Shared Flashcard Set


Biblical Perspectives
Exam #2
Religious Studies
Undergraduate 3

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards




332 BCE
Alexander "The Great" takes control of Palestine
167 BCE
Repression of Antiochus IV "Ephiphanes"; Maccabean revolt
63 BCE
Pompey takes Jerusalem; Palestine becomes part of the Roman Empire
birth of Jesus
death of Herod "The Great"
30-33 CE
Crucifixion of Jesus
33-35 CE
Conversion of Saul of Tarsus
50-64 CE
Paul's letters written
70 CE
Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of Second Temple by the Romans
70-90 CE
Gospels written
90 CE
Paul's letters collected and circulated
95-100 CE
the book of Revelation written
The names of 2 Greek philosophers and how their thoughts influenced New Testament thinkers

Socrates and Plato.

Socrates: focused on ethical questions, mental disciplines that lead to the "good life"; ongoing quest for truth; Socrates & Jesus had similar careers: both followed a divine calling, advocated cultivating spiritual values & eschewing the usual goals of a materialistic culture, & paid the supreme penalty (death) for voicing ideas that leaders of their respective communities deemed subversive

Plato: immorality of the soul & the effects that decisions made in this life can have on posthumous rewards & punishments; dualistic view of reality (one world made of the physical environment of matter & sense impressions; the other world of perfect, eternal ideas)--our bodies are subjected to change, decay, & death; whereas our souls return to the unseen spirit world after death for posthumous judgment; the author of Hebrews illustrates parallels between the spiritual & physical worlds and the definition of faith corresponds with Plato's concept of the reality of the invisible realm

Synoptic problem
the scholarly term for the question of relationship (the nature of literary interdependence) of the first three Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke; most scholars believe that Matthew and Luke are expanded editions of Mark (meaning that Mark was written first)
Two Source Hypothesis

-Mark: written first

-Matthew & Luke written later

-Matthew & Luke use Mark as a source independently

-Mark & Matthew don't always put pericopes in the same order

-Mark & Luke don't always put pericopes in the same order

-However, Matthew & Luke share a lot of material (teaching material--the double tradition) that is not found in Mark

-because of this issue, scholars say both Matthew & Luke must have had another source that they both used independently in addition to Mark ("Q" source)

-Q supposedly had Jesus' teachings, but not much narrative

-strengths of Two Source Hypothesis: explains things that lead us to the basic Gospel of Mark that Matthew & Luke improve on (Mark had less refined Greek, etc.); the curiosities of Mark do not have to be accounted for

-Problems of Two Source Hypothesis: Mark may have written both Matthew & Luke; minor agreements (same info or leave out same info in Matthew & Luke)--occur over 1,000 times

*Most significant minor agreements:

1) teaching of John the Baptist

2) content of the testing in the wilderness

Griesbach Hypothesis

-Matthew wrote earliest Gospel

-Luke wrote his second

-Mark wrote his last

-Mark had access to both Matthew & Luke when writing his Gospel

-Strengths of Griesbach Hypothesis: solves minor agreements problem, order of pericopes, simpler (no hypothetical source), conflation

Problems with Griesbach Hypothesis:

-Why would Mark leave out the virgin conception/birth?

-Mark writes in less refined Greek than the other two

-Mark breaks up blocks of teaching material

-Mark leaves out resurrection appearances

-Matthew and Mark are longer than Luke

Non-Canonical (Extra-Canonical) Gospels

-Gospels that aren't in the Bible

-People write them because:

-different theological approaches/perspectives

-things in earlier Gospels don't follow what they

want to say (so they add, edit, delete things, etc.)

-author (theology, Christology, soteriology- salvation)

-audience writing to


1) Gospel of the Nazareans

2) Gospel of the Ebionites

3) Marcion's Gospel

4) Gospel of Peter

5) Gospel of Thomas

Gospel of the Nazareans

-Written to Jewish followers of Jesus

-No longer exists (only know about it from ancient texts)

-Written in Aramaic or Hebrew (unusual because all canonical gospels were written in Greek)

-Written in Palestine

-1st century CE

-May have been a translation of Matthew back into language of Jesus (Aramaic)

-No infancy narrative (demonstrates Christian community thinks of Jesus as Son of God/Messiah etc. without virginal conception, like in Gospel of Mark)

