# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Boucvault Exam
still aint free
102
Physics
05/11/2014

Term
 linear momentum
Definition
 force or energy that a moving object carries with it. momentum can be transferred through collisions
Term
 momentum
Definition
 objects mass multiplied by its velocity. its a vector wuantity whose sign depends on its velocity
Term
 Momentum formula
Definition
 p=mv momentum = mass x velocity
Term
 you can think of momentum as____________.
Definition
 the force or energy needed to stop a moving, massive object.
Term
 a change in momentum takes_____
Definition
 force and time
Term
 impulse
Definition
 change in momentum
Term
 impulse momentum theorem
Definition
 concept of time to momentum and states that a force applied over a time will change momentum due to the change in velocity
Term
 impulse momentum theorem formula
Definition
 force x time interval = change in momentum
Term
 energy is transferred in ___( ignoring _____) and ______ is conserved
Definition
 collisions friction momentum
Term
 the law of conservation of momentum
Definition
 the total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects
Term
 momentum is also conserved for objects _____. follows newtons third law
Definition
 pushing away from each other related to newtons third law because the momenta are equal but opposite
Term
 during any collision the change in momentum of one object is _______ of the other object
Definition
 equal but opposite to the change in momentum
Term
 perefectly inelastic collisions
Definition
 collisions that involve two objects that move together after the collision including stationary objects.
Term
 perfectly inelastic collisions formula
Definition
 m1v1,i+m2v2,1=(m1+m2)Vf
Term
 objecrts in an inelastic collision are deformed during the collision and lose some ___________
Definition
 kinetic energy to deformations, sound, and heat
Term
 elastic collisions
Definition
 collisions that incolce two objects that remain seperate after the collision
Term
 in an elastic collision both___________ remain constant
Definition
 the total momentum and total kinetic energy
Term
 T/F most collisions are either elastic or perfectly inelastic
Definition
 False most are a combination of both
Term
 T/F objects in an elastic collision maintain or return to their original shape after the collision
Definition
 true
Term
 what are the units of momentum
Definition
 kilograms x meters per second kg*m/s
Term
 a ____ force may produce a large change in momentum by acting on a very massive object
Definition
 small
Term
 T/F a change in momentum takes force and time
Definition
 True
Term
 a bicycle rolling downward has momentum. what two things could increase the momentum?
Definition
 increase mass or velocity
Term
 if a net force acts on an object then the object's momentum will
Definition
 either decrease or increase
Term
 a ball whirled in a circular motion will move off in a straight line if the string breaks is due to what?
Definition
 inertia
Term
 what term describes a force that causes an object to move in a circular path
Definition
 centripetal force
Term
 centripetal acceleration must involve a change in
Definition
 an objects velocity
Term
 explain what makes a passenger in a turning car slide toward the door of the car
Definition
 when the car turns, the inertia of the passenger keeps the passenger moving in the same direction that the car was initially moving.
Term
 what is the difference between tangential and centripetal acceleration
Definition
 objects moving in a circular path undergoes centripetal acceleration because the object changes direction. Tangential acceleration occurs when an object changes its speed around the path
Term
 what really happened with the apple?
Definition
 The apple is accelerated, since its velocity changes from zero as it is hanging on the tree and moves toward the ground. Thus, by Newton's 2nd Law there must be a force that acts on the apple to cause this acceleration. Let's call this force "gravity", and the associated acceleration the "accleration due to gravity".
Term
 explain how Newton came to understand gravities true reach
Definition
 if the force of gravity reaches to the top of the highest tree, might it not reach even further; in particular, might it not reach all the way to the orbit of the Moon! Then, the orbit of the Moon about the Earth could be a consequence of the gravitational force, because the acceleration due to gravity could change the velocity of the Moon in just such a way that it followed an orbit around the earth.
Term
 explain the cannon example used to show how objects go into orbit
Definition
 Newton reasoned that if the cannon projected the cannon ball with exactly the right velocity, the projectile would travel completely around the Earth, always falling in the gravitational field but never reaching the Earth, which is curving away at the same rate that the projectile falls. That is, the cannon ball would have been put into orbit around the Earth.
