_{1})(n_{2})...(n_{k}). ex. tossing 2 coins. what are the possible outcomes? n1=2; n2=2, so (2)(2)=4. 


Term
In the Counting Rule for Combinations, order (does/doesnt) matter? 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term
In the Counting Rule for Permutations, order (does/doesnt) matter? 

Definition


Term
The three approaches most frequently used to assign probabilties are: 

Definition
1. Classical 2. Relative Frequency 3. subjective methods top 2 are the best approaches* 


Term
The _____________method of assigning probabilities is appropriate when all the experimental outcomes are equally likely. 

Definition


Term
1 n is used in the ________method n being the experimental outcomes 

Definition


Term
The ____________________method of assigning probabilites is appropriate when data are available to estimate the proportion of the time the experimental outcome will occur if the experiment is repeated a large number of times. 

Definition


Term
The ______________method of assigning probabilties is most appropriate when one cannot realistically assume that the experimental outcomes are equally likely and when little relevant data are available. 

Definition
subjective method. *its arbitrary, its a feeling, there isnt hard data, its pretty common espeically when data is hard to obtain. 


Term
For an experiment to be assigned probabilties it must: (2 things) 

Definition
1. the outcome must be between 0 and 1. 2. the sum of the probabilties for all the experimental outcomes must equal 1. 


Term
what is an event? (probability, ch.4) 

Definition
is a collection of sample points or experimental outcomes. 


Term
What is the probability of an event? 

Definition
It is equal to the sum of the probabilities of the sample points in the event. 


Term
Given an event A, What is the complement A? 

Definition
its the event consisting of all sample points that are not in A. The completment of A is denoted by A^{c} 


Term

Definition


Term
The _________ of A and B is the event containing all sample points belonging to A or B or both. It is denoted by ________. 

Definition


Term
Given two events, A and B, the _____________ of A and B is the event containing the sample points belonging to both A and B. Its denoted by ________ 

Definition


Term
What is the Addition law? 

Definition
it is used to compute the probability of the union of two events. P(AUB)= P(A)+P(B)P(A∩B) 


Term
What are Mutually Exclusive Events? 

Definition
Two events are said to be Mutually Exclusive if the events have no sample points in common. 


Term
What is the Addition Law for Mutually Exclusive Events? 

Definition


Term
P(A∩B)= 0 when A & B are ___________. 

Definition
mututally exclusive (disjoint) 


Term

Definition
The probability of A given B 


Term
What is Conditional Probability? 

Definition
The probabulity of an event given that another event already occurred. The conditional probability of A given B is P(AB)= P(A∩B)/P(B) 


Term
What is Joint Probability? 

Definition
THe probability of two events both occurring; that is, the probability of the intersection of two events. 


Term
What is Marginal Probability? 

Definition
The values in the margins of a joint probability table that provide the probabilities of each event separately. 


Term
What are independent events? 

Definition
two events A and B where P(AB)=P(A) or P(BA)=P(B); that is, the events have no influence on each other. 


Term
What is the Multiplication Law? 

Definition
A probability law used to compute the probabilty of the intersection of two events. For Dependent events: P(A∩B)= P(B)P(AB) or P(A∩B)= P(A)P(BA). For Independent events:P(A∩B)= P(A)P(B) 


Term

Definition
The data have the properties of ordinal data and equal distances on the scale represent equal distances being measured.
*always numeric 

