Shared Flashcard Set


BUSI 664 Leadership and Managing Human Capital
Flashcards for BUSI 664 Final

Additional Business Flashcards




Why isn't everyone doing HR?
1.) Gap between ____ and _____
2.) Managerial ____ ; ________ and ________
3.) Measurement _________, Determining_____
4.) Need for ___________ and _______
-Alignment with_________,_________, and________ ___________ ___________
1.) Gap Between Practice and Research
2.) Managerial Barriers (Short Term Managerial Behaviors, Weak Leadership skills)
3.)Measurement Challenges, Determining ROI
4.)Need for Integration and Consistency
- Alignment with External Environment
- Alignment with Business Strategies
- Alignment with other HR practices
Biodata: Info spans past experiences, behaviors, or activities in any aspect of life. May tap interests, values. Premise: Past performance -> future.

Best predictor: There is no one best predictor. depends on the criteria/KSAOs of interest. It also depends on definitions of success.
Fidelity: Tool replicates actual job demands.
Standardization: Consistency of implementation, scoring, etc.
Validity: Correlation between predictor score and job performance.
Feedback: Extent to which results provide meaningful data that can be used to facilitate participants' career development.
Acceptability: Tool elicits favorable user reactions.
Utility: Net financial gain achieved by using selection tool.

Bottom Line:Use a combination approach.
Deciding Selection Process Flow: During each early step, use less expensive predictors to reduce the number of applicants to a manageable number.
1.) Resume screen for minimum requirements.
2.) Look at biodata
3.) Assessment center, personality/cognitive test.
4.) Interview with Chief Administrator.

Strategic Importance of Selection:
Increases the probability that applicants are capable of high productivity and implementing company strategy and are motivated to stay with the company.
Tips for success in Feeback/Coach:

Ask employees for s__f r___s.
Reframe c____s broadly.
Uncouple e_____n and dev_____nt. Identify what e_______zes your employee.
Focus on maintaining self e____m.
Give employees a v___e.
Focus on b_____rs, not inferences.
Express d______nt tactfully (listen to learn)
Seek to be u_____d.
D______ze (separate people from problems).
Ask employees for self ratings.
Reframe concerns broadly.
Uncouple evaluation and development. Identify what energizes your employee. Focus on maintaining self esteem.
Give employees a voice.
Focus on behaviors, not inferences.
Express disagreement tactfully (listen to learn)
Seek to be understood.
Depersonalize (separate people from problems).
Benefit of giving Feedback
1.)Opportunity to change behavior
2.)Develop accurate self image
3.)Satisfy interpersonal needs
4.)Improve info between manager and employee.
5.)Facilitate mutual problem solving
6.)Reinforce Learning culture.
Flaws in Giving Feedback
1.) Employees don't feel that they get valuable feedback.
2.)Managers lack training in giving feedback (i.e. leniency, defensive employees, focusing on traits vs. behaviors, one-way communication, focus on past outcomes, don't demonstrate E.I., fail to establish SMART goals)
Factors contributing to biased ratings:

Central Tendency
Contrast Effects (compares employees w/one another)
Halo Horns
Primacy and Recency Effects
Fundamental Attribution Error
What to do
Leniency: Accurate feedback is needed for improvements. Use published guidelines, not personal standards.

Severity: Overly severe feedback and ignores strengths and focuses on weaknesses.

Central Tendency: Mediocre feedback conceals both strengths and weaknesses. Be confident in telling people your observations.

Contrast Effects: Person's performance needs to be assessed on several categories. Don't rely on judgements and inferences.

Primacy and Recency effects: Ratings need to reflect performance for total rating period.
Comparative Rating: Techniques that require the rater to compare individual performance to others (Rank order, Paired Comparison, Forced Distribution)
Strengths:Creates differentiation, Prevents Leniency/Severity)
Weaknesses:Often missing explicit link to strategic goals.

Comparisons to standards: Employees compared to absolute standards (Ex: Graphic Rating Scales, Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), Behavior Observation Scales (BOS)
Strengths: Easy to develop, positive user reactions
Weaknesses: Prone to rater errors, Raters may have trouble comparing observed behaviors to behavior examples, ratings can be highly related to trait-like judgements.
Other Approaches:
Narrative: Description of what person did.
Results: Focus on managing the objective, measurable results of a group or work group. 71% of U.S. companies use objective data.

Best Approaches: Behavioral (BARS/BOS), Results/Objective Outcomes
Purpose of Performance Management

Research and Evaluation Purposes
Administrative Purposes
Developmental Purposes
Strategic Purposes
Research: appraisal data helps determine if HRM programs are effective

Administrative: Tool ofr copmensation, promotion, retention, termination, layoffs, etc.

Developmental: Help employees improve their weaknesses.

Strategic: Tool to track behaviors necessary to implement strategy
Performance Management System: A formal s_______d pr______ss used to m_____e, ev____te, and influence employee's job related attitudes, behaviors, and performance results.

Performance Appraisals: Evaluating performance based on the judgements and opinions of supervisors, peers, and employees themselves.
Performance Management System: A formal structured process used to measure, evaluate, and influence employee's job related attitudes, behaviors, and performance results.

Performance Appraisals: Evaluating performance based on the judgements and opinions of supervisors, peers, and employees themselves.
Utility (ROI): Net financial gain produced by a selection system.

Factors Affecting Selection Utility:
Economic Value of job
Validity of predictor
Tenure in position
Predictors for Assessing Job applicants
1. F.E.
2. J.E.
3. R.C.
4. I.
5. CA/ST
6. PA
7. IT
8. VBA
9. WS/JS
Predictors for Assessing Job Applicants
1.)Formal Education
2.)Job Experiences
3.)Reference Checks
5.)Cognitive ability/skill sets
6.)Personality Assessments
7.)Integrity Assessments
8.)Video-bases assessments
9.)Work Samples/Job simulations
10.)Biodata (biographical data)captures past behavior of a person
Integrity Tests 2 approaches
1.)Clear Purpose (Overt)- Example: Typical thief will steal. Sample Items: "Ever thought about stealing?"

2.) General Purpose (Personality Oriented)- Example: Employee theft is just one element of a larger syndrome.
Sample Items: "You freely admit mistakes?"
Assessment Centers: Individuals participate in a series of situations that simulate the real world.
Behaviorally oriented process
Use of multiple raters and integration.
Effective tools for predicting overall job performance.
Entry-level to executive applications

Popular Simulations
Written: In basket exercise/Case Analysis
Interpersonal: Oral presentation, Group discussion exercise, Interview Simulation
Types of Alignment:
Vertical (External): Exists when the HRM system fits with all other elements of the organizational environment (the culture, strategy, structure, etc.)

Horizontal Alignment: In internal environment. Exists when all the HR policies and practices that comprise HRM system are consistent with each other so they present a coherent message.
Job Analysis: Process of getting detailed information about jobs "What, where, how, when, why under what conditions."

Generates: Job descriptions (duties), and job specifications (KSAOs)
Sources of JA Info: Job incumbent, job supervisor, job analyst, upper level supervisor, customers

2 Methods used to conduct J.A.: 1.) Task oriented focus (work activities) and 2.) Worker oriented focus (KSAOs, personality)
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