# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Bio exam
Final
155
Biology
12/09/2010

Term
 ecology
Definition
 study of interactions b/w organisms and the environment
Term
 Population
Definition
 groups of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time
Term
 population ecology
Definition
 how individuals interact with one another, influencing population numbers and distribution
Term
 demographics
Definition
 statistical characterization of a populations; size, age structure, density and distribution
Term
 population size
Definition
 # of individuals in a population
Term
 age structure
Definition
 # of individuals with in a certain age categories
Term
 population density
Definition
 the individuals per unit area
Term
 distribution
Definition
 how the individuals are spread out in a given area
Term
 Population distribution
Definition
 clumped, random, uniform
Term
 Population size and growth
Definition
 immigration & birth add individualsemigration & deaths subtract individuals
Term
 growth rate
Definition
 growth rate (G); per capita rate (r); population size (N)G=rN
Term
 per capita rate of growth in a population is the difference between birth and death rates
Definition
 r=(B-D) + (I-E)
Term
 exponential growth
Definition
 population increases in size by the same proportion of its total in each successive interval
Term
 If r>0, exponential growth occur (exponential growth can rapidly lead to large populations
Definition
 population grows exponentially as long as per capita death rates are lower than per capita birth rates
Term
 Limits on the growth of population
Definition
 1.As populations increase in size, competition for resources limit the number of individuals the environment can support. 2.Any essential resource that is in short supply: food, nesting sites, water3.All limiting factors acting on a population dictate sustainable population size
Term
 Carrying capacity (K)
Definition
 the maximum # of individuals that can be sustained in a particular habitatG=rN [K-N/K]
Term
 Logistic growth
Definition
 Population growth pattern.  Occurs when populations size is limited by carrying capacity
Term
 Overshooting Capacity
Definition
 1.Population may temporarily increase above carrying capacity2.Excuses individuals, however, may alter the carrying capacity of the environment3.Overshoot is usually followed by a crash; dramatic increase in deaths4.Altered environments, altered carrying capacity
Term
 2 categories of limiting factors
Definition
 1.Density dependent factors: crowding & competition2.Density independent factors: Natural disasters and strong environment change
Term
 Life History Patterns
Definition
 Of a species pattern of when and how many offspring are produced during a typical lifetime 1.Patterns of timing of reproduction and surviorship 2.Very among species 3.Summarized in survivorship curves and life tables
Term
 Patterns of Survival
Definition
 Survivorship curves graph age-specific surviorship1. Type I (k-selected)2. Type II3. Type II (r-selected)
Term
 Life history patterns influence different reproductive strategies
Definition
 r-selected species are characterized by high fecundity, high morality, short life spank-selected species are characterized by lower fecundity, lower mortality, & longer life span
Term
 Age structure
Definition
 Knowing how populations can grow helps develop management plans
Term
 Community Ecology
Definition
 Populations of different species living together
Term
 Ecological Community
Definition
 All species living in the same place. Can interact in complex way. Ex: Brood parasitism-oropendolas, cowbirds, botflies, wasps
Term
 Communities
Definition
 1.Interacting species, within a defined area2.The scale b/w biomes & population3.Look @ species interactions as a = or - for the species involved
Term
 Coevolution
Definition
 -interacting species often have reciprocal adaptations -coevolution involves genetically-based adaptations that allow a species to interact with another
Term
 Specie interaction
Definition
 CommensalismMutualismCompetitionPredationParasitism
Term
 Commensalism
Definition
 -one species benefit, the other is unaffected-many population ecologists dispute whether any symbiotic relationship (living together) can be totally w/out impact
Term
 Mutualism
Definition
 -both species benefit-some are obligatory; patterns depend upon each other -Yucca plants & yucca moth