Gospel of the Ebionites

-Now lost (mentioned by ancient Christian authors)

-Written to Jewish believers who spoke Greek and leaved east of the Jordan River

-Written in Greek

-2nd or 3rd century CE

-One homogeneous account of Jesus' life like 3 Synoptic Gospels (got rid of the differences between the 3 Synoptic Gospels--similar to the Diatesseran which homogenizes all 4 Gospels in Bible)

-In this Gospel, Jesus instructs Jews to become vegetarians

Marcion's Gospel

-In 140, Marcion begins preaching his gospel in Rome

-Marcion said the creator of the world is a wicked, deceitful god (which is the god of the Jews; he thought Jews were also wicked)

-He said Jesus was sent from the one supreme God

-Said Jesus had a pure spirit; only appears to have a body and appears to die on the cross (docetism)

-Marcion doesn't follow the Scriptures of the Jews

-Only follows Luke & some of Paul's letters (has to

remove references of Old Testament in Luke etc.)

Gospel of Peter

-We used to not have it, but it was found in 1886

-Only found part of the Gospel

-Herod alone is responsible for killing Jesus (strong anti-Jewish polemic)

-While on the cross, Jesus said, "Oh my power, my power, you have left me." (Jesus was then taken up, but body was left on the cross--similar to gnosticism)

-Shows us the resurrection (2 figures descend from heaven and go to tomb; soldiers guarding tomb collapse; figures enter tomb; between them is a third figure; behind the figures, there is a cross; the cross speaks--the cross says he preached to those who are asleep--usually means those who are dead)

-Preserves earliest traditions of Jesus

Gospel of Thomas

-Not widely read (possibly just in Egypt)

-Discovered in Nag Hammad, Egypt in 1949

-"Sayings Gospel" (Jesus talks a lot and is filled with his sayings; sayings were transmitted while he was alive to Didymus Thomas Judas)

-Didymus Thomas Judas was commanded to tell

other people about the sayings

-Sayings = salvific (salvation)

-2nd/3rd century CE document

-May preserve some of Jesus' sayings in Matthew & Luke (maybe similar to a "Q" source in Two Source Hypothesis--double tradition)

Why the title "Acts of the Apostles" is prolematic

*Where are the Apostles?

-Not major characters in the book

-Only hear about 4 of them primarily (beginning of ch. 8-Paul; ch. 15-no more Peter; in ch. 8 Philip is important--preaches gospel in Samaria & to an Ethiopian, but after this he drops out of narrative; James the brother of John is executed by Herod in ch. 14)

-by ch. 15, no more apostles in narrative at all

*New Characters:

-New & important

-Stephen: person nominated to take care of widows (ch. 7 is devoted to him and his speech at his trial--boldly proclaims what God does through Jesus--he is stoned to death by angry mob) *first person to die for this

-Barnabus: missionary; boldly proclaims gospel in Asia Minor

-Silas: missionary in Asia Minor, Macedonia, & Greece

-James (Jesus' brother): peripheral character in Gospel of Luke; writes letters to churches saying that Gentiles should abstain from certain things--Gentiles that don't follow Torah should follow Jesus; the purpose of the letters was to show Jewish & Gentiles how to get along)

-Paul (at first called Saul): Saul--approved a murder; becomes a follower of Jesus (then called Paul); in ch. 13 goes on missionary journeys, after ch. 15, he is the only character the narrative follows

-Judas betrays Jesus and commits suicide; so then there are only 11 apostles left

-New apostle that replaces Judas is Matthias (followed Jesus while he was alive and was close to him)

-Most important character of Acts of the Apostles:

-Holy Spirit (comes to the apostles; takes a hand

in the spreading of the gospel; physically moves

Philip, etc.)

Gospel of Matthew

A. Important early

-When quoting gospels, it was often Matthew

B. Defining characteristics

1. Groupings

-3, 5, 7, 9, 10

-Parables, Beatitudes

2. Community Instruction

-Writing with a community in mind (Lord's Prayer,

guidelines about how to pray)

-Uses the word "church"

(#'s 1 & 2: strong didactic quality)

3. Use of scripture

-Old Testament (Hebrew Bible)

-quote scripture & introduce it with formula

citations (language that introduces the


-Matthew 1:23, 2:5, 2:13, 2:17, 3:3

-total of 13-14 formula citations

in Matthew

4. "Jewish?"

