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Bush Senior
For the final
International Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional International Studies Flashcards




What were some of GHW Bush's foreign policy experiences before his time in office?
Navy pilot in WW2
Ambassador to UN after being a Congressman
Ambassador to China
How did the Bush administration respond to the fall of the Berlin Wall and changes that were taking place in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union?
Anxiety particularly Germany
Quiet and cautious
Russia was something thatt was really happening there
Awful lot of anti-American
Anti-NATO feelings in Soviet Union
Stand back and let things develop and opposition use your efforts to create more hared in public
Not sure where this is all going
What limitations/reductions were agreed to between Bush and Gorbachev with the START I accords?
Big deal
Negotiations that would limit warheads and bombers
What were the Dayton Accords on December 14, 1995?
Ongoing conflict in Yugoslavia
Serbian elements strong supported by Yugoslav Nationalist Army
Finally got Malosavic (what emerged was a Bosnian element) - Croatian muslim part and Serbian part - Sarajevo
Who was General Mohamed Farah Aidid?
Most powerful warlord in Somalia
US tried to support him because want aid in UN relief program
Humanitarian relief is a success
Clinton withdraws most of troops
A mission change occurs - Shift from humanitarian relief to nation building (run afoul)
General thinks we're against them and end up losing a bunch of Americans to "Mission Change"
Who was Nelson Mandela?
Apartheid: reflection of colonial behavior and why we found ourselves on the wrong side of the equation
post WW2: worried about stability, about that time the tide was turning, reflecting Kennedy administration that we need to be on the right side of the equation
Non-whites saw what they weren't granted
We assumed that if they came to power, they would ally with Soviets, so we went on the wrong side
On the contrary, Nelson Mandela leads and we were proven wrong
How did the Bush Administration react to Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait in Aug 1990?
Saddam thought he had a right to it (the 19th province)
Also argue that people from Kuwait were not well liked, not popular around Arab nations
Claims that they're taking oil that resides in Iraq
Goes in and thinks that US will not respond
We ploy 100,000s of troops
What was "Operation Desert Storm"?
Begins on Jan 15, 1991
Not much left of Iraqi army
Situation of US Foreign Policy before Bush - Gorbachev beliefs
Greatly changed from previous Presidents
Gorbachev comes to power in 1985: wants to eliminate nucs by 1999, opens way to verification, mentions econ re-org
27th Congress of Communist Party - 1986
Gorbachev says that military balance is "inordinately high"
Man can now destroy all life on earth
Arms control and verification important
Called for reduction in intensity of mil confrontation
Gorbachev spoke of "dissemination of ideas" "dignity of man" "development of contacts between people and orgs"
Rejected terrorism
Situation of US Foreign Policy before Bush - Gorbachev's actions
Emphasized the futility and inadmissibility of "pushing revolutions from outside" especially by military means
April 86 - Chernobyl
But US debate over Soviet motives was charged
Soviet military build-up was still on-going
But Gorbachev continues to speak out on need for restraint on nuc weapons - democratization for all society - need to reject concept of absolute security
But by 1989:
perestroika (econ restructuring)
Glasnost (opening)
novava myshlenniya (new thinking)
Dec 1988 Gorby announces reduction in troop strength of 500,000 by 1900
Just before Bush's inauguration
Jan 11, 1989 - Hungary authorizes formation of independent political parties
Dramatic changes continue after Amer elections
Feb 15 - last Sov soldier leaves Afghanistan
Mid '89 - Gorby calls for a common European home that would eliminate the possibility of an armed clash
Seemed to be encouraging change
makes clear Polish and Hungarian people free to decide structure of city
implicitly renounces Brezhnev Doctrine (announced after Cz invasion)
Repeatedly warns Polish commies not to block formation of gov by Solidarity
Oct '89 in Berlin - "Life punishes harshly anyone who is left behind in politics"