Term
 Competition
Definition
 -interspecific competition occurs when 2 or more species utilize the same limiting resource-competition generally harms both parties involved
Term
 Ecological Niche
Definition
 the resources used by an organism & the environmental conditions needed (food, shelter, nutrients, light, temperature, etc)
Term
 Fundamental vs. Realized Niches
Definition
 where niches overlap, competition may occur
Term
 Forms of competition
Definition
 -interference-exploitative
Term
 interference competition
Definition
 direct harm of another species
Term
 exploitative competition
Definition
 competing for resources
Term
 how we observe competition
Definition
 1.Resource partitioning2.Character displacement3.Removal experiments
Term
 Predatory-prey interactions
Definition
 species abundance is limited by the other
Term
 Evolutionary arms race
Definition
 as predator and prey coevolve, interesting adaptations can arise for both Prey defensesCamouflageMimicry (bees)warning colorationPredator responsesBehavioral changesCamouflage
Term
Definition
 predators can evolve counter measures to prey defenses mouse& beetle (sting though butt)
Term
 Parasitic
Definition
 -one species benefits; other is harmed-different forms of parasitism ->insect planting eggs in spider
Term
 Communities are dynamics
Definition
 1. Changes over time2. Primary succession3. Secondary succession
Term
 Primary succession
Definition
 the colonization of barren habitat
Term
 Secondary Succession
Definition
 the recovery of disturbed area
Term
 Pioneer Species
Definition
 -Organisms that are the 1st colonizers of an area-characterized by high dispersal, fast maturation, many offspring
Term
 Factors Affecting succession
Definition
 Old News1. Climax community2. grasses->shrubs->pines->oaksModern view1. Physical factors2. chance events3. intermediate disturbance hypothesis
Term
 1. Community Balance
Definition
 Because communities are such an intricate balance of species, the composition and abundance of species, the composition & abundance of specie are important for determining the community structure
Term
 2. Community balance
Definition
 some species have a greater impact on the community than its abundance would suggest
Term
 Key stone species
Definition
 species whose effect in the community is disproportionate to their abundance
Term
 Species introductions
Definition
 exotic or introduced species upset delicate community balance: the vine that ate the South--> Kuduzu overgrowing native flora. Kuduza vines can grow 200 ft per year Kuduzu
Term
 Global Ecology (The Biosphere)
Definition
 explores the physical processes that determines the distribution of organisms across the globe
Term
 The Biosphere
Definition
 -sum total of places in which organisms live-encompasses the entire earth-the distribution of organisms (biogeography) is affected by: Geologic history, topography, climate, other species
Term
 Biome
Definition
 A subdivision of a biogeographic realm; usually described in terms of the dominant plants; e.g., tropical broad-leaf forest, grassland, tundra.
Term
 Distribution o f biomes
Definition
 is largely determined by climatic factors, and these climactic factors are determined by the physical processes of the earth
Term
Definition
 high latitudes receive less energy from solar radiation b/c the same energy must pass through more atmosphere, and is distributed over a larger area due to the curvature of the earth
Term
 seasonality
Definition
 the earth's tilt is responsible for the season
Term
 Summer solstice (June)
Definition
 Northern hemisphere is mots tilted towards sun; has its longest days
Term
 Autumn equinox (September)
Definition
 Sun's direct rays fall on equator; length of day equal that of night
Term
 Winter (December)
Definition
 Northern hemisphere is most tilted away from sun; shortest days
Term
 Spring equinox (March)
Definition
 Sun's direct rays fall on equator; length of day equal that of night
Term
 Air Flow
Definition
 -Strong solar radiation at the equator drives temperatures higher, which cause high humidity-The air at the equator arises-At high altitudes, the air cools, and releases its moisture and travels both North and South-At 30 degrees N and S latitude, the air sinks bringing dry air to those latitudes
Term
 Warmed by energy from the sun
