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Atlantic City
The decline of AC
Political Studies
Undergraduate 3

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




Miss America
As the downfall of AC progressed, it became increasingly difficult to find celebrity judges who would stay in AC for a week. So, in the late 1980s two sets of judges were used: one non-celebrity set stayed for a week and the other celebrity set came just for the day

AC's Convention Hall hosted it until 2004 when it moved to Las Vegas.

During the decline of AC, the pageant had the ability to arouse nostalgia and bring back the crowds of the old days. People put on there flasgest clothes, filled the b-walk and rode rolling chairs.

In 1968, 100 women picketed outside the pageant. They through bras and other female product into a trash can.

Was limited to whites well into the postwar period.

Original bylaws bared black contestants. Even after black contestants were allowed, they were stell bared from the Miss America Parade that took place on the b-walk. Because of pressure from civil rights groups such as the NAACP, in 1966 the parade was integrated. Yet, many blacks still felt that the pageant wasn't fully integrated and, in 1967, the NAACP crowned the first Black Miss America at the Ritz Carlton.
Boardwalk Shops
There were some mediocre shops on the b-walk__especially at the N and S tips. But, scattered between the lavish hotels were upscale specialty shops, and they were the norm.

Many upscale shops sold things people normally wouldn't buy. They sold fur, inscribed AC items, jewelry, etc. The purchases of those products was done to allow the purchasers to show off to their friends and family back home.

During the 1970 and 1960s, more and more mediocre shops started to take the place of the upscale ones that didn't just turn into an empty building. Tee shirt shops replaced fine linen shops, and delis replaced chinese restaurants. The shops gave the impression of modern Wildwood with there loud speakers which blared 99 cent deals and two for one sales and there pushy hawkers.

As they closed in the 60s and 70s, "fewer shops meant fewer people," and fewer people meant that the b-walk couldn't host the middle class fantasy of leveling up in public.

Many closing stores reopened in another location such as the suburbs of NJ of the state of FL
Founding of AC by Pitney and Osborne
They had the idea to make a rail line between Philadelphia and AC. AC is the closest beach to Philly. Investors liked the idea, and in 1884 the first train arrived.

Pitney was a physician, and was the first to have ideas of making the island a health resort.

Osborne is credited for naming the city. Pitney is credited for coming up with the street names and placements.
Cape May Tourism
The fact that, in the mid 1800s, Cape May attracted 100,000 visitors a year was the impetus for Pitney and Osborne's idea.
Steel Pier
Gorge Hamid Jr. Sold in 1973 for 1 million to Maxwell Golberg and Milton Neustader. Goldberg and Milton were betting on the success of casino gambling, but the only businesses that truly felt the success of casino gambling were the casinos. The New Steel Pier was not a success.

Between 1920 and 1950 it hosted big name acts and was the premier pier. It had the diving horse.
Rolling Wicker Chairs
Many hoped the casinos would bring back the rolling chairs. But, they never became what they were. Now white Russians are likely to be pushing.

By the 70s, the rolling chairs were replaced by motorized chairs and tramcars.

By then blacks were riding in them. Likely the reason why the black-powered chairs went away is because the new generation of whites were embarrassed by the recial nature of it.

"You could ride the rolling chair and dream the you were the kind of person who deserved the rich life.

Chairs weren't aloud off the b-walk, but nobody listened.

William Hayday was the first to bring rolling chairs to the b-walk. They started as baby strollers, but people kept asking for invalid chairs, and it took off from there. The invalid chairs went well with the city's "health resort" image. Pushers came later.
The Marlborough
Created by the architect William Price. Completed in 1902. Owned by Josiah White. The original and more reserved section of the Marlborough Blenheim.

Ballys bought and demolished the Marlborough Blenheim in the late 70s. The casino that replaced it is comparatively bland.
The annex to the Marlborough. Many architects didn't like the building, but it quickly became a favorite of tourists. It was very ornamental and bold in style.
Josiah White's cousin, Daniel White, hired William Price to turn his Traymore into the signature property of the resort.

The new hotel was completed in 1915, and it was more restrained than the Blenheim. Still, it looked like a giant sandcastle.