-Writing to Jewish people

-Formula citations

-Scripture speaks to their situation (take them out

of context so it applies to them)

-Strongest anti-Jewish polemic (attack on Jewish


-Pilot kills Jesus

-Building the fence around the Torah: follow

Torah & take it a step further by not even coming

close to sins laid out in Torah

-How to enter Kingdom of Heaven: by being a

follower of Jesus (non-Jewish idea)

5. Organization

-Matthew uses a lot of Mark (about 90%) & adds

stuff (Two Source Hypothesis)


-Mark is using Matthew & not adding much of his

own material (Griesbach Hypothesis)

-5 discourses/units:

1. Sermon on the Mount

2. Infancy narrative (also in Luke)

-but distinctive from Luke's because it is very dark

-Ex.: Joseph was planning on quietly

leaving Mary when she got pregnant

-Ex.: Herod ordered the killing of all infant

males under the age of 2 just b/c of Jesus

(mirrors the Pentateuch: baby Moses- in

Egypt babies killed by Pharaoh)

C. Vision of Jesus

1. Lord of the church

-Like a Moses (but superior)


-From lineage of Abraham (father of the faith) &

David (great king)

2. Messianic Teacher

-New idea

-His teachings are key to get to Heaven

3. Paradox

-Jesus said he came to fulfill commandments but

he ends up saying to follow him instead of Torah

Gospel of Luke

A. Two-volume work

-Luke & Acts are meant to go together

-Acts picks up after resurrection of Jesus

B. Defining characteristics

1. Direct Address

-To his audience directly & shows his purpose of


-"Theophilus": means "lover of God"; maybe a

person or group of people (name never used

before Luke)

2. Organization

-About 80% of Mark's material (but large chunk

of Mark's is missing = The Great Omission-->

Mark 6: 45-8:26)

-Travel narrative (Jesus turning south to

Jerusalem)--longer than in other gospels

3. Infancy narrative

-doesn't have the same agreement within the


-Celebrative, joyful discussion of the birth of Jesus

-Break into song (when Mary finds out she will

bear the Messiah)

-Angels sing (redemption of Israel)

4. Long story parables

-Prodigal son

-Lazarus & the rich man

5. Three questions

1) When will the Son of Man (Jesus) come?

-First time & Delay of the Parolysia (second

coming)--Jesus will come again in future

2) Why must God's Messiah suffer?

-God's servant will suffer (applies to Jesus-

not just Israel)

3) Who are God's people?

-Follow Jesus = Gentiles

-Led by new leaders

C. Theology

1. Kingdom of God

-Jesus has come & the Kingdom of God is

now (but there is a future aspect too)

-present & future

2. Discipleship & wealth

-Care for the poor/sell things they have

-Sharing all things in common

-Followers of Jesus

-Discipleship--> connection to getting rid of


*3 Divisions of Time in Luke

1. Law & the prophets

2. Coming of Jesus & his adult ministry

3. Jesus forward into the church stretches into

indefinite future


Gospel of Mark

-Shortest gospel

A. Distinguishing characteristics

1. Language

-Colloquial language (less refined Greek)

2. No infancy narrative (or miraculous


-Doesn't mention it at all

-Only gospel that doesn't have one

3. Resurrection appearances

-No evidence of this

-The women don't go tell people Jesus had risen

like they were told to

4. Christology: discourse about Christ

Bases his Christology on:

-What Jesus does:

1. Teaches/preaches (teacher of great


2. Wonder worker/miracles (heals people,

casts out demons-exorcist, nature miracles--

miracles don't lead to faith, instead usually

a negative reaction from people--Jesus will respond to faith or lack of faith; because

people have faith, they are healed by Jesus

-Who Jesus is:

-Messiah (who is a king)

-God's annointed One

-Son of David

-Son of God (God declares this in Mark 1:11

to Jesus)

-Son of Man (Jesus refers to himself as this;

doesn't mean Jesus is fully human though)

-Uses Son of Man to refer to these 3


1. Authority on earth

2. Impending death & resurrection

3. Return

5. Jesus' identity & discipleship

-Readers are informed Jesus is Son of God

(demons even know this is true)

-Readers are elevated to level of demons

-Jesus asks people to follow him

-Can know exactly who God is & act exactly like


6. Deep mystery of Jesus

-Jesus is portrayed as being reluctant that people

know who he is (because them knowing him

may not help)

7. Mark's call to his readers

-Has a point/purpose

-Are you going to follow Jesus? (Will you

tell about Jesus?)