Decides not to suppress unrest
Result: massive pro-demo protests in East Germany
Nov 9, 1989 - opening of Berlin Wall
Mid-Nov 1989: SU warning CZ leaders not to delay reform
Gorby say that he wants East. Europe to decide its own fate
By mid-1990, free and democratic elections had taken place in East Europe
Central Issue - Germany
Russians hated and feared Germany
Germany was the prize
Germans were demanding unification
FRG + Bush admin: united Ger had to be free to join NATO
But Ger in NATO against SU objectives since WWII
19 Jul 90: Gor accepted a reunited Ger in NATO
Promised 8 million dollars in credit
No nucs and no NATO troops in East Ger
380,000 Sov troops stay until 1994
History probably marks Jul 16, 1990 as day SU ended Cold War
Bush's response to Cold War
Improve relations with Soviet Union - pursue arms control
START: Treaty signed July 31, 91, no more than 6000 WH, no more than 1600 ICBMs, SLBMs, Bombers
Dec 25, 1991: SU dissolved
Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine agree to Non-proliferation Treaty
START II: Bush + Yeltsin agree to deeper cuts (signed Jan 93)
CFE Treaty signed 11/19/1990, but suspended by Putin in 2007
Late 1980s: MBFR replaced by stability talks
Reducing tensions
Assisted SU through $ aid - $24B promised
Create Center for education of CEE, Rus, NIS officials - "G.C. Marshall European Center for Sec. Studies"
Questions confronting Bush at end of Cold War
What could be done to further reduce tensions and risk of conflict?
What would be America's relationship with Europe?
What role would the US play everywhere else in the world?
Questions Bush dealt with concerning Russia and Europe
What would be America's relationship with Europe?
How many troops should remain?
What institutions should be strengthened?
Should Western Europe play a role?
Or CSCE as Moscow had preferred?
Should NATO be re-structured?
What would be relationship between former Sov bloc countries and West and NATO?
What would be the appropriate relationship between RUS and CIS?
Bush's response to questions about America's relationship with Russia and Europe
US begins to draw down troops in Eur
Bush favors NATO over CSCE, leery of West Europe role
NATO: Rome Summit Nov 7-8, 91
New strategic concept
Dialogue, coop + collective defense
More politically active alliance
Calls for smaller, more flexible active force structures
Creates NACC to deepen ties with East Europe
Believes that Europe should now handle its problems
Tries to avoid getting involved in Bosnia-Hertzgovia
During Bush's era, other places in Europe
EU summit at Maastricht, Dec 10 1991
Common Eur Sec + Dec Policy (CESDP)
WEC to become EU defense arm
Calls for Eur Sec & Def identity (ESDI)
Outlines "Petersburg" tasks - Humanitarian rescue, peace keeping
Bush uneasy over CESDP/ESDI/WEU
NATO: Oslo Ministerials, Jun 92
NATO agrees to to support CSCE peacekeeping on case by case basis
NATO Brussels Ministerials, Dec 92
NATO agrees to support UN peacekeeping ops, esp in former Yugoslavia
What role would the US play elsewhere in the world - world policeman?
Gulf War - Iraq invades Kuwait Aug 2, 90; Jan 16 coalitions respond 100 hour war
Somalia - US sends 28,500 troops - Op Restore Hope
Advance peace processes in Middle East
Bush support negotiations and settlements
US: withholds 10 billion dollar loan guarantees to Israel/Likud
Indirectly helps Labor/Rabin in 1992 elections
Guardian of Human Rights
HR dominates relations with Asian nations
Tiananmen Square June 3-4, 89-100,000 students gather to mourn death of Hu Yaobing, many protest for liberation and change...but tanks/soldiers crush protest
But Bush does not want to isolate China
Wants to preserve growing relationship
Pressure on South Africa
Botha + De Klerk begin major changes
Serious talks begin in 1991
Foreign Policy aims of Bush
World Policeman
Maintain peace in Middle East
Improve relations with former enemies including Vietnam
Guardian of Human Rights
Advance Free trade
War on drugs
Advance free trade
major issue with Japan, they were doing really well
US concerned over lack of fair trading practices
NAFTA signed in 1992 - Ca, US, Mex
But US concerned over lack of fair trading practices
War of drugs
Noriega ties to drug lords
Operation Just Cause - Dec 1989
Supports efforts in Bolivia, Peru, Colombia
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