Term

Definition
Observations we objectively make of our environment 


Term
Why do we use statistical analysis? 

Definition
Dram conclusions, better understand the source of the data, data reduction, inference, ID relationships and associations, 


Term
What is a discrete random variable? 

Definition
Has nonmeasurable gaps between values (ex: cow shit scores) 


Term
What is a continuous random variable? 

Definition
any value number is possible 


Term

Definition
Pregnant or not, live or dead, etc (mutually exclusive categories) 


Term
What is an ordinal scale? 

Definition
Ranked categories (cow shit, beef quality grades, etc.) 


Term
What is an interval scale? 

Definition
Quantitative, but no true zero exists (his example was temp) 


Term

Definition
"Highest level of measurement"  has a true zero 


Term

Definition
A welldefined collection of entities  may be finite or infinite 


Term
What is the sample population? 

Definition
A representative sample of the entire population 


Term
What is a descriptive statistic? 

Definition
A single calculated number that conveys important info about the data from which is was calculated 


Term
The average human being has one breast and one testicle 

Definition


Term
What is an ordered array? 

Definition
The simplest form of data organization used to calc min, max, and range 


Term
What is an advantage of a stem and leaf plot? 

Definition
It conserves information about individual measurements 


Term
What are 3 measures of central tendency? 

Definition


Term
Why does snoop dog carry an umbrella? 

Definition


Term
What's the difference between mew and bar x? 

Definition
mew = pop mean, bar x = sample mean 


Term

Definition
The variation in a data set 


Term

Definition
Subtract the mean from every value (residual), square the results, sum them, and divide by n1 (degrees of freedom) 


Term

Definition
Subtract the mean from every value (residual), square the results, sum them, and divide by N (degrees of freedom) 


Term
Explain degrees of freedom 

Definition
The deviations from the mean will always sum to zero. If we know the values of (n1) of the observations and the value of the mean, we can, using simple algebra, determine the value of the unknown observation. Therefore, all of the observations except for 1 (n1) are ‘free to vary.’ 


Term
Within how many St dev do most of your data lie? 

Definition
Almost all data of any data set will lie with 3 STD of either side of the mean 


Term
How do you calculate sample variance? Pop variance? 

Definition
square root of s^2, square root of that funny looking o 


Term
What is the interquartile range? 

Definition
Q3Q1  the difference between the 3rd and 1st quartiles 


Term
What 2 things do descriptive stats tell you? 

Definition
Central tendency and dispersion 


Term
What's the eqn for probability? 

Definition


Term
What's the eqn for relative frequency probability? 

Definition
P(E)=m/n  this works if there is a large sample 


Term
What are 3 properties of the Probability Theory as stated by Kolmogorov? 

Definition
1.P(any event) must be a nonnegative number 2.Sum of mut excl events all add to 1 3.Prob of any 2 mut excl events is equal to the sum of their probabilities 


Term
What is conditional probability? 

Definition
The probability of an event, given certain circumstances (what is the prob a cow has had bloat 5 times, given that animal is male?) P(C  M)? 


Term

Definition
Probability of an event given 2 or more characteristics (what is the prob a cow has had bloat 5 times and that animal is male?) 


Term
What is the multiplication rule? 

Definition
We can compute a joint probability as the product of an appropriate unconditional probability and an appropriate conditional probability, which is called the Multiplication Rule
P(M ∩ C) = P(M)*P(C  M) 


Term
What is the addition rule? 

Definition
Given two events A and B, the probability that event A, or event B, or both occur is equal to the probability that event A occurs, plus the probability that event B occurs, minus the probability that the events occur simultaneously P(M∪ C) = P(M) + P(C) – P(M ∩ C) P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) when A and B are mutually exclusive events 


Term
How do you calculate prob of independent events? 

Definition
Events are considered independent if Event B occurring has no effect on the probability of Event A occurring. This is not the same concept as mutually exclusive.
P(AB)=P(A) 


Term
What is the multiplication rule or independent events? 

Definition
If two events are independent, the probability of their joint occurrence is equal to the product of the probabilities of the individual occurrences
P(A∪B) = P(B)*P(A); P(A) ≠ 0 and P(B) ≠ 0 


Term
P(AB) = P(A) P(BA) = P(B) P(A∩B) = P(A)*P(B)
These statements are true for what type of events? 

Definition


Term
What is a false positive? 

Definition
a test indicates a positive result when the true result is negative 


Term
What is a false negative? 

Definition
a test indicates a negative result when the true result is positive 


Term

Definition
I skipped it because he skipped it. I think. It's really long and stupid. 


Term
What does a nosy jalapeno do? 

Definition


Term
Name 3 qualities of probabilities of discrete, random variables 

Definition
All probabilities are positive All probabilities are less than 1 0 ≤ P(X = x) ≤ 1 All exhaustive probabilities sum to 1 ∑ P(X = x) = 1 


Term
How do you calculate cumulative probability? 

Definition
Cumulative Probability is obtained by successively adding the probabilities, P(X = x), given in the last column of the probability distribution Written as P(X ≤ xi), gives probability that X is less than or equal to a specified value, xi 


Term
Tell me about Bernoulli trials 

Definition
A Bernoulli Trial is any process or event that: Results in one of two possible, mutually exclusive, outcomes.
The probability of a success, p, remains constant from trial to trial. The probability of a failure, q, is 1 – p.
The trials are independent; the outcome of any particular trial is not affected by the outcome of any other trial. 


Term
What is the multiplication rule? 

Definition
pqppq = p3q2 via multiplication rule 


Term
What is the equation for factorial? 

Definition


Term
What are the parameters of binomial distributions? 

Definition
n and p are the only 2 parameters of binomial distributions 


Term
What is a continuous random variable? 

Definition
A Continuous Random Variable is one that can assume any value within a specific interval of values assumed by the variable. eg: there are an infinite number of values of the variable. 


Term
What is the most important distribution in stats? 

Definition
The normal one! AKA Gaussian dist 


Term
Mean and standard deviation measure what? 

Definition
The parameters mean and standard deviation can be thought of as measures of central tendency and dispersion 


Term
What are characteristics of the normal distribution? 

Definition
Symmetrical about the mean Mean = median = mode Total AUC about the xaxis is one square unit. – 50% of the area is to the left of the mean and 50% is to the right of the mean If we erect perpendiculars a distance of 1 SD from the mean in both directions, the area ~ 68% of the total area (see figure previous page) Distribution determined by the parameters mew and funny o 


Term
How do you calculate z score? 

Definition


Term
21.What’s brown and sticky? 

Definition


Term
What is the difference between joint and conditional probabilities? 

Definition
joint  the events are independent P(A and B)=P(A)*P(B)
conditional  the events are dependent P(A and B)=P(A)*P(BA) 

