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Black Literature E1- short terms
BL Exam 1
Undergraduate 1

Additional Engineering Flashcards




Black Negrophobia

Negrophobia- the fear and dislike of blacks, a psychological disease of the mind.

its has killed more negros in past 500 years than all other diseases combined. Including Malaria, epidemics, plagues, and AIDS combined.

- slavery was from negrophobia, white colonial aggression.  Soldiers of Haiti, Mau Mau warriors of Kenya and liberation fighters in Angola, Zimbabwe, South America, and Sudan were all killed from negrophobia.

- negrophobia syndrome stems from melanotropism. An uncontrollable desire for all things to be white.

- This oppression makes Negros accept the thoughts and actions chosen for them by whites.

- This causes White Flight.

- Du Bois racial intergration through NAACP caused black leaders to move to the suburbs where they were hostages to white influence.

- until the power therapy for this power neurosis is accomplished all other therapies would be only partially effective.  It will take Internal Reparation to completely fix our problem



Cultural Assimilation





- A Socio- Political Response that promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture.  It is opposed to affirmative philosophy, or multiculturalism, which both attempt to maintain our uniqueness and differences.

- used in context with immigrants to a new land often.

- New members pick up some of their new socities' cultural traits, this is a gradual process but eventually a person may become indisinguishable from older members.

-Theoretical Explanations-

-Generational Change- each proceeding generation assimilates more with the dominant population

- Structural Barriers often cause assimilation to not be equal or easy- Minorities face discrimination again employment, education, and good living regions.

- These barriers can prevent a group's mobility trapping them in their situation.

Assimilation Measurements

1 Socioeconomic status- education, occupation, income

2. Spatial Concentration- The more generations a group has in its new country to more residential concentration it will have in certain areas, races move together.

3. Language Attachment- Change to english from their native tongue

4. Intermarriage- High rates of marriage are considered to indicate social intergration.





cotton gin

- Where was it grown? When? Why?


- Effects on South


- Why was slave labor especially nice for cotton?


-How many africans were importated to America throughout slavery? this is somewhat related to the overall introduction of cotton.


- Widely Grown in the south from 1830- 1850 because it was expensive product made from inexpensive African slave labor

- This wealth from cotton made the south dependent on plantations and slavery.

  (Example of Growth -In seventeen ninety-three, approximately one hundred and eighty thousand pounds of cotton was harvested in the United States. Two years later, that harvest grew to more than six million pounds; by eighteen ten, an astounding ninety three million pounds was brought to harvest.)

- It's hard labor to clean and separate fibers from seeds, the cotton gin overcame this process.  The teeth to a cotton gin would comb out seeds.

- caused grow of slave statesw from 6 in 1790 to 15 in 1850.

- Southers imported 80,000 Americans for this trait, approximately one in 3 southerners was a slave.


Abolition Movement


-  William Garrison and Frederick Douglass?

- What happened in 1860?

- How did this affect the South?

- What happened in 1863? 1865?



- In the 11 states of the South agriculture was integral to its economy by 1860. At this time the slave population was four million.

- Abolitionist movement of North was lead by reforms like William Garrison, American Anti- Slavery Society.  Or slaves such as Frederick Douglass .

- 1860 presidential victory of abe lincoln opposed the spread of slavery to the western US.

- This opposition to the spreading of slavery threatened the south which led to their succession leading to the civil war.

- In 1863 Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation which freed states in the Confederate Staes.

- In 1865 teh 13th amendment to the US Constitution prohibited slavery throughout the country.




Wilmot Proviso-

- what was the intent of this? When did it occur?


- who introduced this bill?


- What was the determining factor for how much territory America would anex?


- This gave President Polk what?


- What did this conflict further create?


-Which political parties rejected this proviso?



- one of major events to the civil war which would have banned slavery in any territory acquiered from Mexico from the Mexican war.

-Congressman david wilmot introduced this bill.

-When texas was being sought by america How much territory would be acquired was determined by the future status of slavery in that territory.

- This amendment of 1846 gave president polk 2 million to finish the settlement with mexico, essentially buying out texas.

- This proviso created a tension between the north and south and helped further establish the conflict of slavery.

- This proviso was rejected by the Whig and Democratic parties.


Compromise of 1850


- What was the intent of this compromise?


- What was the south's compromise? What was the status of the potential new state territories of Utah and New Mexico.


- What act forced Northerns to respect the Slavery laws still present in the south?


passed by congress in 1850 to settle slavery issues and to avoid the separation of the North and south. At this time their was an equal amount of free and pro slavery states, California was the deciding state for the majority opinion of the nation.

- California's admission as a free state to the union tipped the balance of power to the slavery free states.

- it then said the territoties that would be new mexico and utah should be formed into states, and then their populations would decide their pro and anti- slavery state.

