# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

AVI135
Electricity 2
108
Aviation
03/17/2015

Term
 Electricity in which the flow of electrons periodically reverses in direction and continually changes in magnitude
Definition
 Alternating Current
Term
 Current starts at zero and builds up to a maximum in one direction, falls back to zero, builds up to a maximum in the opposite direction, and returns to zero
Definition
 Alternating Current
Term
Definition
 Ease with which it may be generated. All aircraft DC generators actually produce AC, but it is converted to DC before leaving the generator
Term
 The AC waveform produced by a rotary generator
Definition
 Sine Wave
Term
 Sine wave AC has a constantly changing, periodically reversing and cyclically repeating set of values. One complete set of these variations, from zero to a maximum in the positive direction, back to zero, then to a maximum value in the opposite direction and back to zero, is one cycle of AC
Definition
 Cycle
Term
 One half of a cycle, or the positive or negative variation of a cycle of AC
Definition
 Alternation
Term
 The maximum value of current or voltage measured from the zero reference line
Definition
 Peak Value-The negative values will be exactly the same as the positive values, with the polarities being the only difference
Term
 What do you multiply the effective value to get peak value?
Definition
 1.414
Term
 The maximum difference between the peak positive voltage or current , and the peak negative value
Definition
 Peak to Peak Value
Term
 This is the value measured when using an oscilloscope, and is important for determining the voltages which must be withstood by wiring installations
Definition
 Peak to Peak Value
Term
 electricity
Definition
 A force caused by electrons moving from one atom to another
Term
 a deficiency of electrons
Definition
 positive charge
Term
 excess of electrons
Definition
 negative charge
Term
 the difference in electrical charges causes
Definition
 electrical pressure(Voltage)
Term
 A type of circuit in an electrical system in which all the components are connected in such a way that they provide only one path from the source of current flow, through all of the components, and back to the source.
Definition
 Series Circuit
Term
 The total _____ is equal to the sum of all the individual resistors
Definition
 Resistance
Term
 All the _____ in a series circuit must flow past every point in the circuit
Definition
 Current
Term
 The total ______ drops in a series circuit will total the voltage applied
Definition
 Voltage
Term
 A circuit in which there is more than one complete path for electrons to pass from the negative terminal of the power source back to its positive terminal
Definition
 Parallel Circuit
Term
 The total ____ is equal to the sum of the current in each branch of the circuit
Definition
 Current
Term
 The ____ drop across each branch of a parallel circuit is equal to each branch
Definition
 Voltage
Term
 The total _____ in a parallel circuit is equal to the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals.
Definition
 Resistance
Term
 The rules of series circuits apply to the _____ portion.
Definition
 Series
Term
 The rules of parallel circuits apply to the _____ portion.
Definition
 Parallel
Term
 electronic circuits which operate as switches
Definition
 Digital circuits
Term
 The _____ consists of voltage levels that are changing back and forth between HIGH and LOW level or states
Definition
 Digital waveform
Term
 Most _____ in digital systems are made up of a series of pulses, sometimes referred to as pulse trains, and can be classified as either periodic or non-periodic
Definition
 waveforms
Term
 Periodic waveform in which each interval between pulses (the period) equals the time for one bit
Definition
 Clock
Term
 The two numbers in the binary systems, 1 and 0, are called bits, which is a combination of the words ___ and ___.
Definition
 Binary Digits
Term
 The number system whose base is two. It uses only two value, zero and one
Definition
 Binary Numbering System
Term
 an electron control valve that has most of the air removed from the glass or metal envelope in which the electrodes are mounted
Definition
 Vacuum Tubes
Term
 An electronic component that controls the flow of electrons without the use of heated filaments, vacuum spaces or moving parts
Definition
 Solid state device
Term
 A two element electrical device and acts as an electron check valve
Definition
 Semiconductor Diodes
Term
 A diode contains a ____ and a cathode
Definition
 anode
Term
 Due to the number of electrons in the valence shell and the strong covalent bonds formed when the electrons form a bond in one atom to another, neither ___ or ____ conduct eletricity
Definition
 silicon ; germanium
Term
 ___, ____,and____ have only three valence electrons, and when one of these materials are doped with silicon or germanium, there are areas where the covalent bond cannot form due to the shortage of electrons
Definition
 boron, indium, and gallium
Term
 The _ type and _ type materials are joined either by a junction or a point of contact to form a semiconductor diode
Definition
 N ; P
Term
 Uses a single diode in series with an AC source and a load
Definition
 Half Wave Rectifier
Term
 Contains two diodes that change both halves of an AC cycle into DC (more efficient and produces smoother output)
Definition
 Full wave rectifier
Term
 The two diode full wave rectifier produces output voltage through only one half of the secondary (uses 4 diodes which are arranged in a ___ circuit)
Definition
 bridge- type rectifier ; bridge
Term
 Conducts in the reverse biased condition when a specific voltage is placed across the diode. Is connected in the circuit with the anode connected to the negative terminal, or the reverse biased condition
Definition
 Zener Diodes
Term
 A forward biased diode, electrons cross the junction and fall into holes/ As electrons fall into the valence band, they radiate energy/ Longer life, lower voltage, less heat
Definition
 Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Term
 The source of high voltage electronic energy, used to produce the spark to ignite the fuel-air mixture inside the cylinder of a reciprocating engine. Is an AC generator with a set of breaker points to interrupt the current the instant the spark is needed
Definition
 Magneto
Term
 A mechanical device consisting of a conductor being turned within a magnetic field, used to produce electricity by electromagnetic induction
Definition
 Generator
Term
 The force that causes electrons to move from one atom to another within an electrical circuit. The difference in electrical pressure or potential that exists between two points
Definition
 EMF (electromotive force)
Term
 Extend the thumb, index finger, and the middle finger so they are at right angles to one another. (Thumb for conductor; Index for the magnetic flux; middle for the current flow)
Definition
 Left Hand Rule
Term
 A device hat turns mechanical energy into electrical energy by rotating coils of wire through a magnetic field. As the conductors in the coils cut across the lines of magnetic flux, a voltage is generated that causes current flow. (rotating coil; stationary field; brushes and commutator)
Definition
 Generator
Term
 A 3 phase generator with a built in 3 phase, solid state rectifier to change the AC into DC before it leaves the _____.
