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Religion 021> Test 2
Religious Studies
Undergraduate 1

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards




Siddhartha Gautama/Shakyamunie
a. Founder of Buddhism> Commonality shared by all Buddhists
b. Later given the name “Buddha”
i. Translated from Sanskrit “Baddha” which means “the awakened one” rooting from “Bodhi” or enlightnment
ii. Rooted from Bodhi which means enlightening
c. Siddhartha means the great achiever
Biography of the Buddha
a. Born into Satrya/warrior clan in the village of Terai (at the foothills of the Himalayas) in 15th century B.C.E.
i. At this same time the Hindu Vedic and Upanishadic traditions were practiced widely.
1. Siddartha is later influenced by Sramanas or renunciants.
b. Buddha’s mother, Queen Maya, had a dream of a white elephant and conceived Buddha
i. She went to Lumbini {her native village} to give birth but she didn’t get there in time. She gave birth in a garden and Siddhartha came out of her right side. When he came out he took 7 steps and said “this is my final birth there is no one such as I”
ii. Siddartha’s father later took him to Atisha, a sage, who predicted that he would conquer the world by arms or by teachings.
1. Siddartha’s father gives him all tangible pleasures so that Siddartha wouldn’t have the need to find comfort in teachings or learning through renunciation.
2. His father taught him all arts and crafts of warriorship and Siddartha excelled at everything he set out to do.
c. Marries and has a son.
d. Around age 30 the Buddha sees 4 visions: sickness, sravana, old age, and death
i. Renounces his life—this is known as “The Great Renunciation”—to become a sramana.
ii. Practices meditation and yoga under upanishadic teachers and attains Nirvana at age 35
1. Food intake reduced to 1 grain of rice a day and he became so emaciated that you could see his spine from the front
iii. One day a woman made an offering to Siddartha and he had to decide whether or not to take it
1. Found the “Middle Way” between extreme hedonistic pleasures and extreme acetism.
a. Hedonism>leads to samsara
b. Acetism>leads to death

iv. Between ages 35 and 80 taught Dharma, referred to as Buddha Dharma.
e. At age 80, Siddartha reclines on his right side and dies peacefully (this is important because he was predicting his final lifetime as a bodhisattva, this was the end of Samsara.)
f. Died at the age of 80
Four Noble Truths
  1. The truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, dissatisfaction)
  2. The truth of the origin of dukkha
  3. The truth of the cessation of dukkha
  4. The truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha


a. Translated as “suffering”
b. This is the pleasure of sight, sound, touch, and smell. The impermanence of these pleasures leads to cyclical pain or frustration.
c. The cause of Dukkha is trishna and the solution is Nirvana. The method to eliminate dukkha is the 8-Fold Path
a. The cause of Dukkha
b. Meaning: Thirst/grasping. This is the egocentric desire for the permanence of pleasure
c. Siddartha experienced 4 visions: sickness, old age, death, and sravana.
d. Tradition: foundational Buddhism
Four Sights
a. Tradition: Foundational Buddhism
b. The Buddha saw death, old age, sramana or renunciant, and sickness.
Three Marks
a. The three marks of Samsara are suffering, impermanence, and non-self.
b. Tradition: Foundational Buddhism
c. Importance: characteristics of Samsara.
Middle Way
a. Compromise between extreme hedonistic pleasuring and extreme acetism
i. Hedonism>leads to samsara
ii. Acetism>leads to death
b. Leads to Nirvana
a. Solution to Dukkha
b. The uprooting of thirsting by radically transforming from a world of 3 poisons: hatred, greed, and ignorance.
c. Liberation from samsara
i. On the day of his death the buddy lies down on his right side{same as birth} and dies
1. He conquered death because he did not fear it and he knew he would not be reborn
Eight-Fold Path
a. Right Vision
b. Right Intention
c. Right speech
d. Right action
e. Right livelihood
f. Right effort
g. Right mindfulness
h. Right metidation
i. Within the 8 paths, the first 2 {a, b} are cognitive foundations.
ii. The first 5 {a, b, c, d, e} lay the foundation for better karma.
iii. Within the first 5, the last three {c, d, e} are made up of the 5 foundational precepts formulated by the Buddha.
iv. The last 3 of the 8 paths {f, g, h} lead to full enlightenment. These efforts require mind transformation by deliberate focus.
1. Mindfulness is the full awareness of mind and processes.
2. Once effort and mindfulness are mastered, meditation can be performed.
a. “the three baskets” or 3 categories of Buddhist scriptures
i. Vinaya: the rules/regulations for the monastic cult
1. Community regulations based on the 5 precepts in addition to other rules for the daily life of the Sangha community
ii. Sutras: collected sermons of the Buddha
iii. Abidharma: further scholastic commentaries and teachings. Breaks down the 5 skandas into detail.
Five Aggregates(five components)
a. The self is made of 5 skandas: body, sensation, perception, formation, and consciousness.
b. Middle way between nihilism and eternalism.
a. one of the three doctrines of Samsara (the other two are duka and impermanence)
b. There is no soul that continues through rebirth.
c. Anatman denies the permanence of a body, confirms the existence of an eternal substance
i. Because everything is constantly changing
ii. The atman is a false idea that abuse from anxiety/fear of death
a. Nihilism: means nothing, believe that there is no karmic retribution.
i. When a human being dies nothing continues. The idea that noting remains.
b. Eternalism: upanishadic believe that the flesh vessels an internal, eternal self or atman.
c. The path between eternalism and nihilism deals with atman, non-soul karmic continuity. The idea of rebirth.
i. Theorize the question: “what is a human being?”
d. Anatman is the middle-way between eternalism and nihilism, constituted by the 5 aggregrates.
Simile of the Chariot
a. Tradition: foundation buddhism
b. The chariot is a product of parts that are equally interdependent.
c. A “self” is a word for the interlinked parts (the 5 skandas or aggregates); so the individual parts do not constiture themselves but a greater framework.
d. A “chariot” is a word for the parts that constitute it.
Simile of the Lamp Flame
a. Tradition: foundational buddhism
b. The Candle birth: idea that a lighted candle burns and at the moment of extinction a new candle is lighted with the same flame. A flame, like a person, is a product of processes. The image of igniting a new candle through time is a metaphor for karmic continuity without eternal substance.
c. Cosmology marks that everything is constantly changing so the concept of anatman (karmic continuation) is supported by this.
d. Importance: idea of anatman.
Three Jewels
a. The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha
b. Source of power of institutional buddishm
Five Precepts
a. Interpreted by 2 communities: laity and sangha:
i. No killing, no lying, no stealing, no sexual misconduct, no intaking of intoxicants
Taking Refuge
a. A term that refers to a ritual pronouncement of faith in the three jewels, the three authorities. “I take refuge in the Buddha, I take refuge in the Dharma, I take refuge Sangha.”
