Shared Flashcard Set


Bible Intro Transmission Exam
everything on the study guide, and the answers to the questions that weren't filled out.
Bible Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional Bible Studies Flashcards




What is Higher Criticism?
deals with issues relating to
1. source
3. authorship
4. culture
5. literary style
What is Lower Criticism?
It is synonymous with Textual Criticism.
....recovering the original text.
existing today.

in hand, existing today
in existence; still existing; not destroyed or lost: There are only three extant copies of the document.
Text Type-
A family of manuscripts which SHARE SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS and are GEOGRAPHICAL in origin.
1.) Alexandrian
2.) Western
3.) Byzantine
4.) Caestrian
What four basic aspects of writing does Text Type refer to?
(it is the Family of Greek membership, as in NT textual criticism)

it refers to-

2. narrative,
3. expository,
4. and argumentative.
What is parchment-
Paper made from animal skin-

animal skin "paper"

1. it is a thin material made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, often split.
2. Its most common use was as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a book, codex or manuscript.
4th century latin translation of the Bible by Jerome.

1. is a LATE 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible.
2. It was largely the work of St. Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of the old Latin translations.
What is a manuscript?
Hand written copy of the Bible dating before the printing press.

1. derives from a Latin word meaning “that which is written by hand. pg. 165 Wegner.

2. It is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way.

3. There are no original manuscripts of either the Old or New Testaments.
What is an uncial?
1. Greek manuscript in uppercase script, considered early date.
2. Also aided in dating manuscripts.
3. is a majuscule script (written entirely in capital letters) commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes.
4. Uncial letters are written either in Greek, Latin, or Gothic.
What is a codex?
1. Trimmed and bound manuscript.
2. Hand written leaves
3. is a book in the format used for modern books, with multiple quires or gatherings (sheets of paper or vellum in multiples of two which are folded and stitched through) typically bound together and given a cover.
What are the Dead Sea Scrolls?
Scripture and other writtings Narrowing the gap between the autographs and other manuscripts by 1000 years.

are a collection of 972 texts from the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents
Around what year were the DSS written and what year were they found?
written in 250 b.c.- 50 A.D.

found in the Qumran in 1948.

found between 1947 and 1956 on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name.
What is the Septuagint?
Greek translation of the Jewish Bible (from Hebrew to Greek)

Greek translation of OT includes apocrapha

or simply "LXX", is an Ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. It is referred to in critical works by the abbreviation or G.
What is a minuscule?
Greek N.T. manuscript in lower case.

1. at present approximately 2795 text have been recorded, as well as about 2135 lectionaries, generally dating to a time later than the uncials.
2. However, it does not necessarily follow that an earlier text is automatically more accurate, since a later manuscript may have been copied from a better original text.
What is the Hexapla
It is the term for an edition of the Bible in six versions.

Especially it applies to the edition of the Old Testament compiled by Origen of Alexandria, which placed side by side: pg. 200 Wegner.

Origin did work to produce the six colume addition of the O.T.
1.) Hebrew
2.) Translation into Greek character
3.) aquillas Greek version
4) Symmachus Greek version
5.) A revision of the LXX
6.) Theodotion's Greek version
What are variants?
Texual differences discerable between individual manuscripts.

tending to change or alter; exhibiting variety or diversity; varying
What are papyri?
Material of the early N.T. manuscript made from papyrus reeds, used before parchment.

material of early NTMSS made from the ppyrus reeds, used before parchment

is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt.
what is textual apparatus?
Notes at the bottom of a Greek or Hebrew text that show variants:
1. show their alternate meanings

2. and show the manuscripts supporting each variant
Be conversant on- languages of the Bible
1. hebrew
2. greek
3. aramaic

Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Semitic language –Arabic.
Be conversant on- Writing materials
1. Clay,
2. stone,
3. papyrus,
4. parchment,
5. vellum,
6. lead and copper,
7. iron styllus,
8. quill and reed,
10. pen and ink.

lay, (ostraca), stone, papyrus parchment, lead, copper, "iron stylus on lead" stylus-cut at angle, quill/read pen ink

Papyrus, Parchments.
Be conversant on the manuscripts-

(also the six other witnesses to scriptures)
Autographa are the orignal manuscripts and none are left.

other witnesses to scriptures

1. Murabba’at Manuscripts,

2. Manuscripts at Masada,

3. Manuscripts at Nahal Hever,

4. Codex Cairensis (C),

5. Aleppo Codex (A),

6. Oriental 4445.
Be conversant on other witnesses to textual critism-
Patristic citations, Lectionaries, and other translations.

patriostic citations, lectionaries, other translations
Be conversant on The developement of textual cristism-
higher critisism- issues with source, cite, authorship, culture, literary style, etc.
lower criticism-textual criticism recovering original text

Even thought we do not have any original autographs of the biblical authors, this does not mean there is no way to determine the accuracy of the biblical texts. The many biblical sources that have been discovered can be compared and evaluated to determine the most accurate reading of a text. This is the main goal of Old Testament textual criticism, which can be defined


