# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

BSC 116- Exam 1
Chapter 1, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, & 29
60
Biology
01/31/2012

Term
 Ch 1In order for a hypothesis to be able to be used in science, which of the following must be true? It must be proven correct. It must be popularly accepted. It represents established facts. It is testable and falsifiable. It must be reproducible.
Definition
 It is testable and falsifiable.
Term
 The Scientific MethodIn the course of a conversation, you observe that three of your friends like horror movies. Horror movies happen to be your favorite type of movie as well. You also know that all of these friends were born in the same week that you were, even in the same year.An astrology-loving friend hypothesizes that people born in that week like horror movies more than other genres of movies. You decide to use the scientific method to test this hypothesis.What should you do next? Come up with a theory to explain why movie preference is related to birth week. Perform experiments to test your hypothesis. Propose several alternative hypotheses. Refine your hypothesis.
Definition
 Perform experiments to test your hypothesis.
Term
 The Scientific MethodWhich of the following experiments would best test your hypothesis? Ask your friends if they also like the same type of music that you like. Interview all of your friends and find out if the ones born in other weeks also like the same types of movies that you like. Find other people born in the same week and ask them what their favorite type of movie is. Find other people born in the same week and tell them what your favorite movie is. Ask them if they also liked that movie.
Definition
 Find other people born in the same week and ask them what their favorite type of movie is.
Term
Definition
Term
 Ch 1A controlled experiment is one in which: the experiment proceeds at a slow pace to guarantee that the scientist can carefully observe all reactions and process all experimental data. the experiment is repeated many times to ensure that the results are accurate. there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment. there are at least two groups, one differing from the other by two or more variables. there is one group for which the scientist controls all variables.
Definition
 there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment.
Term
 Ch 1Which of the following is the best description of a control for an experiment? The control group is exposed to only one variable rather than several. The control is left alone by the experimenters. Only the experimental group is tested or measured. The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable. The control group is kept in an unchanging environment.
Definition
 The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable.
Term
 Ch 1Select the correct statement about the process of scientific inquiry. It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments. The goal of scientific research is to prove the stated hypothesis. If the results of an experiment do not support the hypothesis that is tested, the experiment is badly designed.
Definition
 It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments.
Term
 Classification SchemesProkaryotic cells are found in the domain(s) _____. Bacteria and Archaea Bacteria and Eukarya Bacteria and Protista Bacteria Protista and Archaea
Definition
 Bacteria and Archaea
Term
 Classification SchemesIn the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom _____. Protista Animalia Fungi Plantae Monera
Definition
 Monera
Term
 Classification SchemesA human is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____. Eukarya ... Fungi Eukarya ... Protista Eukarya ... Plantae Eukarya ... Animalia Bacteria ... Archaea
Definition
 Eukarya ... Animalia
Term
 Classification SchemesA rose bush is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____. Eukarya ... Fungi Eukarya ... Protista Eukarya ... Plantae Eukarya ... Animalia Bacteria ... Archaea
Definition
 Eukarya ... Plantae
Term
 Classification SchemesIn the five-kingdom system, which kingdom consists primarily of unicellular eukaryotes? Fungi Protista Plantae Animalia Monera
Definition
 Protista
Term
 Classification SchemesIn the two-kingdom system, why were fungi classified in the kingdom Plantae? They are sedentary. They are heterotrophs. They lack cell walls. They are unicellular. They are autotrophs.
Definition
 They are sedentary.
Term
 Classification SchemesThere is(are) _____ eukaryotic domain(s). one two three four five
Definition
 one
Term
 Ch 26Cladograms (a type of phylogenetic tree) constructed from evidence from molecular systematics are based on similarities in the pattern of embryological development. habitat and lifestyle choices. mutations to homologous genes. morphology. biochemical pathways.
Definition
 mutations to homologous genes.
Term
 Ch 26In a comparison of birds and mammals, having four limbs is a character useful for sorting bird species. a character useful for distinguishing birds from mammals. a shared ancestral character. an example of analogy rather than homology. a shared derived character.
Definition
 a shared ancestral character.