Definition
 air at the equator picks up moisture and rises.It reaches a high altitude, and spreads North and South
Term
 As the airflows towards higher altitude
Definition
 it cools and looses moisture as rain. At around 30 degrees N & S latitude, the air sinks and flows N & S along Earth's surface
Term
 Air rises again at 60 degree N & S
Definition
 where air flowing forward meets air coming from the poles
Term
 At the poles
Definition
 cold air sinks and moves toward lower latitudes
Term
 Major winds near Earth's surface do not blow directly N & S because of Earth's rotation
Definition
 Wind deflect to the right of the original direction in the Northern hemisphere and to the left in Southern hemisphere
Term
 Air moving from 30 degrees South toward the equator is deflected to the left (west)
Definition
 as the southeast trade winds. The winds are named by the direction from which the blow
Term
 Precipitation
Definition
 Solar radiation and air circulation are responsible for global patterns of precipitation
Term
 Ocean currents
Definition
 patterns in air circulation drive surface currents
Term
 Coriolis effect
Definition
 The earth's rotation cause both air and water to "bend," forming gyres of air and water circulation-effect drives major gyres
Term
 movement of water
Definition
 distributes thermal energy around the globe
Term
Definition
 air rises on the windward side, loses moisture before passing over the mountain
Term
 Climate variation
Definition
 determines biomes
Term
 Biomes
Definition
 a veretation type plus its associated fauna
Term
 Major Terrestrial Biomes
Definition
 Tropical forestsSavannasDesertsChaparralTemperature grasslandsTemperate deciduous forestsEvergreen Coniferous forestsTundra
Term
 Tropical forests
Definition
 high temperature and precipitation, species-rich, nutrient poor
Term
 Savannas
Definition
 grasslands with scattered trees. semi-arid with long periods of drought devoid of rain
Term
 Deserts
Definition
 Biome of areas where evaporation greatly exceeds rainfall, where soil is thin and vegetation sparse.
Term
 Chaparral
Definition
 Coastal biome dominated by dense, woody shrubs & trees that re-sprout after periodic fires. Occurs where winters are mild and wet and summers hot and dry. Mediterranean climates
Term
 Temperature grasslands
Definition
 Biome dominated by grasses and other nonwoody plants; common in interiors of continents with warm summers, cool winters, recurring fires, and 25–100 centimeters of rain. Not to hot; Not to cold. Grows where winters are cold, summers are warm, and rainfall is moderate
Term
 Temperate deciduous forests
Definition
 lose leaves in winter. Grow at middle latitudes with abundant rainfall. Summer green
Term
 Evergreen coniferous forests
Definition
 Biome between latitudes 10º north and south of the equator with rainfall averages of 130 to 200 centimeters each year; tropical rain forest. boreal forest (Taiga). Doesn't lose leaves during winter
Term
 Tundra
Definition
 Northmost biome; plants grow in shallow topsoil over a layer of permafrost. Brief growing season; winter winds cause tundra plants to be very short. Soil is frozen. Likens dominate plants-fungi
Term
 Aquatic biomes
Definition
 Fresh water-->streams, rivers, lakesOcean-->estuaries, coastal, open ocean
Term
 Lakes
Definition
 bodies of standing water that accumulate in basins. Fed by rainfall and streams and rivers that drain surrounding watersheds
Term
 Littoral Zone
Definition
 extends around the shore to a debt where rooted aquatic plants stop growing
Term
 Limnetic zone
Definition
 is the open waters where light penetrates and photosynthesis occurs
Term
 Profundal Zone
Definition
 below that lies that cool, dark profundal zone, where derital food chains predominate
Term
 Ecosystem Ecology
Definition
 An association of organisms and their physical environment, interconnected by on going flow of energy and a cycling of materials. Explores the movement of energy and nutrients through organisms and their physical environment
Term
 Who's in an ecosystem
Definition
 -primary producers-consumers-detritovers and decomposers
Term
 Primary producers
Definition
 are the autotrophs that convert energy from an abiotic source to a biotic one
Term
 Consumers
Definition
 Heterotroph that gets energy and carbon by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms.