-Difficult road for the followers of Jesus

(or acknowledging some people are already

on that difficult road b/c they are followers)

Gospel of John

A. Paired with Matthew early on

B. What it shares with synoptic gospels?

-Broad outline:

1. Ministry of John the Baptist

2. Narration of Jesus' ministry

3. Disagreement/tension with Jewish leaders

4. Entering into Jerusalem; Jesus crucified &

narrative of it

C. Distinctive characteristics

1. Difficult to talk about parables

-Jesus doesn't speak in parables

*Speaks in long, rambling discourses (repeats

himself often)

2. No exorcisms

3. Miracles are called "signs" (supposed to

indicate something) & these "signs" lead to faith

(see the sign, believe as a result, & believe

Jesus is the Son who reveals the Father)

4. Structure (distinctive)

-Jesus goes to Jerusalem 3-4 times (in other

gospels, goes just 1 time to die)

-Jesus' ministry lasts 3 years (3 Passovers)

-Moves cleansing of temple to beginning of Jesus'


5. Vocabulary & style

-Limited vocabulary (repeated discourse)

-Simple grammatical/syntactical sentences (but

does NOT have a simple message)

-Highly figurative vocab & style

6. Jesus talks about himself a lot

7. Special relationship with God (his divinity)

8. Dualism

-Light vs. dark

-In the world vs. not of the world (sets up

distinction between belief & lack of faith)

9. Open-ended

-B/c of highly figurative discourse of Jesus

("I am the vine"; "I am the living water", etc.)

Format of the Pauline Letters

I. Begin with Salutation

A. Identification of sender(s)

-Just Paul

-Paul & somebody else

B. Identifies recipient(s)

C. Blessing ("Grace to you and peace...")

II. Thanksgiving/prayer (after salutation)


-Preface to topics in rest of letter (serves purpose

behind thanking God & the people)

III. Closing

A. Final greetings (usually by name)

B. Peace blessing

C. Autograph (not one writing the letter)

-clear the letters have been written by an

amanuensis (person who writes letters etc.)

Ex.: Romans 16:22 (Tertius)

But in Galatians 6:11, appears that Paul writes it without amanuensis

Grecco-Roman Conventions (Hellenistic Letter Form)

I. Salutation

A. Identify sender

B. Identify recipient

[succinct: "From A to B, greetings"]

II. Brief Prayer (to the gods)

III. Closing

A. Final greeting

B. Farewell

How Paul uses term "faith" when talking about justification

"Faith of Christ" = ambiguous

-Who has faith?

-People have faith directed toward God

-Christ has faith

-In context of Galatians, phrase is still ambiguous

-If it's Christ who has faith, how does justfication


-Faithfulness of Christ

-Christ was faithful, so we are justified/made


-death on the cross = justification for us

-Philippians 2:6-11: "Christ is obedient unto death"

-Romans 5:18-19: Through "one man's obedience, we are made righteous"

*fits in with Paul's theology

*problem: still ambiguous WHO has faith (have only said what faith is)

-when we have faith, we believe something

-faith = primarily obedience

-maybe Paul was deliberately ambiguous

Characteristics of Apocalyptic Literature

-Record of a vision given by a divine being to a human being (seer):

1. Visions of heavenly realm

2. Visions that haven't yet taken place (but will take place SOON)

Example from New Testament: Relevation

-Writer = John

-"Soon" used frequently in Relevation

-Genre: letter

-Heavy use of symbolism (white as wool, sword, fire, etc.)


"After this I looked, and there in heaven a door stood open! And the first voice, which I had heard speaking to me like a trumpet, said, 'Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.'"

Which book of the Bible does this verse come from?



"What then are we to say was gained by Abraham, our ancestor according to the flesh?  For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God.  For what does the scripture say?  'Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness.'"

"Was not your ancestor Abraham justified by works when he offered his son Isaac on the altar?  You see that faith was active along with his works, and faith was brought to completion by the works.  Thus the scripture was fulfilled that says, 'Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness,' and he called a friend of God."


