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Bio 305
Exam 2
Undergraduate 3

Additional Biology Flashcards





A visible clone of cells.


The union of two bacterial cells during which chromosomal material is transferred from the donor to the recipient cell.


Plasmid that is integrated into a genome via recombination.










A fertility factor into which part of the bacterial chromosome has been incorporated.


A bacterial episome whose presence confers donor ability (maleness).


In E.coli, a cell having its fertility factor integrated into the bacterial chromosome; a donor (male) cell.


F' plasmid or F' factor


Fertility Factor


High frequency of recombination cell (Hfr cell)


Any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being its offspring.


 The process of producing modified DNA in a test tube and reintroducing that DNA into host organisms.


A technique used to map bacterial genes by determining the sequence in which donor genes enter recipient cells.


Horizontal gene transfer


Genetic engineering


Interrupted mating


A partially diploid cell formed from a complete chromosome (the endogenote) plus a fragment (the exogenote).


A phage 'chromosome' inserted as part of the linear structure of the DNA chromosome of a bacterium.


A strain of organisms that will proliferate on minimal medium.








A mode of replication used by some circular DNA molecules in bacteria (such as plasmids) in which the circle seems to rotate as it reels out one continuous leading strand.


The general process of introducing non-native DNA from the environment into a bacterial cell.




Rolling circle replication




True/False: In order for a cell's genotype to be altered by linear DNA introduced via transformation, conjugation, or transduction, the DNA must be recombined into the recipient cell's genome.


Are plasmids part of the bacterial chromosome or 'genome'?


True/False: in matings with F+ cells, transfer of F factor happens much less frequently than transfer of genomic material.




No - plasmids are NOT part of the bacterial chromosome or 'genome.'


False...In matings wiht F+ cells, transfer of F factor happens much MORE frequently than transfer of genomic material.


Two main differences b/w F+ and Hfr strains.


What is the last thing to enter in Hfr conjugation?


What is must occur for an Hfr cell to transform an F- recipient into a F+ cell?


1.1000X more recombinants than normal F+

2.Hfr strains seldom convert F- to F+ or Hfr


The fertility factor is the last to enter.


The Hfr cell must transfer its entire genome in order to make a recipient F+.


Viruses are composed solely of...


Approximately, how many genes do plant and animal viruses contain? How many do bacterial viruses have?


Viruses that infect bactera.


Viruses are composed solely of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) and a protein coat.


Most plant and animal viruses have less than 10 genes. Viruses that infect bacteria have 10-100 genes.




Virulant phages have what kind of life cycle?

What kind of life cycle do temperate phages have?


Viral DNA that is integrated into the bacterial genome.


True/False: Cells carrying a prophage are generally resistant to infection by the same phage genotype, but not to different genotypes of the same virus.


Virulant phages have a lytic life cycle.

Temperate phages have a lysogenic life cycle.






The movement of 2 genes by the same virus.


What are the 2 types of transduction?


What kind of testing allows you to determine whether 2 independently isolated mutants w/ similar recessive phenotypes are caused by mutations in the same or in different genes?




Generalized Transduction= virus shatters host's genome and virus "accidently" packages a random fragment of the host's DNA (1/1,000,000)

Specialized Transduction= when prophage consistantly integrates into the genome at a particular site and imprecisely moves out with some bacterial DNA.


Complementation testing


Complementation tests can only be used to test...


The use of a set of known deletions to map new recessive mutations as pseudodominance.


Recombination within a gene.


recessive mutations


Deletion mapping


Intragenic recombination


The content released from a lysed cell.


The ration of infections agents to infectious targets.


The production of recombinant phage genotypes as a result of doubly infecting a bacterial cell with different "parental" page genotyes.




Multiplicity of Infection (MOI)


Phage Recombination


A clear area on a bacterial lawn, left by lysis of the bacteria through progressive infections by a phage and its descendents.


A phage "chromosome" inserted as part of the linear structure of the DNA chromosome of a bacterium.


The situation in which a particular phage will transduce only specific regions of the bacterial chromosome.






Specialized (restricted) Transduction


A phage that can become a prophage.


A phage that cannot become a prophage; infection by such a phage always leads to lysis of the host cell.


A particle consisting of nucleic acid and protein that must infect a living cell to replicate and reproduce.


Temperate Phage


Virulent Phage




A technique in which an intermediate in a metabolic pathway builds up due to selective inhibition of a particular step in the pathway - intermediate is then isolated and identified.