Term
 Ch 27The predatory bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus, drills into a prey bacterium and, once inside, digests it. In an attack upon a gram-negative bacterium that has a slimy cell covering, what is the correct sequence of structures penetrated by B. bacteriophorus on its way to the prey's cytoplasm?1. membrane composed mostly of lipopolysaccharide2. membrane composed mostly of phospholipids3. peptidoglycan4. capsule 2, 4, 3, 1 1, 3, 4, 2 4, 3, 1, 2 1, 4, 3, 2 4, 1, 3, 2
Definition
 4, 1, 3, 2
Term
 Ch 27In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions, such as freezing, drying, or high temperatures, DNA should be located within, or be part of, which structures?1. nucleoid region2. endospore3. fimbriae4. plasmids 1 and 2 only 1 and 4 only 1, 2, and 4 2 and 4 only 1 only
Definition
 1, 2, and 4
Term
 Ch 27Match the numbered terms to the description that follows. Choose all appropriate terms.1. autotroph2. heterotroph3. phototroph4. chemotrophan organism that obtains both carbon and energy by ingesting prey 2 and 4 1 and 3 1 only 4 only 1, 3, and 4
Definition
 2 and 4
Term
 Ch 27Which of the following involves metabolic cooperation among prokaryotic cells? biofilms photoautotrophy binary fission endotoxin release endospore formation
Definition
 biofilms
Term
 Ch 27Which of the following statements is not true? Archaea and bacteria have different membrane lipids. Both archaea and bacteria generally lack membrane-enclosed organelles. The cell walls of archaea lack peptidoglycan. Only some archaea use to oxidize , releasing methane. Only bacteria have histones associated with DNA.
Definition
 Only bacteria have histones associated with DNA.
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesThe cells of _____ and _____ have modified mitochondria. chlorophytes ... ciliates trichomonads ... diplomonads euglenozoans ... alveolates fungi ... stramenopiles dinoflagellates ... metazoans
Definition
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesThe members of _____ are characterized by cells with small membrane-bounded cavities under their cell membranes. Rhodophyta Chlorophyta Alveolata Stramenopila Mycetozoa
Definition
 Alveolata
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesGolden algae, brown algae, red algae, chlorophytes, and charophyceans are some examples of protists that are _____. photoheterotrophic decomposers chemoheterotrophic photosynthetic chemoautotrophic
Definition
 photosynthetic
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesWhich of these groups consist of parasitic flagellated cells, such as Trypanosoma, the organism that causes sleeping sickness? ciliates diatoms metazoans kinetoplastids brown algae
Definition
 kinetoplastids
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesWhich three groups contain large algae known as seaweeds? diatoms, golden algae, and brown aalgae plants, fungi, and choanoflagellates dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and green algae chlorophytes, charophyceans, and red algae brown algae, red algae, and green algae
Definition
 brown algae, red algae, and green algae
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesStramenopiles include all of the following groups EXCEPT ______. cellular slime molds golden algae brown algae water molds diatoms
Definition
 cellular slime molds
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesWhich of these groups is characterized by glasslike walls containing silica? plants diatoms brown algae plasmodial slime molds diplomonads
Definition
 diatoms
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesPlasmodium, the parasitic organism that causes malaria, is a _____. plasmodial slime molds ciliate apicomplexan diatom entamoeba
Definition
 apicomplexan
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesA paramecium is a(n) _____. metazoan dinoflagellate ciliate apicomplexan diatom
Definition
 ciliate
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesThe largest seaweeds are _____. red algae diatoms brown algae green algae dinoflagellates
Definition
 brown algae
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesAll of the organisms classified as _____ move and feed using cilia. dinoflagellates apicomplexans ciliates diatoms diplomonads
Definition
 ciliates
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesWhich group is characterized by cells with fine hairlike projections on their flagella? Stramenopila Rhodophyta Alveolata Euglenozoa Metazoa
Definition
 Stramenopila
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesWhich of these algal groups possess a photosynthetic pigment that allows them to live in deep water? metazoans diatoms green algae red algae brown algae
Definition
 red algae
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesWhich of these groups includes both aquatic decomposers and the parasites responsible for the powdery mildew of grapes and late potato blight? \ water molds red algae plants plasmodial slime molds diatoms
Definition
 water molds
Term
 Tentative Phylogeny of EukaryotesWhich algal group has chloroplasts much like those of green plants in structure and pigment makeup? red algae chlorophytes brown algae golden algae diatoms
Definition
 chlorophytes
Term
 Ch 28Which of the following is characteristic of ciliates? They can exchange genetic material with other ciliates by the process of mitosis. They are relatively specialized cells. They are often multinucleate. Most live as solitary autotrophs in fresh water. They use pseudopods as locomotory structures or as feeding structures
Definition
 They are often multinucleate.
