Term

Definition
to measure life using statistics appied to life 


Term

Definition
entire collection of measurements from all the organisms the reasearcher's interested in (total) 


Term

Definition
numerical feature of the population (mean) 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
every single individual in population has a chance 


Term

Definition
representative of population 


Term

Definition
does not accurately reflect the population of interest 


Term

Definition
numerical feature of the sample 


Term

Definition
difference between sample statistic and the population parameter 


Term

Definition
1) observations/questions
2) hypothesis
3) experiment
4) results
5) analyze results with statistics
6) conclusion 


Term

Definition
 objects described by a set of data 


Term

Definition
characteristics of individuals 


Term

Definition
qualitative (descriptive) data
ex. gender, eye color 


Term

Definition
quantitative, unequal intervals, ranked values 


Term

Definition
quantitative, equal increments, no meaningful zero value 


Term

Definition
quantitative, equal intervals, meaningful zero value 


Term

Definition
estimates of population parameters 


Term

Definition
numerical feature of a sample 


Term

Definition
central tendency fo ratiointerval scale data 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
measure of central tendency used for ordinalscale data (ranked) data 


Term

Definition
measure of central tendency used for nominalscale data 


Term

Definition
(variability) sum of squares, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (ratiointerval scale) 


Term

Definition
measure of dispersion for ordinalscale (difference between highest and lowest value) 


Term

Definition
measures of dispersion for nominalscale data (qualitative) 


Term

Definition
determines the probability of obtaining certain values
(histogram, probability density curve) 


Term

Definition
greatest frequency of occurrence is at mean
lowest frequency of occurence is at extremes
distribution is symmetrical about the mean 


Term

Definition
asymmetrical, greater frquency of large values 


Term

Definition
asymmetrical, greater frequency of extreme small values 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
all values are around mean 


Term

Definition
plateau, not peaked, greatest frequency are all values 


Term
standardized normal distribution 

Definition
mean  0
standard deviation  1
values converted to Zscores 


Term

Definition
frequency distribution of raw data 


Term

Definition
frequency distribution of statistics (not raw data) 


Term

Definition
 standard deviation of many means
 single sample
 estimate of sampling distribution if multiple samples taken 


Term

Definition
 means of samples normally distributed as sample size increases
 standard deviation will decrease as sample size increases 


Term

Definition
no difference or no relationship 


Term

Definition
there is a difference or relationship 


Term
there is a difference because 

Definition
1) populations are different
2) sampling error 


Term

Definition
achieved by using probabilities 


Term

Definition
probability of obtaining your sample data and statistics from a population in which null hypothesis is true 


Term

Definition
rejecting null hypothesis when it is true 


Term

Definition
accepting null hypothesis when it is false 


Term

Definition
 one nominalscale variable, compare frequency distribution to a priori ratio  DF = k 1
 R&B = n/k > 2 


Term
purpose of continuity correction 

Definition
reduce risk of getting large critical value and reduce risk of type I error 


Term

Definition
 two nominalscale variables
 frequency of occurrence of categories is independent of frequency of occurence of other variable
 DF = (r1)(c1)
 R&B = n/(r x c) > 6
 continuity correction (2x2) 


Term

Definition
 probability that sample of ratiointerval scale taken from a population with predetermined mean
 mean = c (a priori constant)  DF = n1 two tailed: no difference
one tailed: direction of difference 


Term

Definition
mean of population lies between two values 


Term

Definition
if values in one sample are not related in any particular way to values in other sample 


Term

Definition
if each value in one sample is associated with one particular value in the other sample 


Term
assumptions for two sample testing 

Definition
RSNDP (normal distribution)  D'Agostino Pearson K^2 test for normality Homoscedastic (equal variances) 


Term
types of data transformation 

Definition
logarithmic transformation, square root transformation, arcsine square root transformation 


Term

Definition
assumptions are not met, ordinalscale data. do not test for differences in the parameter (mean) 


Term

Definition
 tests for differences in the means of two independent samples of ratiointerval scale data  DF= (n11)(n21)  normal distributions, equal variances  nonparametric alternative: MannWhitney U test 


Term

Definition
tests for differences in the central tendency of two independent samples of ratiointerval scale data and ordinalscale data (ranking) when assumptions of normality/homoscedasticity are not met  DF = n 


Term

Definition
data points that are much more extreme than all of the other data in the sample 


Term

Definition
 differences in the means of two paired samples of ratiointerval scale data, comparing difference between two means to zero  DF = n(d)  1 


Term
wilcoxon paired sample test 

Definition
 differences in the central tendency of two paired samples of ratiointerval scale data when the normality assumption is not met  ordinalscale data  calculated test stat uses n (sample size) 


Term
logarithmic transformation 

Definition
x' = log x consistent (most common) 


Term
square root transformation 

Definition
x' = rad x whole number counts 


Term
arcsine square root transformation 

Definition
x' = arcsin rad x when data are proportions or percents 