Definition
 alternator
Term
 The stationary part of the alternator (stationary armature; made up of coils of wire)
Definition
 stator
Term
 The rotating portion is referred to as the ___ (rotating field or magnet; permanent magnet; electromagnet)
Definition
 rotor
Term
 The electrical law explaining induced current.___ Law states that a current induced in a conductor cut by lines of magnetic flux flows in the direction opposite to that of the current which produced the lines of magnetic flux.
Definition
 Lenz's Law
Term
 The standard unit of inductance. It is the amount of inductance in which a current change of one ampere per second will induce a voltage of one volt
Definition
 Henry
Term
 The symbol for inductance is the letter ___ and is measured in Henrys
Definition
Term
 The number of turns in a coil, spacing between the turns, and wire size determines what
Definition
 coil inductance
Term
 An inductor that filters out certain frequencies
Definition
 chokes
Term
 When AC with a frequency of 50 to 60 hertz is converted to DC, the output is the form of_____.
Definition
 pulsating DC
Term
 An ____ is placed in series with the load, the pulsating current induces a back voltage that smoothes out the pulsations
Definition
 inductor
Term
 P in electrical calculations- the amount of electrical power used when one ampere of current is forced through an electrical load under a pressure of one volt.
Definition
 Watt 746 watts of electrical power is equal to one mechanical horsepower
Term
 The complete path followed by electrons from the negative terminal of the source of electrical energy, through the electrical load, back to the positive terminal of the source
Definition
 circuit
Term
 The amount of current flowing in a circuit is directly proportional to the circuit voltage and inversely proportional to the circuit resistance is what law?
Definition
 Ohm's Law
Term
 The algebraic sum of all voltage drops in any closed circuit is equal to zero is what law?
Definition
 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Term
 The sum of current flowing away from any point in an electrical circuit is equal to the sum of the current flowing to that point is what law?
Definition
 Kirchhoff's Current Law
Term
 the ratio of true power to the apparent power is the ___ factor
Definition
 power
Term
 Once impedance is found, you can use Ohm's Law to determine ____
Definition
 current
Term
 To calculate ___ __, use Ohm's Law to multiple the total current by each value of resistance, capacitive and inductive reactance.
Definition
 voltage drop
Term
 ____ ____ is the product of the source voltage times the total current
Definition
 apparent power
Term
 The angle whose cosine is the power factor. The cosine of .96 is 16". The current leads to the voltage by 16"
Definition
 Phase angle
Term
 The actual AC power in the circuit when phase is taken into account
Definition
 True Power
Term
 Using the pythagorean theorem, you can determine the length of the ____ or ____ vector
Definition
 resultant ; impedance
Term
 In a direct current circuit, a change in voltage causes a proportional change in current
Definition
 Phase
Term
 The maximum value of current or voltage measured from the zero reference line
Definition
 Peak Value- Effective voltage is multiplied by 1.414
Term
 The maximum difference between the peak positive voltage or current, and the peak negative value
Definition
 peak to peak value-value measured when using an oscilloscope
Term
 An infinite number of instantaneous voltage or current measurements were made for each half cycle of sine wave AC, and an average taken of these values, the average would be 0.637 times the peak value
Definition
 Average Value
Term
 0.707 times the peak value. The average of the peak value that can be used to determine the amount of effective voltage that is used to calculate the working voltage and current used in an AC circuit. Measured with a voltmeter
Definition
 Effective or RMS value
Term
 The ____ of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side of a right triangle opposite the angle and the hypotenuse
Definition
 Sine
Term
 The amount of time required for one cycle of events to take place. Aircraft AC having a frequency of 400Hz, has a ____ of 1/400 seconds
Definition
 period
Term
 The AC waveform produced by a rotary generator
Definition
 Sine wave
Term
 Sine wave AC has constantly changing, periodically reversing and cyclically repeating a set of values.