Term
 gravitational force
Definition
 the mutual force of attraction between particles of matter
Term
 law of universal gravitation
Definition
 every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force directed along the line of centers for the two objects that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the seperation between the two objects.
Term
 the force that the moon exerts on the earth is_____ to the force that Earth exerts on the moon.
Definition
 equal and opposite
Term
 why does the moon revolve around the earth instead of the earth revolving around the moon?
Definition
 the centripetal forces cause the moon and earth to orbit around the center of mass. the earth has more mass so the moon revolves around the earth
Term
 how can a black hole trap light if light has no mass?
Definition
 black holes are so massive that nothing can escape it gravitational pull
Term
 first person to suggest black holes
Definition
 1916 karl schwarzchild
Term
 who coined the term black hole
Definition
 1967 John Wheeler
Term
 in order for an object to escape the gravitational pull of a planet, the____.
Definition
 object must be moving away from the planet faster than a certain threshold speed which is called the escape velocity.
Term
 how does the escape velocity of a black hole relate to the speed of light?
Definition
 the escape velocity for a blcak hole is greater than the speed of light.
Term
 why can't black holes be directly observed?
Definition
 they trap light
Term
 why do tides occur on Earth
Definition
 tides are partially due to the gravitational force exerted on Earth by the moon. the tides result from the difference between the gravitational force at Earths surface and at Earths center
Term
 describe what produces a spring tide and neap tide?
Definition
 when the sun and moon are in line, the combined effect produces a greater than usual high tide called the spring tide. when the sun and moon at are right angles, the result is a lower than usual high tide called a neap tide
Term
 each revolution of the moon around the earth corresponds to _____ spring tides and _____ neap tides
Definition
 2 spring tides and 2 neap tides
Term
 where are some of the worlds highest tides located and how much does it actually rise
Definition
 bay of fundy 16 meters from its low point
Term
 how does newtons law of gravitation account for ocean tides?
Definition
 His law described why tides occur high and low tides are partly due to the gravitational force exerted on Earth by its moon.  Tides result from the DIFFERENCE between the gravitational force at Earth’s surface and at Earth’s center
Term
 on the side of Earth that is nearrest to the moon, the moon's gravitation force is greater than it is at earths center because
Definition
 Gravitational force decreases with distance.  The water is pulled toward the moon, creating an outward bulge.  On the opposite side of Earth, the gravitational force is LESS than it is at the center.  On this side, all mass is still pulled toward the moon, but the water is pulled least.  This creates another outward bulge.
Term
 describe four other factors in tides besides the moon and the sun
Definition
 depths of ocean basins earths tilt earths rotation friction between ocean water and ocean floor
Term
 is the suns effect on earths ocean tides more or less significant than the moon?why?
Definition
 sun exerts a greater force on the earth than the moon does, the difference between the force on the far and near sides of Earth
Term
 how did Henry Cavendish determine the value of G?
Definition
 In 1798, Henry Cavendish conducted an experiment that determined the value of the constant G.  He put two small spheres fixed to the ends of suspended light rod.  These two small spheres are attracted to two larger spheres by the gravitational forces.  The angle of rotation is measured with a LIGHT BEAM and is then used to determine the gravitational force between the spheres.  When the masses, the distance between them, and the gravitational force are know, Newton’s law of universal gravitation can be used to find G.  Once the value of G is known, the law can be used again to find Earth’s mass.
Term
 why does wieght change with location
Definition
 Weight is the magnitude of the force due to gravity, which equals mass times free-fall acceleration: Fg = mag.  We can now refine our definition of weight as mass x gravitational field strength:  W = mag.
Term
 why do all masses fall with the same acceleration on eath when you disregard air resistance/ friction.
Definition
 The acceleration of objects in free fall on Earth’s surface is always the same confirms that the two types of masses are equal.  A More massive object receives a greater gravitational force, but the object resists acceleration by just that amount.  This is the reason ALL MASSES fall WITH THE SAME ACCELERATION ( disregarding air resistance of course).