Term
 Decomposers
Definition
 One of the prokaryotic or fungal heterotrophs that obtains carbon and energy by breaking down wastes or remains of organisms.
Term
 Energy
Definition
 moves through an ecosystem in a one-way flow originating in the sun and ultimately ending up as heatIt flows through various trophic levels in a chain of organisms eating each other, a food chain
Term
 Trophic Levels
Definition
 1.describes how many levels an organisms is away from the energy source 2.All organisms at the same level are the same # of steps away -Producers are the first trophic level
Term
 different kinds of food chain
Definition
 -Grazing-Detrital
Term
 Energy losses
Definition
 -Transfer of energy b/w trophic levels is never 100%-Some energy is always lost-This limits the length of food chains-How much energy is transferred b/w trophic levels? Depends, but a 10% transfer of energy is a good rule of thumb
Term
 How much energy comes into a system?
Definition
 The Sun is the source for almost all the earth's energy.Every minute, the earth absorbs 19kcal/m2A small percentage 1% is converted to chemical energy via photosynthesis
Term
 This is primary productivity
Definition
 -gross (total energy converted)-net (total energy minus energy used for respiration)
Term
 DDT in high order carnivores
Definition
 -extremely high in high-order carnivores due to biological magnification-led to rapid decline of many bird species
Term
 Biological Magnification
Definition
 a nonegradable or slowly degradable substance becomes more and more concentrated in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels a food web
Term
 Biogeochemical cycles
Definition
 Slow movement of an element from environmental reservoirs, through food webs, then back
Term
 Water cycle
Definition
 The process by which water moves among ocean, the atmosphere, and freshwater reservoirs.
Term
 Carbon cycle
Definition
 Atmospheric cycle. Carbon moves from its environmental reservoirs (sediments, rocks, the ocean), through the atmosphere (mostly as CO2), food webs, and back to the reservoirs.
Term
 The greenhouse effect
Definition
 without it, earth's surface would be so cold that very little life would survive
Term
 Nitrogen cycle
Definition
 An atmospheric cycle. Nitrogen moves from its largest reservoir (the atmosphere), then through the ocean, ocean sediments, soils, and food webs, then back to the atmosphere.
Term
 Phosphorous Cycle
Definition
 A sedimentary cycle. Phosphorus (mainly phosphate) moves from land, through food webs, to ocean sediments, then back to land.
Term
 Eutrophication
Definition
 refers to nutrient enrichment of any ecosystem that is otherwise low nutrients
Term
 Behavioral Energy
Definition
 -studies the behavioral interactions between individuals-involves the response of an organism to stimuli
Term
 Fixed action patterns
Definition
 are a series of instinctive movements that are genetically programmed
Term
 Learned Behaviors
Definition
 Enduring modification of a behavior as an outcome of experience in the environment.
Term
 Imprinting
Definition
 A form of learning triggered by exposure to sign stimuli; time-dependent, usually occurs during a sensitive period while an animal is young.
Term
 Classical conditioning
Definition
 an animal's involuntary response to a stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus that is presented @ the same time.
Term
 Operant Conditioning
Definition
 rat presses level for food but when shocked it will avoid lever
Term
 Habituation
Definition
 an animal learns by experience not to respond to a stimulus that neither positive or negative effects. Ex. pigeon in city doesn't flee when humans walk by them
Term
 Observational learning
Definition
 One animal acquires a new behavior by observing and imitating behavior of another.
Term
 Problem solving
Definition
 bird breading nut on street when cars run over them
Term
 Natural selection favors
Definition
 behavior that promotes propagation of an individual's genes
Term
 Sexual selection
Definition
 Mode of natural selection in which some individuals out-reproduce others of a population because they are better at securing mates.
