# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Biopharm ch 1-6
45
Pharmacology
07/11/2012

Term
 when graphing zero order reaction, what goes on the y axis?   y in the equation=mx+b
Definition
 Ct : Concentration
Term
 When graphing a zero order reaction, what is the x axis?   x in the equation y=mx+b
Definition
 t : time
Term
 definition of y intercept
Definition
 the point on the y axis where x =0
Term
 how do you determine C0 (initial concentration) from a graph of a zero order reaction?
Definition
 C0 is the y-intercept in a zero order reaction
Term
 in the equation y=mx+b, which factor is C0 (initial concentration)   in a zero order reaction
Definition
 b, the y-intercept
Term
 how do you determine rate constant (K) from a graph of a zero order reaction?
Definition
 use two points from the line (as far apart from each other as possible) to determine the slope multiply the slope by -1 This is because in the equation y=mx+b, m=-k
Term
 in the equation y=mx+b, what is the value of m in a zero order reaction?
Definition
 m=-k   in other words, the slope equals the rate constant * -1
Term
 definition of half life (t1/2)
Definition
 the time when original concentration is reduced to one half the original concentration
Term
 zero order half life is dependent on...
Definition
 zero-order rate constant  initial concentration
Term
 C0 =
Definition
 initial concentration
Term
 what is the value of t1 when C1 is initial concentration ?
Definition
 0
Term
 K =
Definition
 reaction rate constant
Term
 dC/dt=-(K)(C)n   what is n?
Definition
 the order of reaction    the value is 1 for first order and 0 for zero order
Term
 conversion factor from natural log (ln) to log
Definition
 2.303
Term
 a plot of ln C versus Time that exhibits a linear relationship represents...
Definition
 first order kinetics
Term
 In a plot of lnC versus time (first order kinetics) , how do you determine the concentration at a particular time?
Definition
 take the inverse ln of the y axis value for that time
Term
 In a plot of lnC versus time (first order kinetics), how do you determine the time of a particular concentration?
Definition
 take the ln value of the given concentration. then look at the graph for the corresponding value on the x axis
Term
 what is the y-intercept of a first order reaction graph (lnC vs. time)
Definition
 lnC0
Term
 how do you determine initial concentration (C0) of a first order reaction graph (lnC vs. time)
Definition
 1. plot all given values 2. make a straight line through the points 3.back extrapolate the line so that it crosses the y axis  4. take the inverse ln of the value of the y intercept
Term
 How do you determine C0 (initial concentration) from a logC vs. time graph of first order kinetics
Definition
 1. plot all given values 2. make a straight line through the points 3.back extrapolate the line so that it crosses the y axis  4. take the inverse log of the value of the y intercept
Term
 in a first order reaction graph with a plot of  logC vs. time, what is the formula for the value of m (the slope)?
Definition
 -K/2.303
Term
 how do you determine K in a first order reaction graph with a plot of log C vs. time?
Definition
 1. find the slope of line 2. multiply by -2.303
Term
 formula to determine slope
Definition
 change in y over change in x
Term
 0.693/K   what is this equation for?
Definition
 to determine the half life of a first order reaction
Term
 What does D represent in the following equation? A? H? ΔC? k?     (DAKΔC)/h   when is this equation used?
Definition
 D: diffusion coefficient of the drug A: surface area of absorbing membrane K: partition coefficient of the drug ΔC: concentration gradient H: thickness of absorbing membrane   equation is used to determine the rate of absorption by passive diffusion
Term
 What is the Michaelis Menten Kinetics equation for?   ([C]xVmax)/(km+[C])
Definition
 it is used to determine the rate of drug absorption by active transport   C: conc of drug available for absorption Vmax: max rate of absorption at high drug concentration Km: affinity constant of drug for the carrier
Term
 what is the constant for a given drug-carrier complex in active transport? (michaelis menten kinetics)
Definition
 both Vmax and Km are constant for a given drug carrier complex. therefore these two constnats are combined as a single constant K'   Rate of drug absorption = K' x [C]
Term
 K' is a combined constant of both...
Definition
 Vmax and Km
Term
 the absorption of a drug by active transport proceeds according to ______ order kinetics when the affinity constant (Km) is much greater than the concentration of drug at site of absorption (C)
Definition
 first   explained on p 86
Term
 when concentration of drug at the site of absorption is much greater than the affinity constant in active transport, the mechanism follows ______ order kinetics
Definition
 zero    explained page 86
Term
 Active transport
Definition
 this mechanism utilizes carriers under expenditure of energy (ATP)  the carriers bind to drug molecules and form a complex which moves accross the membrane  mechanism can proceed against a concentration gradient
Term
 facilitated transport
Definition
 a carrier mediated system with a similar mechanism to active transport. drug does not proceed against a concentration gradient
Term
 convective transport is AKA
Definition
 pore transport
Term
 convective transport
Definition
 transport of drug molecules takes place through the pores of the membrane.
Term
 "shifting of the solvent"
Definition
 the movement of the drug with the solvent through the pores in convective transport
Term
 Vmax
Definition
 maximal rate of absorption at high drug concentration
Term
 Km
Definition
 affinity constant of drug for the carrier
Term
 η   stands for...
Definition
 the viscosity of fluid in the pore of convective transport
Term
 h    stands for ...
Definition
 thickness of the membrane
Term
 transport of charged molecules due to the formation of a neutral complex with another molecule carrying an opposite charge.
Definition
 ion-pair transport
Term
 the only transport mechanism where a drug or compound does not have to be in aqueous solution to be absorbed
Definition
 pinocytosis
Term
 transport process in the absorption of small fat or oil droplets and small solid particles
Definition
 pinocytosis
Term
 gastric emptying appears to follow _____ order kinetics
Definition
 first.    as volume of ingested material increases, there is an initial increase in the rate of emptying gastric contents
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