What book of the Bible are these verses from?


"By faith Abraham, when put to the test, offered up Isaac.  He who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son, of whom he had been told, 'it is through Isaac that descendants shall be named for you.'"


What book of the Bible are these verses found in?

Do we possess all of Paul's letters?
No; we know this because Paul references other letters in the ones we do have (probably 2 letters that are missing which are both addressed to Corinthians)
The name of the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible that was used by the earliest Christians
Which New Testament text is heavily influenced by a Platonic world view and argues that Christ is superior to Judaism based, in part, on arguments employing Platonic categories?
In which epistle (letter) Paul writes concerning the fate of a slave named Onesimus?
Philemon (one of the disputed Pauline letters)
The person for whom the so-called "number of the beast" probably stands (either 666 or 616, depending on which ancient copy of Revelation one reads).
The Roman Empire or specifically one of the Roman emperors--maybe Nero (in Aramaic 666 corresponds with "Nero Caesar"), who was the first emperor to persecute Christians OR 616 = Emperor Caligula's name
The significance of the Egnation Way

Major trading route that connected Rome with all of the East--were able to move goods & armies across this route

Herod "The Great"

A. Herod the "builder"

1. Palaces (for himself--all over the region)

-For pleasure

-Also functioned as fortresses (he was

always paranoid of being attacked)

2. Caesarea

-built new city with palaces to worship

Roman gods

3. Jerusalem Temple

-no temples to other gods (Roman, etc.)

in Jerusalem, no brothels, etc.

-out of respect to Jews

B. Herod was very cruel

-Tried & executed first wife

-Killed mother-in-law

-Drowned brother-in-law in a pool

-Killed brother-in-law of one of his sisters

-Killed 3 of his sons

-Killed infants 2 years & younger

Why Paul is sometimes called "the second founder of Christianity"

1. Paul is significant in turning people (followers of Jesus) away from following Torah (righteousness)

2. Focus on the individual (not completely focused on it; but more so than previous books in Bible)

3. First systematic thinker (Paul teaches something different than Jesus did; Jesus doesn't talk about himself much--talks about Kingdom of God; Paul talks about significance of Jesus--his life, death, & resurrection)

Acropolis of Corinth (temples on top of it). Acropolis (raised part of the city--> temples to the gods). "upper city"
person who writes letters etc. 1) Penmanship 2) fix grammatical problems 3) rhetorician (skills)
The ultimate enemy of Jesus Christ, who, according to Christian apocalyptic traditions, will manifest himself at the end of time to corrupt many of the faithful, only to be vanquished when Christ appears. The term is used only in 2 and 3 John but is clearly referred to in 2 Thessalonians (2:1-12) and revalation 13.
From the Greek apokalypsis, meaing to "uncover or reveal", the term refers to a special kind of prophetic literature that purports to foretell the futre in terms of symbols and mystical visions and deals primarily with eschatological events.
The Greek god of Medicine, he was the son of a mortal woman, Coronis, and Apollo, god of prophecy, health, purification, and the creative arts. As the archetypal physician whose skill could even raise the dead, he was posthumously deified and allgedly effected miraculous cures at shrines throughout the Greco-Roman world.
Catholic epistles
A term referring to seven short New Testament documents, most of which were addresed to no specific person or church and therefore were intedned for catholic ('"universal") use.

-Important city to the Greeks & Romans

-Located near Athens (& rivaled Athens for its culture)


-Known for its decadance/luxury

-in 146 BCE, Romans burn the city down (sell women/children into slavery & kill all the men)

-Julius Caesar rebuilds Corinth as a Roman Colony in 44 BCE

-Paul & company arrive in Corinth in 50-51 BCE (confirmed through Gallio Inscription)

-Paul writes letters to church at Corinth (1 & 2 Corinthians; but he wrote more than 2 letters to them)

method of execution where condemed person is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until death.
Disputed Pauline Epistles (Letters)

Why are they disputed?

-Some letters use different vocabulary than Paul typically uses

-Some are in different style (length of sentences etc.)