The set of known alleles of one gene.


The sequence of enzymatic steps in the synthesis of a specific end product in a living organism.


Accumulation Analysis


Allelic Series or Multiple Alleles


Biosynthetic Pathway


A situation in which a heterozygote shows the phenotypic effects of both alelles equally.


The production of a whildtype phenotype when two different mutations are combined in a diploid or heterokaryon.


A mutation that has the wildtype phenotype under certain (permissive) environmental conditions and a mutant phenotype under other (restrictive) conditions.






Conditional Mutation


A mutant allele that in single dose (a heterozygote) wipes out gene function by a poiler effect on the protein.


Genotype with mutant alleles of two different genes.


A mutation that exerts it expression while canceling the expression of the alleles of another gene.


Dominant Negative


Double Mutant




A culture of cells composed of two different nuclear types in a common cytoplasm.


Enzyme that requires more than one protein (polypeptide) for a single enzymatic function.


Induction and recovery of large numbers of mutations in one area of a genome in the hope of identifying all the genes in that area




Multimeric Enzyme


Saturation Mutagenesis


A series of sequential events that pass a signal received by a transmembrane receptor through a series of intermediate molecules until final regulatory molecules are modified in response to the signal.


Mutations that alter a gene's activity by affecting the function of the protein it encodes.


The production of a phenotype closer to wildtype by the addition of another mutation to a phenotypically abnormal genotype.


Singal Transduction Pathway


Structural Mutation




The genotype distribution in offspring depends on ____ not their ____.


A locus is polymorphic if the frequency of the most common allele is ... 


Random sampling causes a phenomenon called...


The genotype distribution in offspring depends on the mating practices of parents, not their distribution of genotypes.


A locus is polymorphic if the frequency of the most common allele is below 0.95.


Genetic Drift


In the population genetic sense, migration requires that ....


True/False: Genetic exchanges neither create or remove variation.


True/False: Natural selection create variation.


In the population genetic sense, migration requires that the total population is divided into local groups and that individuals who individuals who migrate reproduce in their group.




FALSE...Natural selection does NOT create variation.


The elimination of a deletrious trait from a population by natural selection.


What is the null hypothesis for testing whether genotype frequencies match the Hardy-Weinberg expectation?


When do you accept the null hypothesis, and when do you reject it? What does it mean?


Negative Selection


Deviations between observed and expected values are no greater than that which would occur from the sampling process alone.


You reject the null hypothesis when the p-value<0.05. This means that the observed values deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Accept the null hypothesis when the p-value>0.05.


A chromosomal locus at which a particular repetitive sequence is present in different numbers in different individuals or in the two different homologs in one diploid individual.


A nucleotide-pair difference at a given location in the genomes of two or more naturally occurring individuals.


A genetic class described by a sequence of DNA or of genes that are together on the same physical chromosome.


Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR)


Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)



The situation in which sexually reproducing organisms tend to mate with organisms more like themselves.

The situation in which sexually reproducing organisms tend to mate with organisms less like themselves.


Natural selection that results in a stable intermediate equilibrium of allele frequencies.


An array of genotypic or phenotypic frequencies in a population that remain constant over time.


Possitive Assortive Mating

Negative Assortive Mating


 Balancing Selection


Equilibrium Distribution


A random difference from the parental population in a frequency of a genotype in a new colony that results from a small number of founders.


The change in frequency of an allele in a population resulting from chance differences in the actual numbers of offspring of different genotypes produced by different individual members.


A measure of the genetic variation of a population; with respect to one locus, stated as the frequency of heterozygotes for that locus.


Founder Effect


Genetic Drift




The differential rate of reproduction of different types in a population as the result of different physiological, anatomical, or behavioral characteristics of the types.


The elimination of a deleterious trait from a population by natural selection.


The occurrence in a population (or among populations) of several phenotypic forms associated with allels of one gene or homologs of one chromosome.


Natural Selection


Negative Selection




Force that increases the prevelance of advantageous traits.


Situation in which a beneficial mutation occurs in a population and then spreads througout the population.


A sequenced gene of previously unknown function that, because of its chromosomal position or some other property, becomes a candidate for a particular function such as disease determination.


Positive Selection


Selective Sweep


Candidate Gene


The tendency for one variable to vary in proportion to another variable, either positively or negatively.


Phenotypic similarity between different groups because the groups have inherited the same genes.


The phenotypic variance associated with the average difference in phenotype among different genotypes.




Genetic Correlation


Genetic Variance

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