i. The difference between a Buddhist and a non-Buddhist.
a. 1st stage of meditation.
b. Leads to stopping and calming
c. Focusing awareness on one single object to obtain a non-fragmented mind.
a. 2nd stage of meditation
b. Insight meditation, to see things as they really are.
c. Higher stage of mental cultivation in which a concentrated focus is inverted into the mind itself. To drill down into one’s own mind to observe the arising of 3 poisons to uproot them.
a. Sanskrit word for meditation or extreme mental concentration.
b. Mental absorption obtained by means of shamatha
a. First school of Indian Buddhism. Only school that survived from Muslim invasion that can be traced back to Foundational Buddhism.
b. Also known as Southern Buddhism
i. Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Sri Lanka are all big practitioners of this type of Buddhism
c. Has its own language
i. Poli: ancient Indian language which is related to Sanskrit but most lai people don’t understand it (lai from the laity community)
a. A community of monks and nuns who are social renunciants, these are the official disciples of the Buddha.
i. Absolute devotion to 5 precepts
a. Tradition: Foundational buddhism
b. The part of the tripitika that outlines the monastic cult of the sangha community. Ethical code.
c. Importance: proposes the 5 precepts to decrease negative karmic energy.
Three Poisons
a. Greed
b. Hatred: Response when you don’t get what you want
c. Ignorance: delusion of reality; cannot understand roots of your own mind
a. Literal translation “small vehicle”
b. Created as a term to refer to any other fundamentalist tradition that does not practice Mahayana Buddhism because foundational Buddhism is not enough (arhatship is too short.)
c. Hinanyana is considered a derogatory term
a. Emerged 100 BCE- 100 CE
b. Originates in ancient India following the life of historical Buddha
c. Best known as “Northern” Buddhism
i. China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam all practice this form of Buddhism
ii. Went through the Himalayas then the dessert called the Takamata then into China
d. Mahayana literally means great vehicle
e. Although it carries an identical structure to Foundation Buddhism it is best understood as an expansion of the Buddha, Foundational Buddhism goal, path, and partheon:
i. Expansion of the Buddha is called Trikaya theory (3 bodies)
1. 3 Bodies are Sambhogakaya (enjoyment) , Nimanakaya (transformation), Dharmakaya (truth).
f. Further expands on teachings in the Sutras, specifically Mahayana Sutras in the Lotus.
g. In the Lotus Sutras, it advocates for the 3 bodhis of the Buddha that elevates him from arthat
i. Anuterra (Cunparallel) samyak (incomparable) sambuddha” is a prominent title given to the Buddha in Mayahana Sutras to separate him from his disciples as he discovers awakening.
a. Language that Theravada Buddhism is practiced in, Southern Buddhism.
b. Related to Sanskrit
c. Ancient Indian language
d. Most lai people do not understand it
a. Someone who attains nirvana through the teachings of a Buddha
i. The awakening of his students is much less than the Buddha because the Buddha took many lifetimes to become awakened and that they enable others to be awakened
Jataka Tales
a. The past lifetimes of Siddhartha.
b. Significance: expansion of Mahayana Buddhism, stories emphasize a bigger goal over eons of years.
i. Once a bunny who sacrificed itself for a wanderer.
ii. Once a hunting prince who sacrificed himself for the great lioness and her offsprings.
Six realms
a. Part of Karmic Cosmology of Buddhism: a refinement of traditional cosmology which systematically describes the universe
i. Everything in the Universe is here because of prior beings (karma)
ii. Ethical implication: human beings are understood to have been reborn as humans for their positive karmic intentions.
b. Not one stage is permanent
c. Affirms rebirth
d. In order the levels are:
i. Gods
ii. Humans
1. The human being is a conglomerate of the 5 skandas
a. Death is breakdown of the 5 skandas and only karma continues on.
b. Mind-body complex with no coordinal essense or atman that functions as a core.
i. Body
ii. Formation
iii. Perception
iv. Sensation
v. Consciousness
iii. Titans
iv. Ghosts
1. Bound and stagnant due to their frustration, Psychologically unstable/attached, pin-like throats (insatiability), huge bellies (hungry), known as hungry ghosts
v. Animals
vi. Hell Dwellers
1. Have done great karmic misdeed by deliberately taking the life of another being. The intention of the act binds the person to negative karma.