Term
 Male reproductive strategies
Definition
 -produce energetically inexpensive sperm-often prove no parental care-often maximize reproductive success by mating with as many females as possible
Term
 Female reproductive strategies
Definition
 -produce large, energetically expensive eggs-often provide parental care-often increase reproductive success by increasing the quality of their mate
Term
 consequence of different reproductive strategies
Definition
 -choosy females-males compete for females-try to attract mates with gifts
Term
 group defenses
Definition
 ring the alarm to warn others of predators
Term
 selfish herd-individuals
Definition
 Animal group that forms when individuals each attempt to hide in the midst of others.
Term
 cooperative hunting
Definition
 all hunt at the same time
Term
 cooperative child-rearing
Definition
 take care of children
Term
 Altrusists
Definition
 pass on genes indirectly by helping relatives who have copies of those genes to survive and reproduce
Term
 K-selection
Definition
 Selection for traits that make offspring better competitors; occurs in a population near carrying capacity
Term
 r-selection
Definition
 selection that favors traits that maximize number of offspring; operates when the population is well below its carrying capacity
Term
 Biotic potential
Definition
 The maximum rate of increase per individual for a population growing under ideal conditions
Term
 capture-recapture method
Definition
 Individuals of a mobile species are captured (or selected) at random, marked, then released so they can mix with unmarked individuals.  One or more samples are taken.  The ratio of marked to unmarked individuals is used to estimate total population size
Term
 Cohort
Definition
 a group of individuals of the same age
Term
 density-dependent factor
Definition
 a factor that slows population growth, and either appears or worsens with crowding; disease, competition for food
Term
 density-independent factor
Definition
 a factor that slows population growth; its likelihood of occurring and magnitude of effect does not vary with population density
Term
 doubling time
Definition
 the time it takes for a population to double in size
Term
 emigration
Definition
 permanent move of one or more individuals out of a population
Term
 immigration
Definition
 one or more individuals move and take up residence in another population of its species
Term
Definition
 One of a number of sampling areas of the same size and shape used to estimate population size
Term
 Biogeography
Definition
 study of patterns in the geographic distribution of species and communities
Term
 Character displacement
Definition
 modifications of a trait of one species in a way that lowers intensity of competition with another species; occurs over generation
Term
 Competitive exclusion
Definition
 when two species require the same limited resource to survive or reproduce, the better competitor will drive the less competitive one to extinction in the shared habitat
Term
 Exotic species
Definition
 species that has become established in a new community after dispersing from its home range
Term
 Resource partitioning
Definition

Use of different parts of a resource; permits two or more similar species to coexist in a habitat

 reduces interspecific competition
Term
 Ammonification
Definition
 Process by which bacteria and fungi break down nitrogen-containing organic material and release ammonia and ammonium ions
Term
 Denitrification
Definition
 Conversion of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen (N2) or nitrogen oxide (NO2) by soil bacteria.
Term
 detrital food chain
Definition
 Food chain in which energy flows from producers to detritivores and decomposes (rather than herbivores).
Term
 grazing food chain
Definition
 Food chain in which energy flows from producers to herbivores.
Term
 Aquifer
Definition
 Permeable rock layers that hold water.
Term
 El Niño
Definition
 Eastward displacement of warm surface waters of the western equatorial Pacific. Recurs, alters global climates.
Term
 biodiversity
Definition
 Variety of forms of life, in terms of genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
Term
 desertification
Definition
 Conversion of grassland or irrigated or rain-fed cropland to desert like conditions.
Term
 altruistic behavior
Definition
 Social behavior that can lower an individual’s reproductive success but improve that of others.
Term
 instinctive behavior
Definition
 Behavior performed without having first been learned.
Term
 sexual reproduction
Definition
 Production of genetically variable offspring by gamete formation and fertilization.
Term
 theory of inclusive fitness
Definition
 The idea that genes associated with altruism are adaptive if they cause behavior that promotes if they cause behavior that promotes the reproductive success of an altruist’s closest relatives.
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