Term
 what causes satellites to stay in orbit around the earth
Definition
 centripetal force
Term
 what is the value of G
Definition
 6.673x10^-11 N*m^2/kg^2
Term
 what is G called
Definition
 Constant of universal gravitation
Term
 SI unit for force
Definition
 Newton
Term
 escape velocity for Earth
Definition
 1.1x10^4 m/s
Term
 ther is a ____ relationship between gravitational force and distance
Definition
 inverse
Term
 T/F newtons laws are accurate for objects moving near the speed of light
Definition
 False
Term
 As your distance from earths center increase does the value of g increase or decrease
Definition
 decrease
Term
 On the surface of any planet, the value of g (and your weight) will depend on TWO things…. What are they?
Definition
 mass and distance from the center
Term
 location of the aqueous humor
Definition
 between cornea and the pupil
Term
 name a function of tears besides keeping eye moist
Definition
 provides oxygen exchange prevents scattering   improves optical quality
Term
 what causes glaucoma
Definition
 increased fluid pressure in the eye
Term
 two types of photoreceptors
Definition
 rods cones
Term
 electrical impulses are relayed to the brain through the
Definition
 optic nerve
Term
 lens becomes yellow with age is called
Definition
 cataracts
Term
 where is the vitriuos humor located
Definition
 between lens and retina
Term
 what is vitriuos himor function
Definition
 maintains eye shape fills space between the lens and retina
Term
 what causes the blind spot in the eye
Definition
 no photo receptors at the location of the optic disk
Term
 photoreceptors responsive to color and in bright conditions are
Definition
 cones
Term
 layer of tissue on the back portion of the eye that contains cells responsive to light
Definition
 retina
Term
 circular band of muscles that controls the size of the pupil
Definition
 iris
Term
 photoreceptors responsive in low light
Definition
 rods
Term
 contains photoreceptors for vision
Definition
 retina
Term
 the pigmentation of this part giver eye color
Definition
 Iris
Term
 outermost transparent layer of the eye
Definition
 Cornea
Term
 transmits information to the brain
Definition
 optic nerve
Term
 converts light rays into electrical impulses
Definition
 Retina
Term
 the ___ chamber is between the iris and the lens
Definition
 posterior
Term
 the ____ gets its nutrition from aqueous humor and tears
Definition
 cornea
Term
 pig kingdom? phylum? Subphylum?Class?Family?Genus?
Definition
 animalia chordata vertebrata mammalia suidae sus
Term
 scientific name for pig
Definition
 sus scrufa
Term
 notochord
Definition
 becomes the cartilage within the vertebral column
Term
 dorsal hollow nerve chord
Definition
 fluid filled nerve that transmits impulses and helps form the central nervous system
Term
 pharyngeal gill slits
Definition
 moves water through the pharynx
Term
 post anal tail
Definition
 the vestigial structure called the coccyx
Term
 one of the few animals that retains all 4 characteristics during adulthood
Definition
 lancelot of cephalochordata
Term
 vertebrates share what four charecteristics
Definition
 cephalization metammerism endoskeleton paired limbs
Term
 cephalization
Definition
 defined by the gathering of ganglia, or nervous tissue in the anterior end (front/cranial).  In complex mammals, this tissue forms the brain
Term
 smallest mammalia and largest mammalia
Definition
 tiny shrew blue whale
Term
 carnivore
Definition
 meat eaters
Term
 herbivore
Definition
 plant eaters
Term
 omnivore
Definition
 both meat and plant eater
Term
 how many chambers does a mammal heart contain
Definition
 4
Term
 how many lobes does a human liver contain
Definition
 4
Term
 how many lobes does a pig liver contain
Definition
 5
Term
 humans are bipedal and pigs are ___
Definition
Term
 one sow can produce a liter of piglets that can range from
Definition
 7 to 18
Term
 pigs have been used to help humans find
Definition
 truffles
Term
 both males and females have nipples or____
Definition
 mammalary papilae
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