Definition
 Cycle
Term
 One half of a cycle, or the positive or negative variation of a cycle of AC
Definition
 Alternation
Term
 AC is generated due to the relationship of ___ and ____
Definition
 magnetism ; electricity
Term
 Anytime current flows in a conductor, a ___ ____ surrounds the conductor
Definition
 magnetic field
Term
 ____ _____ is increased by increasing the strength of the magnetic field, increasing the number of turns of the conductor or by increasing the speed of movement of the conductor through the lines of flux
Definition
 Electron flow
Term
 Used when a high capacity with a low voltage is required- Uses a thin dielectric of oxide film in between aluminum foil
Definition
 Electrolytic Capacitors
Term
 Changes one of the three factors that determine a capacitors ability to store electrons
Definition
 variable capacitor
Term
 most radio tuners change the plate area using a rotor made up of thin sheets of aluminum meshed together with a group of fixed plates called stators
Definition
 plate area
Term
 Large aircraft use variable capacitors to measure the amount of fuel on board
Definition
 Fuel Quantity Transmitters
Term
 The ____ are made up of two concentric tubes in the tank that extend from top to bottom. The tubes makes up the plates of a capacitor and the fuel acts as the dielectric
Definition
 Transmitter
Term
 -Uses 28 volts supplied and must step up the voltage-A step up transformer and a set of points makes up a vibrator for the purpose to step up-Supplies the stepped up voltage to a storage capacitor
Definition
 Turbine ignition system
Term
 A capacitors ability to store an electrical charge is measured in ___
Definition
Term
 The basic unit of ____. One farad is the amount of ____ that allows a charge of one coulomb to be stored under the pressure of one volt
Definition
 capacitance
Term
 C=?Q=?E=?
Definition
 C- Capacity in FaradsQ- Charge in coulombsE- Voltage in volts
Term
 one ___ is typically too many electrons for practical use, so normally measured in micro___ or as a pico___
Definition
Term
 ______ is affected by 3 variables:1)area of the storage plates2)separation between the plates3) composition of the dielectric
Definition
 capacity of a capacitor
Term
 ____ store energy in two forms1) Electrostatic attraction2) Distortion of the electron orbits within the dielectric material
Definition
 Capacitors
Term
 The ____ ____ is the frequency where inductive reactance and capacitive reactance are the same
Definition
 Resonance Frequency
Term
 _____ _____ is zero when the frequency is zero. However as frequency increases, so does _____ ____
Definition
 Inductive Reactance
Term
 ____ ____ is infinite when the frequency is zero and decreases as frequency increase
Definition
 Capacitive reactance
Term
 "i" in electrical calculations- a measure of electron (current) flow-one ___ is equal to the flow of one coulomb (6.28 billion billion electrons) past a point in one second-The amount of current that can be forced through one ohm of resistance by a pressure of one volt.
Definition
 Ampere
Term
 "E" in electrical calculations-The basic unit of electrical pressure-One volt is the amount of electrical pressure needed to force one amp of current through a resistance of one ohm.-The amount of electrical pressure drop that occurs when a current of one amp produces one watt of power
Definition
 Volt
Term
 "R" in electrical calculations- The characteristic of an electrical circuit that opposes the flow of electrons-When electrons flow through a resistance, power is used, voltage is dropped, and heat is produced.-Amount of resistance in ohms to produce a one volt drop when one amp of current is flowing through it
Definition
 Ohm
Term
 "P" in electrical calculations-Measured in watts-The product of the applied voltage and the current in a DC circuit-The product of the applied voltage and only that portion of the current in phase with the voltage in an AC circuit
Definition
 Power
Term
 The negatively charged part of an atom of which all matter is made
Definition
 Electron
Term
 ____ theory states that electricity moves from a negative source to a positive source.
Definition
 electron theory
Term
 -A material with 3 or less valance electrons-Used to produce electrical ____s- Gold, silver, aluminum copper-When an electrical pressure is applied, and electron is forced to move from one atom to the next
Definition
 conductor
Term
 A force caused by electrons moving from one atom to another
Definition
 electricity
Term
 A deficiency of electrons is called a ___ ____, and an excess of electrons is called a ____ _____
Definition
 positive charge; negative charge
Term
 An imaginary flow of electricity said to go from the positive terminal of an electrical source to it's negative terminal is what theory?
Definition
 Conventional Theory
Term
 Which symbol points in the direction of current flow in the conventional theory?
Definition
 The arrowhead of a semiconductor (diode) symobol
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