a. Someone who is on the path to attain Buddhahood

b. every bodhisattva has a realm of power dedicated to themselves

Bodhisattva Vow
a. Oath taken by bodhisattva in training.
b. Leads to boddhichitta as it strengthens and develops trayectiopns.
a. Literal definition: a mind set on awakening.
b. It is a mental focus on awakening or Buddhahood in a distant future.
c. Mental motivation generated by means of bodhisattva vow.
d. Tradition: Theravada buddhism
Great Compassion
a. Tradition: Mahayana Buddhism
b. In the bodhisattva vow: great compassion is a key characteristic to attain Buddhahood, which requires great goals. This is the unconditional compassion for all beings.
a. The Buddha taught by means of Upaya, which is the theory that the Buddha taught according to the level of his students
Lotus sutra
a. Advocates 3 figures or bodhis of the Buddha in the Mahayana tradition.
Parable of the Prodigal Son
a. In the Tripitika, the Lotus Sutras addresses the question of hostility between Mahayana and Theravada. “Did the Buddha really teach the Mahayana? Where did the Mahayana come from?”
b. Answer: Buddha taught through Upaya in the Lotus Sutras of Mahayana.
i. These are effective methods of teaching dharma according to the level of his students.
Parable of the Burning House
a. Under Mahayana tradition.
b. Definition: the burning house represents Samsara and the father is the Buddha, the children are the Buddha’s disciples. The Buddha enticed his disciples with Arhatship through Upaya (effective way of teaching according to the mentee.)
c. Significance: Appears in the Lotus Sutras in the Mahayana tradition to address the question of where did the Mahayana come from and did the Buddha really teach the Mahayana?
Six Perfections
a. Paramitas or characteristics that a bodhisattva must develop on their path to Buddhahood:
i. Dana or giving
ii. Sita or morality
iii. Ksanti or patience
iv. Dhyana or meditation
v. Vrya or endurance
vi. Prajna or wisom
Three Bodies
a. Expansion of the Buddha in the Mahayana tradition
b. Also Known as the Trikaya
i. Sambhogakaya: reward {his existence in celestial heavens before he was born} ; enjoying the rewards of Karma from previous lives
ii. NamanaKaya: transformation
iii. Dharmakaya: embodiment of Dharma was the Buddha. The truth of the Dharma is the truth of the four noble truths. The truth is always the truth and never changes.
a. Boddhisattva in Partheon of Mahayana
b. He is on the edge of becoming a Buddha
c. A odhisattva who is in a heavenly realm known as Tushita
i. Siddhartha rested here before being born in a dream
ii. Future buddhas await Buddhaship in Tushita
d. He is depicted as a large and prosperous form because whenever he appears as a Buddha it will be the Golden Age of Prosperity.
a. Mudras: (or body) sacred hand gestures used in Tantric ritual
b. Mandala: (or mind) meditating on an image or mandala (a geometrical representation of the realm of a bodhisattva.)
c. Mantra: (or speech) a chant or sacred spell
Dalai Lama
a. Known as the 14th Lama because the lamas are seen as a series of incarnated gurus who arise in tantric Buddhism to maintain transmission of teachings.
b. Rules over a majority of monasteries
i. The title of “Dalai Lama” is given to him by his school
Perceiver of the World’s Sounds
i. The bodhisattva known as Gwanyin (Gwan= someone who observes, yin = sound)
ii. Gwanyin is a translation of the Indian name of Avato Kiteswara in the Northern Mahayana Tradition.
iii. This is the lord who observes for the sounds of the world and responds appropriately by appearing in any form that’s necessary.
Vajrayana/Esoteric/Tantric Buddhism
a. Tantric Buddhism is also known as esoteric Buddhism.
i. From Tibet and Himalayan countries such as Nepal
ii. Unique characteristic: imagery implemented in meditative rituals
1. Imagination: the ability to see something that is not present
2. It uses illusion to destroy ignorance in 1 fell swoop
a. Uses faculties of the mind, body and speech
i. Mind: Mandalas
ii. Body: Mudras
iii. Speech: Mantras
b. Based on a new series of text, “Tantras”, written in Sanskrit.
i. Coded language (esoteric)
1. Texts are hidden/secretive because they are very powerful
ii. Not supposed to be read; supposed to be memorized and recited
c. Supposed to take its followers out of ignorance in one fell swoop
i. Vajrayana: vajra= diamond/thunder bolt, yana= vehicle
ii. Offers a fast vehicle to Buddhahood.
a. Tradition: vajrayana tradition, tantric practice
b. Expedited process of transformation that involves the 3 faculties.
c. Activation of body, speech, and mind through Mantra, mudra, and mandala.
a. The exercise of giving and taking
b. 3 stages {in order of easier to more difficult}
i. Visualize a friend
ii. Visualize a neutral
iii. Visualize an enemy
c. You are supposed to visualize someone sitting in front of you while you meditate
i. Act of exchange that creates a new reality
a. Helps with compassion
Deity Yoga
a. Gazes at the image until able to see the image in the mind’s eye
b. The fastest way to transform your mind is to strive for memorizing these images
c. Colors represent different emotions and they make it easier to memorize
“All Sentient Beings Have Been My Mother”
a. Steps in order of {in order of easier to more difficult}
i. Generate image of your mother and generate compassion
ii. Direct compassion{created from above} to all beings
Copulating Deities Tantras
a. 2 deities combined into one image
b. Advanced form of Deity yoga
c. The two deities are supposed to be having sex with each other
a. Tradition: Vajrayana buddhism
b. New texts of Buddhism that emerged in 500 CE
i. 1000 years after the life of the Buddha
c. Condensed form of Mahayana
Guru and Initiation
a. Tradition: vajrayana
b. The idea that in order to learn the techniques of the rapid progress you have to be introduced and guided by a guru about the secret teachings.
c. This is a difficult process because one must be proved fit for the process by the guru.
Philosophy of Non-Violent Resistance

a. Solution to the conflict between Han Chinese liberation and Tibetan occupation

b. Proposed by the Dalai Lama, consisting of 2 aspects:

i. 2 principles: Karma and Ahimsa

1. renunciation to violence(karma);non-harming(ahisma).

ii. 3 solutions:

1. Nonviolent protest

2. Global pressure on behalf of other nations

3. Limited autonomy: a middle-way approach to compromise with Chinese governmen; tibet handles domestic affairs, international affairs done by china 

Chinese Liberation/Tibetan Occupation
a. Vajrayana Buddhism.
b. Chinese liberation viewpoint: Chinese see their infiltration as liberation from poverty and bad conditioning. Liberation from Tibetan theocracy since communism views church and state as separate entities. (To liberate Tibet would be to liberate it from the Dalai Lama)
i. Massive influx of money and investments, development of infrastructure, attempt to uplift way of being, reunite country,
c. Tibetan occupation viewpoint: Han Chinese infiltration has caused cultural genocide of Tibet.
Year when Chinese communist government infiltrated Tibet
year when Dalai Lama saught refuge in India
Dalai Lama recognized with Nobel Peace Prize
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