Term
 Ch 28Diatoms are mostly asexual members of the phytoplankton. Diatoms lack any organelles that might have the 9+2 pattern. They obtain their nutrition from functional chloroplasts, and each diatom is encased within two porous, glasslike valves. Which question would be most important for one interested in the day-to-day survival of individual diatoms? How does carbon dioxide get into these protists with their glasslike valves? How do diatoms with their glasslike valves keep from sinking into poorly lit waters? How do diatom sperm cells locate diatom egg cells? How do diatoms get transported from one location on the water's surface layers to another location on the surface? How do diatoms with their glasslike valves avoid being shattered by the action of waves?
Definition
 How do diatoms with their glasslike valves keep from sinking into poorly lit waters?
Term
 Ch 28 You are given five test tubes, each containing an unknown protist, and your task is to read the following description and match these five protists to the correct test tube.In test tube 1, you observe an organism feeding. Your sketch of the organism looks very similar to the figure. When light, especially red and blue light, is shone on the tubes, oxygen bubbles accumulate on the inside of test tubes 2 and 3. Chemical analysis of test tube 3 indicates the presence of substantial amounts of silica. Chemical analysis of test tube 2 indicates the presence of a chemical that is toxic to fish and humans. Microscopic analysis of organisms in test tubes 2, 4, and 5 reveals the presence of permanent, membrane-bounded sacs just under the plasma membrane. Microscopic analysis of organisms in test tube 4 reveals the presence of an apicoplast in each. Microscopic analysis of the contents in test tube 5 reveals the presence of one large nucleus and several small nuclei in each organism.Test tube 2 contains Plasmodium. Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate). Paramecium. Navicula (diatom). Entamoeba.
Definition
 Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate).
Term
 Ch 28Reinforced, threadlike pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group? radiolarians and forams gymnamoebas entamoebas amoeboid stage of cellular slime molds oomycetes
Definition
Term
 Ch 28Living diatoms contain brownish plastids. If global warming causes blooms of diatoms in the surface waters of Earth's oceans, how might this be harmful to the animals that build coral reefs? The coral animals, which capture planktonic organisms, may be outcompeted by the diatoms. The coral animals may die from overeating the plentiful diatoms, with their cases of silica. The coral animals' endosymbiotic dinoflagellates may get "shaded out" by the diatoms. The diatoms' photosynthetic output may over-oxygenate the water.
Definition
 The coral animals' endosymbiotic dinoflagellates may get "shaded out" by the diatoms.
Term
 Ch 28Which of the features below are found in all protist lineages? Organelles that arose by secondary endosymbiosis. Plastids Mitochondria
Definition
 Mitochondria
Term
 Fungal Morphology and PhysiologyThe following statements describe something about the body structures or functions of fungi. Identify those statements that are correct.Select all that apply. Some fungi secrete digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb the digested nutrients. Mycelia are made up of small-diameter hyphae that form an interwoven mass, providing more surface area for nutrient absorption. Nutrients can flow through the entire mycelium in fungi with coenocytic hyphae, but not in fungi with septate hyphae. All fungi are heterotrophs; some species live as decomposers and others as symbionts. Some fungi can grow as either filamentous or single-celled forms. Cellulose gives rigidity and strength to the cell walls of fungi.
Definition
 Some fungi secrete digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb the digested nutrients. Mycelia are made up of small-diameter hyphae that form an interwoven mass, providing more surface area for nutrient absorption. All fungi are heterotrophs; some species live as decomposers and others as symbionts. Some fungi can grow as either filamentous or single-celled forms.
Term
 Ch 31Select the correct statement(s) about the origin of fungi.Select all that apply. Fungi are more closely related to plants than to animals. Multicellularity probably arose independently in fungi and animals. Fungi evolved after the first plants colonized land.
Definition
 Multicellularity probably arose independently in fungi and animals.