-Ideas (some that Paul doesn't talk about in the undisputed letters or ideas talked about in a different way)

-Concerns about church order

-Disputed letters: seems concerned for

the maintenance of hierarchy of church

6 Disputed Pauline Letters:

-2 Thessalonians



-1 Timothy

-2 Timothy


(1 & 2 Timothy & Titus = pastoral letters)


Problem of method (can't determine authenticity of Paul's letters)

1. Undisputed Pauline letters are  not homogeneous (vocab, style, concerns about church order, etc.)

-Neither are disputed Pauline letters

2. Amount of questions begging that goes on

-Fallacious argument

-Present data in a way that conclusion is

already reached

3. Sometimes the data is presented wrong

*Possiblity disputed letters were written under the pseudonym "Paul" (perhaps to pay homage or could be without authorization of Paul)

From the Greek, meaning a "study of last things," escatology is a doctrine or theological concept about the ultimate destiny of humanity and the universe. Having both a personal and a general application, it can refer to (1)beliefs about the individual soul following death, including divine judgment, heaven, hell, and resurrection; or (2) larger concerns about the fate of the cosmos, such as events leading to the Day of Yahweh, the final battle between supernatural good and evil, judgement of the nations, and the establishment of the deity's universal sovereignty. In Christian terms, it evolvs the Parousia (return of Christ), the chaining of Satan, introuduction of the millennium, and so on. Apocalyptic works like Daniel, Revelation, 2 Esdras, and the books of Enoch typically stress eschatological matters.

-Jewish Apocalyptic separatist group

-Opposed to Jewish priesthood

-God is bringing Kingdom & the Essenes believed they would come out on top/be rewarded

-Withdraw into ghettos in cities

-One group in Qumran (Probably responsible for writing the Dead Sea Scrolls)

-All men; don't believe in marriage

Form Criticism
An English rendition of the German formsgeschichte, a method of biblical criticism that attepmpts to isolate, classify, and analyze individual units or characteristic forms contained in a literary text and to identify the probable preliterary form of these units before their incorporation into the written text. Form criticism also attempts to discover the setting in life of each unit-that is, the historical,  social, relgious, and cultural environment from which it developed- and to trace or reconstruct the process by which various traditions evolved from their original oral state to their final literary form.
Gallio Inscription

-Gallio was the proconsul of Achaea (in Acts 18) while Paul is there; Paul & company arrive in Rome in 50-51 CE

-An inscription naming Gallio found at Delphi says that he was a 'friend of Caesar', and dates his governorship to 51 or 52 CE

-Significant: because it confirms the historical accuracy of the book of Acts - real people in real place and because it fixes a date in Paul's life

The Great Omission

The Gospel of Luke leaves out a large chunk of material found in Mark

-Mark 6:45-8:26

The Jewish royal dynasty founded by the Maccabees and named for hasmon, an ancestor of mattathias. The Roman conquest of Palestine in 63 BCE brought Hasmonean rulership and Jewish independence to an end.
The Influence and adoption ofGreek thought, language, values, and culture that began with Alexander the great's conquest of the eastern Mediterranean world and intensified under his Hellenisticsuccessors andvarious Roman emperors.

Anciant Egyptian goddess, wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, who was worshiped from prehistoric to Roman Times. As a beneficent mother who protected her devotees, Iris was  pictured in Egyptian art as a madonna with child, an iconography that influenced later Christian portraits of Mary and the baby Jesus.


A name bestowed on the family that won religious and poloitical independence for the Jews from their Greek- Syria oppressors. Judas, called Maccabeaus, son of the aged priest Mattathias, led his brothers and other faithful Jews against the armies of Antiochus IV.


A young Persian god, born from a rock on December 25, who slew the bull of heaven and introduced a salvation cult that swept through the Roman empire. A serous rival to early Christianity, Mithraism was limited by its acceptance of only male worshipers.


A Greek term meaning "being by" or "being near" used to denote the Second Coming or reappearance of Christ, commonly regarded as his return to judge the world, punish the wicked, and redeem the saved. It is a major concept in apocalyptic Christianity.