- Fugitive slave act was passed in 1793 which forced northern citizens to return runaway slaves, the people who resisted were given heavy penalties.

- This act outraged the north so much that it lead to heavy abuses and it defeated its purpose.  This act made normal day Northerners to take a stand on the issue that they may not have if not directly confronted by the fugitive slave law, and how'd they'd handle the situation.




Fugitive Slave Act


- passed when? why? for what?


- why did this scare the north?


- Why did this cause normal Northerners to take a stand?


The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slaveholding interests and Northern Free-Soilers. This was one of the most controversial acts of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a 'slave power conspiracy,' this made them think that the south is slowly trying to increase the strength of slavery.

- Brought the issue to the front for anti slavery northeners, this made them also responsible for enforcing slavery.  This caused even intermediate anti slavery supporters to establish their decision on the issue.






Kansas Nebraska Act


- what were the false beliefs associated with the compromise of 1850.


- How did people feel about the idea of popular sovereignty?


- How was Kansas affected?


- what does bleeding kansas literally refer to?


- Many people believed that the compromise of 1850 would have ended any slavery debates, this was incorrect.

- Northerners felt the idea of popular sovereignty was a biased for the south.

- When kansas decided its slavery state its two sides conflicted establishing a free government in Topeka and a pro slavery government in Lecompton.

-Bleeding Kansas referred to the pain that kansas suffered due to this split government.  This showed that popular sovereignty was not an acceptable solution.


Bleeding Kansas


- What was it?


- How did it affect Kansas' immigration?


- Who lead a popluar anti slavery surge in correlated with this problem?


- When was it settled, and with what conclusion?


- What did this establish? what type of compromise between north and south did bleeding kansas prove as an unsuccessul process?



1854- 59

- Small civil war in US fought between proslavery and antislavery advocates for control of the territoy of kansas, whether its pro and anti slavery.

- free soil forces of the north emigrated to kansas, while proslave advocates also emigrated from Missouri.

-Anti slavery band lead by John Brown retaliated in the Pottawatomie Massacre.

- Bleeding Kansas was settled when kansas was deemed a free state in jan 1861.

- Bleeding Kansas helped establish the republican party, giving it its major antislavery issue in the 1860 election for lincoln.

- This example proved that popular soveregnty wasn't a useful solution to the 'Compromise' issue.


John Brown

- What did he all do?

- when did he perform his famous actions?

- what were they? where did it occurs? when did it occur?


- what was this unofficially considered as?


- what was the success of his plan? How is brown now viewed?


- How did the south react in response to this?


Abolitionist, underground railroad conductor, and revolutionary

- In oct 1859 john brown lead 21 men on a raid on a federal arsenal at harpers ferry, virginia.

-  unofficially Considered the "First Shots" of civil war.

- Brown wanted to capture ammunication and escape to the nearby mountains creating a base where runaway slaves would meet to attempt a violent overthrow of the south's slave system.

- after 36 hrs and 15 deaths the well planned but poorly executed revolt was stopped.

- Only 5 of brown's crew escaped the rest were killed during fights or hung aftewards.

- to most abolitionist brown was considered a great martyr.  but to slave holders brown threatened their ways of life.

- Browns large scale overthrow plan encouraged southern states to stockpile arms for a possible war, further restricting their slaves, as they prepare.


Dred Scott


- part of what famous case? when?


- background of case, and what was Scott's argument?


- What did the court rule, and what did it officially decide of African Americans?






case of 1856, Dred Scott v Sandford.

- his case was that he and his wife were slaves but had lived in free states of wisconsin and illinois, which was then part of the louisiana purchase.

- court ruled 7-2 against scott finding that no African American can actually claim american citizenship. since he wasn't a citizen he couldn't take the case to a federal court either outside of Missouri.

- since slaves were ruled as personal property the federal government couldn't  prosecute them, nullifying the existance of the Missouri Compromise.

- This moved him to an insane asylum.


The fugitive slave narrative


- composition of what? from who? what time period?


- What did these narratives display?


- when did the urgency of these narratives cease?


Contemporary slave narratives vs Neo- Slave Narratives


- a literary form which grew out of the experience of ensalved Africans in the new world and britain. 


- 6000 former slaves from north america gave accounts of their lives during the 18th n 19th centuries.


novels such as Uncle Tom's Cabin represent the abolitionist view of the evils of slavery.


- narratives often described slaves spiritual jounrey leading to their christian redemption. 


- These slaves always defined themselves as Africans rather than slaves.


- these narratives wrote of hope for slaves, but after the confederate was defeated the need for therse narratives lost their urgency.  The narratives then often focused on the change for the slaves new life of freedom compared to their previous life slavery.


- contomporary slave narratives are slave literature stories that are published now on behalf of the former slaves.


- Neo- Slave Narratives-  are stories of slave experience written from today's perspective using imagination, oral histories, and already existing slave narratives to construct their stories.




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