Term
 Ch 31Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution? parasitic lifestyle coenocytic hyphae flagellated spores formation of resistant zygosporangia the absence of chitin within the cell wall
Definition
 flagellated spores
Term
 Ch 31For several decades now, amphibian species worldwide have been in decline. A significant proportion of the decline seems to be due to the spread of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytrid sporangia reside within the epidermal cells of infected animals, animals that consequently show areas of sloughed skin. They can also be lethargic, which is expressed through failure to hide and failure to flee. The infection cycle typically takes four to five days, at the end of which zoospores are released from sporangia into the environment. In some amphibian species, mortality rates approach 100%; other species seem able to survive the infection.The chytrid sporangia reside within the amphibian epidermal cells. Consequently, which term(s) apply to Bd?1. ectosymbionts2. parasites3. commensals4. pathogens5. endosymbionts 2, 3, and 5 1 and 2 1 and 3 2 and 4 2, 4, and 5
Definition
 2, 4, and 5
Term
 Ch 31Plasmogamy can directly result in which of the following?1. cells with a single haploid nucleus2. heterokaryotic cells3. dikaryotic cells4. cells with two diploid nuclei 1 or 3 2 or 3 1 or 2 3 or 4 2 or 4
Definition
 2 or 3
Term
 Ch 31Please refer to the following information to answer the question.Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete, Neurospora crassa, contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores.What is the ploidy of a single mature ascospore? tetraploid haploid diploid triploid polyploid
Definition
 haploid
Term
 Ch 31The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes. the increased probability of contact between different mating types. an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition. the ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms. the potential to inhabit almost all terrestrial habitats.
Definition
 an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.
Term
 Terrestrial Adaptations of PlantsWhich of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants? roots and shoots embryo development within gametangia vascular tissue pollen chloroplasts
Definition
 chloroplasts
Term
 Ch 29Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that charophytes are not related to either green algae or land plants. plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae. scientists have no evidence to indicate whether or not land plants evolved from any kind of alga. alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophytes. land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations.
Definition
 plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae.
Term
 Ch 29 Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 10 inches per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this bone-dry desert to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.Which of the following characteristics is (are) possessed in common by true mosses, ferns, and spike mosses, and therefore becomes useless at helping to determine to which of these groups flower of stone belongs?1. a sporophyte generation that is dominant2. true leaves and roots3. flagellated sperm4. strobili5. alternation of generations 3 and 5 1 and 5 5 only 2 and 3 2, 4, and 5
Definition
 3 and 5
Term
 Ch 29 Which of the following is true of the life cycle of mosses? Spores are primarily distributed by water currents. The haploid generation grows on the sporophyte generation. The growing embryo gives rise to the gametophyte. The sporophyte generation is dominant. Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
Definition
 Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
Term
 Fern Life CycleIn mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by _____. meiosis ... meiosis binary fission ... mitosis mitosis ... mitosis mitosis ... meiosis meiosis ... mitosis
Definition
 mitosis ... mitosis
Term
 Fern Life CycleWhere do fern antheridia develop? on the tip of the sporophyte on the underside of the gametophyte on the tip of the haploid protonema on the underside of the sporophyte on the tip of the gametophyte
Definition
 on the underside of the gametophyte
Term
 Fern Life CycleThe conspicuous part of a fern plant is a _____. haploid gametophyte diploid sorus diploid sporophyte diploid gametophyte haploid sporophyte
Definition
 diploid sporophyte
Term
 Ch 29 The question is based on the following description.A biology student hiking in a forest happens upon an erect, 15-cm-tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content.This organism probably belongs to the same phylum as the ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns. mosses, hornworts, and liverworts. charophytes. conifers. club mosses, quillworts, and spike mosses.
Definition
 club mosses, quillworts, and spike mosses.
Term
 Ch 29Select the correct statement about charophytes, a taxon of green algae. Living charophytes are the algal ancestors of land plants. Charophytes and land plants share four distinctive traits. Charophytes are embryophytes.
Definition
 Charophytes and land plants share four distinctive traits.
Term
 Ch 29Which of the following is not evidence that charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants? similar sperm structure the presence of chloroplasts similarities in cell wall formation during cell division similarities in proteins that synthesize cellulose genetic similarities in chloroplasts
Definition
 the presence of chloroplasts
Term
 NOT MAKE NOTECARDS FOR:-Assignment 1: 3-Assignment 2: 3, 5-Assignment 3: 3-Assignment 4: ----Assignemnt 5: 1 (Part A & C)-Assignment 6: 5 (Part B)
Definition
 LOOK ON MASTERINGBIOLOGY FOR
Supporting users have an ad free experience!