-Jewish sect

-Lay group

-No official power, yet sometimes were influential

-Concerned with how to live righteously and maintain purity in day to day life

-Their scriptures = the Hebrew Bible & oral traditions

-Strong eschatology and believe in resurrection


-A city in Macedonia

-Named after Philip of Macedon

-On a major trade route--> 145 BCE: Egnation Way

-2 cities to the east & west of Philippi = Neapolis & Amiphipolis

-Was the site of 2 battles in 42 BCE between the heirs of Julius Caesar (Octavian & Marc Antony) & his assassains (at end of battles--became the end of the Roman Republic--Octavian began his rule)

-Paul & company get to Philippi in 49-50 CE (Lydia becomes first convert)

-Place of prayer = Jewish synagogue; Gangitis River

-Paul writes letter (Philippians)

-Greek theater there (4 BCE) [Romans rebuild it in 3rd century CE)



(1) Literally, books falsely ascribed to eminent biblical figures of the psat, such as Enoch, Noah, Moses, or Isaiah. (2) A collection of religious books outside the Hebrew Bible cannon or Apocrypha that were composed in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek from about 200 BCE to 200 CE.


A literary practice, common amongst Jewish writers of the last two centuries BCE and the first two cenuries CE, of writing or publishing a book in the name of a famous religious figure of the past. Thus,. an anonymous author of about 168 BCE ascirbed his work to Daniel, who supposedly lived during the 500s BCE, The Pastorals, 2 Peter, James, and Jude are thought to be pseudonymous books written in the mid-second century CE but attributed to eminent disciples connected with the first- century Jerusalem church.


An abbreviation for "quelle", the German term for "the source", a hypothetical document that many scholars believed contrains a collection of Jesus' sayings (logia). The theory of its existance was formed to explain material common to both Matthew and Luke but absent from Mark's Gospel. It is assusmed that Matthew and Luke drew from a single source (Q), assembled in 50-70 BCE, for this shared material.

Redaction Criticism

A method of analyzing written texts that tries to define the purpose and literary procedures of editors (redactors) who compile and revise older documents, transforming shorter works into longer works, as did the redactors who collected and ordered the words of the prophets into their present biblical form.


-One of the Jewish sects that began in the Hellenistic Period

-Associated with the priests

-Associated with whoever has power/aristocracy (priests have governing role)

-Only believe in the Pentateuch (first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible)

-Don't believe in life after death or resurrection


-Roman city built in 4 BCE

-Located in Galilaea

-Location: where Roman roads intersected

-Surrounded by villages under its jurisdction

-No longer peasants/land-locked villagers (could travel more etc.)

Synoptic  Gospels

The first three Gospels, named because they share a large quantity of material in common, allowing their texts to be viewed together with "one eye"

Two Major Divisions of John

John Chapter 1-12 = "The book of signs"

-Jesus' adult life; performs "sign" (miracles)

John Chapter 13-21 = "The book of glory"

-Ch. 13 = The Last Supper

-The passion narrative (crucifixion of Jesus)

Undisputed Pauline Letters

7 Undisputed Pauline Letters:



-1 Corinthians

-2 Corinthians



-1 Thessalonians


I. Paul's Thought

A. Problems/challenges

1. Development (order of letters in

Bible is not chronological--we are not exactly sure which letters were

written in what order though)

2. Ad hoc nature


-Responds to news he has received

through his letters

-Deals with situations as they come

3. First (?) Christian "Theologian"

-If not the first, then one of the first

to write down his thoughts on what

God has accomplished through Jesus

4. Result of letters: people often try

to simplify Paul's complicated


II. Summarizing statements

A. Caution vis a vis Judaism

-Don't use Paul as source for ancient


B. Congregations vs. Individuals

-Instructions often directed to

congregations, not individuals

C. Contrast with synoptic gospels

-Paul focused on Jesus

-Synoptics focused on Kingdom of God

D. Paul asks: is God also God of the


-He says yes

E. How, then, does God justify?

-Justify Christ through a sinful humanity

-Justification applies to everyone




(66-73 CE) Nationalistic Party dedicated to freeing Judea from foreign domination. Their militarism formed in the rebellion against Rome. Josephus believes there instransigence led to the destruction of Jeruselem and the Temple.

Revelation (John Relies on...)

1. Christian eschatological hope

2. Christian scripture (Old Testament; books that have apocalyptic lit: Daniel, Ezekiel, Joel, Zaccariah, Isaiah)

3. Pagan imagery (2 Primary Sources: 1. Old Testament 2. Contemporary Grecco-Roman imagery)

4. Number symbolism

-General: good (complete, holy) = 3, 4, 7, 12, 1000; evil (incomplete, unholy) = 6, 3.5

-Specific: 666; 616 (number of the beast)

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