# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Bus 230
TEST #1- Murray
67
03/05/2013

Term
 Unit of Analysis
Definition
 that which defines a single observation from your population, from which you can draw measures of one or more variables
Term
 Variable
Definition
 A measure of a very specific attribute from an observation in your population. The value this attribute takes should differ among at least some of the observations in your sample and population
Term
 Continuous Variable
Definition
 a variable whose measurement is taken on a scale without breaks, and which any fractional measure is allowed
Term
 Categorical Variable
Definition
 A variable whose value defines membership of one of two or more groups
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 Variable that depends on, is explained by, or can be predicted by other variables
Term
 Independent/Explanatory Variable
Definition
 One or more variables that explain or influence a dependent variable
Term
 Research Proposal
Definition
 written statement of what the research project will entail
Term
 Research Design
Definition
 description of what will be done to answer the question
Term
Definition
 process of developing and deciding among alternative ways of resolving a business problem or taking advantage of a business opportunity
Term
Definition
 a situation in which negative consequences are possible
Term
 Symptom
Definition
 the effects caused by a problem, serve as observable clues that a problem may exist
Term
Definition
 a situation in which there is potential for competitive advantage
Term
 Ambiguous Situations
Definition
 Existence of an opportunity or problem may not be obvious. Precise nature of the problem is not known.
Term
 Exploratory Research
Definition
 identify problems or opportunities, discover alternatives. Purpose is to clarify ambiguous situations, but not intended to provide answers to problems or opportunities.
Term
 Descriptive Research
Definition
 describes people, organizations, customers, groups that are relevant to the business decision. Usually done after a problem or opportunity is well understood
Term
 Causal Research
Definition
 answers how will a change in one even in a manager's control change another event of interest
Term
 Diagnostic Analysis
Definition
 type of descriptive research that seeks to discover reasons for business outcomes
Term
 Temporal Sequence
Definition
 cause happens first, then effect.
Term
 Concomitant Variation
Definition
 simply means two variables are related
Term
 Non-spurious Relationship
Definition
 concomitant variation is evidence that one variable causes another. This one is extremely tough to establish.
Term
 Spurious Relationship
Definition
 data on two variables are correlated but variables are not directly related to one another
Term
 Absolute Causality
Definition
 cause is necessary and sufficient to bring about the effect
Term
 Conditional Causality
Definition
 Cause is necessary, but not sufficient, to bring about an effect. Ex. smoking and lung cancer
Term
 Contributory Causality
Definition
 Cause does contribute to effect, but the cause is not necessary or sufficient to bring about the effect. Weakest, and most common form of causality. Multiple causes may have the same effect.
Term
 Research Design
Definition
 detailed, carefully constructed plan of the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing data.
Term
 Informed Consent
Definition
 Informing potential participants about your research project, then asking them for their written consent to use them for research
Term
 Minimal risk
Definition
 the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests
Term
 Placebo
Definition
 something that appears to be a treatment applied to the participant, but in actuality does nothing
Term
 Simple Random Sample
Definition
 when all members of the population have an equal probability of being selected for the sample
Term
 Unbiased estimator
Definition
 when a sample estimate of a population parameter on average returns the true population parameter
Term
 Bias
Definition
 when a sample estimate on average returns a value different than the population paramter
Term
 Random Sampling Error
Definition
 Statistical fluctuations determined by chance due to random sampling
Term
 Systematic Error
Definition
 some imperfect aspect of your research design causes additional error
Term
 Sample Bias
Definition
 the persistent tendency of the results to be biased due to a problem in the sampling procedure
Term
 Nonresponse Error
Definition
 systematic error that occurs when individuals surveyed choose not to participate in the research, and the choice to not participate may be related to the outcome variable
Term
 Self-selection
Definition
 bias the results from nonresponse error. Example: Viterbo Awareness Survey
Term
 Response Bias
Definition
 a bias that exists when respondents either consciously or unconsciously give answers to questions that misrepresent the truth
Term
 Unconscious Response Bias
Definition
 well meaning respondents unconsciously give answers that misrepresent the truth. Examples: Aircraft preference, future buying behaviors, and reporting past activities
Term
 Acquiescence Bias
Definition
 when respondents tend to agree or disagree with every statement
Term
 Extremity Bias
Definition
 when respondents choose to use extreme responses on a scale
Term
 Social Desirability Bias
Definition
 either consciously or unconsciously, respondents give answers to appear prestigious, socially conscious or avoid appearing socially unattractive
Term
 Nominal Data
Definition
 qualitative data the consists of categories that cannot be ordered in a meaningful way. Example: Store Location
Term
 Ordinal Data
Definition
 qualitative data, but order is meaningful, but quantitative value assigned to categories are meaningless. Example: Rating something Excellent, Good, or Poor.
Term
 Interval Data
Definition
 order is meaningful, and distances are meaningful. Examples: Temperature and time
Term
 Ratio Data
Definition
 order, difference, and zero are all meaningful. Examples: weight, prices, and speed
Term
 Fixed Alternative Questions
Definition
 questions where the interviewer provides only a limited number of answers to choose from. Example Yes/No question
Term
 Frequency Determination Questions
Definition
 Questions which ask for how often some occurrence generally happens
Term
 Checklist Question
Definition
 fixed-alternative question that allows respondents to provide multiple answer to a question
Term
 Ordinal Scales
Definition
 Responses to a question that have a natural order/ranking
Term
Definition
 Questions that lead the respondent to a particular conclusion
Term
Definition
 Questions that suggest a socially desirable answer, or questions or answers that are emotionally charged
Term
 Funnel Technique
Definition
 Strategy of asking general questions before specific questions in order to limit question-sequence bias
Term
 Filter Question
Definition
 To eliminate bias caused by lack of knowledge or prior opinion, first ask questions that reveal the respondent's background on the topic, then proceed only if there is sufficient background
Term
 Statistics
Definition
 the study of how to use data to answer interesting questions
Term
 Population
Definition
 the complete collection of all elements to be studied
Term
 Census
Definition
 collection of data that includes every member of the population
Term
 Sample
Definition
 collection of data from a subset of members from a population
Term
 Sample frame Error
Definition
 when some members of a population are excluded from the sampling frame
Term
 Multi-stage Sampling
Definition
 when the means of taking a sample is broken into stages
Term
 Sampling unit
Definition
 element or group of elements that is selected to a sample
Term
 Random Sampling Error
Definition
 difference between the sample statistic and population parameter
Term
 Systematic Sampling Error
Definition
 errors that are not due to chance, but are due to flaws in the way the sample is drawn
Term
 Probability Sampling
Definition
 every member of the population has a known, non-zero, probability of being selected into the population
Term
 Non-probability Sampling
Definition
 Sampling technique in which elements of a population are selected based on person judgment of convenience
Term
 Convenience Sampling
Definition
 sampling technique where most convenient elements are drawn from the population
Term
 Judgment Sampling
Definition
 researcher uses his or her own judgment for determining who is put in the sample. Example: test markets for new products
Term
 Quota Sampling
Definition
 put a minimum requirement on the number of observations that must be drawn from a number of subgroups
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