# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Biomechanics
Final Review
62
Science
12/08/2008

Term
 Absolute Angle
Definition
 angular orientation of a body segment with respect to a fixed line of reference. -- should be consistently measured in the same direction from a single reference - either horizontal or vertical
Term
 Relative Angle
Definition
 and at a joint formed between the longitudinal axes of adjacent body segments. -- should consistently be measured on the same side of a given joint. --the straight fully extended position at a joint is regarded as 0 degrees
Term
 Goniometer
Definition
 used to measure joint angles -- essentially a protractor with two long arms attached
Term
 Instant Center
Definition
 Precisely located center of rotation at a joint at a given instant in time --
Term
 Angular Displacement
Definition
 change in the angular position or orientation of a line segment -- the counterclockwise direction is regarded as positive, and the clockwise direction is regarded as negative
Term
Definition
 component of acceleration of a body in angular motion directed toward the center of curvature, represents change in direction
Term
 Angular Velocity
Definition
 rate of change in the angular position or orientation of a line segment
Term
 Angular Acceleration
Definition
 rate of change in angular velocity. x = change in angular velocity/change in time
Term
 right hand rule
Definition
 procedure for identifying the direction of an angular motion vector -- stick out your right hand.. point your thumb which ever way the vector is facing.. the way your fingers curl is the direction of the spin
Term
 Tangential acceleration
Definition
 component of acceleration of a body in angular motion directed along a tangent to the path of motion: represents change in linear speed
Term
 momentum
Definition
 a vector quality that affects the outcome of interactions between two bodies
Term
 Angular Distance ???
Definition
 measured in radians, the distance is how many times it went around ... ?
Term
 Archimedes' principle
Definition
 Physical law stating that the buoyant force acting on a body is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body
Term
 Absolute Velociy
Definition
Term
 Balance
Definition
 ability to control equilibrium
Term
 Bernoulli principle
Definition
 an expression of the inverse relationship between relative velocity and relative pressure in a fluid flow
Term
 Buoyancy
Definition
Term
 Backspin
Definition
Term
 Coefficient of restitution
Definition
 number that serves as an index of elasticity for colliding bodies
Term
 Center of Gravity
Definition
 point around which a body's weight is equally balanced, no matter how the body is positioned
Term
 Center of Mass
Definition
 point around which the mass and weight of a body are balanced, no matter how the body is positioned
Term
 Concentric contraction
Definition
 a contraction involving shortening of a muscle
Term
 Dislocating Component
Definition
Term
 Eccentric Contraction
Definition
 describing a contraction involving lengthening of a muscle
Term
 Fulcrum moment arm
Definition
 the point of support, or axis, about which a lever may be made to rotate
Term
 Force Couple------------------------
Definition
 push or pull, the product of mass and acceleration
Term
 Flotation
Definition
Term
 Gravity
Definition
Term
 Ground reaction Force
Definition
Term
 Isometric contraction
Definition
 a contraction with no change in muscle length
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 energy of motion calculated as 1/2 mv^2
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 tendency of a body to resist a change in its state of motion
Term
 Law of Inertia
Definition
Term
 Law of momentum
Definition
Term
 Law of gravitation
Definition
Term
 Law of gravitation
Definition
Term
 Laminar boundary
Definition
Term
 Laminar Flow
Definition
 flow characterized by smooth, parallel layers of fluid
Term
 Mechanical Power
Definition
Term
 Magnus Principle/Effect
Definition
 Deviation in the trajectory of a spinning object toward the direction of spin, resulting from the magnus force
Term
 Magnus Force
Definition
 lift force created by spin
Term
 Newton's First Law
Definition
Term
 Newton's Second Law
Definition
Term
 Newton's third law
Definition
Term
 Principle of Conservation of Momentum
Definition
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 energy by virtue of a body's position or configuration, calculated as the product of weight and height
Term
 Propulsive Drag
Definition
 force acting in the direction of a body's motion
Term
 Resultant Velocity
Definition
Term
 Resultant
Definition
 single vector that results from vector composition
Term
 Relative Velocity
Definition
 velocity of a body with respect to the velocity of something else, such as that surrounding fluid
Term
 Stabilizing component
Definition
Term
 Relative Velocity
Definition
 velocity of a body with respect to the velocity of something else, such as that surrounding fluid
Term
 Stability
Definition
 resistance to disruption of equilibrium
Term
 Surface Drag/Skin Friction
Definition
 resistance derived from friction between adjacent layers of fluid near a body moving through the fluid
Term
 Tangential Velocity
Definition
Term
 Turbulent flow
Definition
 flow characterized by mixing of adjacent fluid layers
Term
 Theoretical square law
Definition
 drag increases approximately with the square of velocity when relative velocity is low
Term
 turbulent boundary
Definition
Term
 Topspin
Definition
Term
 Wave Drag
Definition
 resistance created by the generation of waves at the interface between two different fluids, such as air and water
Term
 Form Drag
Definition
 Resistance created by a pressure differential between the lead and rear sides of a body moving through a fluid
Term
 Lift
Definition
 Force acting on a body in a fluid direction perpendicular to the fluid
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