• Goal- compare and evaluate the many biblical sources that have been discovered to determine the most accurate reading of a text
• Reasons
1. Establish most reliable reading of the text
2. In cases where a definitive reading is impossible to determine- helps avoid dogmatism
3. Help reader better understand the significance of marginal readings that appear in various Bible translations
New Testament History
• (390s) Began with Jerome- sifted through the Old Latin mss to determine the correct text for the Latin Vulgate
• (1650s)First work to collect variants was the London Polygot Bible by Brian Walton in 1653-1657
Other works that collated various manuscripts with critical apparatuses- correct Textus Receptus
(1700s)John Mill- thirty thousand variants in the few NT mss
(1700s)Johann Bengel- far fewer variants and none had to do with doctrine, first to weigh instead of assuming equal value, difficult preffered to easy
• 1800s- great advance in textual criticism
Karl Lachmann- first to publish a Greek NT based entirely upon textual critical principles
Constantin von Tischendorf-prepared as many mss and fragments of the NT as possible for publication- more than any other scholar
Westcott and Hort- comparative studies of NT mss (New Testament in the Original Greek- no textual apparatus just what they believed to be closest reading to original Greek text using textual principles)
Eberhard Nestle’s Greek text- final blow to textus receptus
• 1900s- two critical Greek texts still is use- text same but apparatus’ differ
The Greek New Testament-American Bible Society- used by Bible translation committees to revise existing Bible translations or make new translations- textual apparatus- only those that substantially affect the reading of the text, gives graded evaluations for each textual note
Nestle-Aland Greek Text- textual apparatus- history
• Manuscripts that don’t agree
Be conversant on the manuscript transmission-- The preparation and the preservation--
preparation- making of the paper- had to kill and skin animals...

preservation-camel urine, ideal desert climate ,

also was difficult becasue of fire, rodents, rot, vandelism
What is the Masoretic Text?
the pointed text of the Masorete scribes dating about 10th century A.D.
Be conversant on the Principles and Practices of textual criticism-
(there are TWO of them)
There is
From Metzger-
1. External evidence
2. Internal Evidence

From the NT rules-
1. The seven canons of Textual Criticism

From Wurthwein-
1. the five OT additional rules
From Metzger's Textual Criticism Criteria what are the FOUR details of External Evidence?
External evidence-
1. date and character of the witnesses
2. the geographical distribution of the witnesses
3. the genealogical relationship of texts and families of witnesses.
4. witnesses are to be weighed rather than counted.
From Metzger's Textual Criticism Criteria what are the TWO details of Internal Evidence?
1. Transcriptional probabilities
2. Intrinsic Probabilities
In Internal Evidence what are the FOUR details of Transcriptional probabilities?
1. The more difficult reading is to be preferred.

2. The shorter reading is preferred.

>>Exception: parablepsis......

Meaning- where the eye of the copiest may have inadvertently passed from one word to another having a similar sequence of letters

>>Exception: Scribe may have omitted material which he deemed 1. superfluous 2. harsh 3. our contrary to pious belief.

3. the reading that has Verbal dissidence is preferred.

4. Also Scribes would some times..

a. replace an unfamiliar word with a may familiar synonym or...

b. alter a less refined grammatical form/ less elegant lexical expression to make it in accord with contemporary atticizing preferences or..

c. add prounouns, conjunctions, and expletives to make it a smoother text.
In Internal Evidence what are the details of Intrinsic Probabilities?
Intrinsic Probabilities were dependent upon...

1. considerations of what the author was more likely to have written.

In General...
a. the style and vocab of the author through out the book

b. the Immediate context

c. and the harmony with the usage of the Author Elsewhere and....

In The Gospels...

a, the aramaic background of the teaching of Jesus.

b. the Priority of the Gospel according to Mark

c. and the Influence of the Christian Community upon the formulation and transmission of the passage in question.
In relation to the NT Rules, what are the Seven Canons of Textual Criticism?
The Seven Canons of Textual Criticism...

1. The Older reading is to be preferred

2. The more difficult reading (lectio difficilior) is to be preferred

3. The Shorter reading is to be preferred

4. THe reading which best explains all the variants is to be preferred (3 similar words, which one best explains the others with it)

5. The reading with the widest geographical support is to be preferred

6. The reading which most conforms to the style and diction of the author is to be preferred.

7. The reading which reflects no doctrinal bias is to be preferred. (“depending on which bias we are talking about...”)
And in relation to the OT additional Rules, what are the Five rules from Wurthwein?
1. In texts where the Masoretic Text (MT), and other witnesses offer the same text, and it is an intelligible and sensible reading, it is in admissible to reject this reading and resort to conjecture.

2. Where their is a genuine deviation from the MT on the part of other witnesses, and both readings seem EQUALLY SENSIBLE, the preference should normally be given to the MT.

3. Where the text of the MT is doubtful or impossible because of factors of languages or sense-in-context, and where the same time other witnesses offer a satisfactory reading, then the latter (other witnesses) should be given favorable consideration

4. Where neither the MT nor other witnesses offer a possible or probable text, conjecture may legitimately be resorted to.

5. In all Textual-Critical work, due regard must be given to the psychology of the scribe himself.
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