Before 1945, Jews were not allowed to stay in the Traymore.

It was replaced by a Caesar's slot shed.

It's lobby was redecorated after WWII.

Complaints from Traymore owners were intrumental in segregating AC's beach.
Mimicked a French Chateau
Last of the great hotels of the heyday of AC

Resembled that empire state building.
Architect William Price
Created the Marlborough-Blenheim and Traymore hotel
Chicken Bone Beach
The black beach

Police forcibly ejected blacks who strayed from their beach

Was located at Indiana Ave, but when the Claridge Hotel opened the owners complained and had the blacks moved to mississippi and missouri ave.
Nucky Johnson
Mob-friendly political kingpin who ran AC befor Hap Farley. He was county treasurer. He was a Republican.

In charge of AC political machine which created one-party rule threough patronage, intimidation, and illegal money. He let racketeers offer illegal stuff to tourists as long as he and his machine got a cut.

Ran the city like a private enterprise.
Hap Farley
In charge of AC political machine which created on-party rule through patronage, intimidation, and illegal money. He let racketeers offer illegal stuff to tourists as long as he and his maching got a cut.

He ran the city like a private enterprise.

He is a republican, but he got the DNC to come to AC in 64.

The Hamids supported him.

Hap Farley taked the stated legislature into opening Stockton in the area. In fact, during the first few years, classes were actually held in AC.

He supported gambling in AC. Even after he was voted out of office in 1971, he worked behind the scenes to push for AC gambling. His old political ties helped him secure votes.
500 Club
In its heyday it brought in big names

Many celebrities and mobsters went there.

It had a backreem with illegal gambling. Few people expected to win, but enjoyed being next to mobsters and doing something illegal and a little dangerous.
Entertainers Club
Cross-dressing drag queens strutted across the stage.

Located on a hard-to-find street behind NY ave. That street was called "snake ally"

There was a dress code.

The buildig looked like a normal house to not attract attention to the gays.

Closed several times in the 1950s by the ABC (Alcoholic Beverage Control) because of the gays.
Club Harlem
One of the leading clubs where blacks entertained whites.

It has black erotic dancers and black musicians

"By underlining the natural, primitive, and sensual nature of blackness, the performances highlighted, to whites, the ingerent superiority of whitness."

Located in the Northside.
Louisa Mack
Owner of Entertainer's Club where Cross-dressing drag queens drag queens strutted across the stage.

"Understandeing the sexual politics of the day, Louisa Mack made her club as invisible as possible." She did not advertise or put up a sign. The club looked like a regular house.

She greeted customers and looked out for pretenders and undercover police.
Skinny D Amato
The host, manager and owner of the 500 club.

He was suave, charming, charismatic, and a sharp dresser.

He made close friends with celebrities because he knew that costumers would come to the club if celebrities were there.

He was close with the mob, and that was another drawl for suctomers.
The city's African American Neighborhood.

Whites went there at night to go to the clubs.

On the north side of Atlanic ave is the location.
"Carefully drawn red lines on real estate maps confined black residents to a botshaped area called the Nside."

There was two of everything. One in the White part of AC and on in the black pary. Artic Ave was its main street, while Atlantic was the main street of white AC
Marven Gardens
The only Monopoly property not in AC. It is a heavily policed white suburban neighborhood.

The place where many whit people went during whit flight.

The fact that all of the houses in that neighborhood face eachother can be seen as a symbol of the segregation whites desire.
Easter Parades
During the height of AC more than 250,000 people crammed on the b-walk to watch the parade.

"Barred from taking part in the procession, African Americans started their own Easter parade down Arctic Avenue in the 1940s.

Along with all other big parades, it started in the South Inlet.
John Mcphee
A writer who, inspired by Monopoly, went in search of Marven Gardens.

He couldn't find it because nobody in AC knew where it was, but he eventually found it just outside of AC

He found out that it is the only Monopoly property not in AC and it is a heavily policed white suburban neighborhood.
Alan Theater
Built in 1937. In the Northside. Owned by a white man. At the corner of Kentucky and Artic.

It was opposed by some black leaders because of its white owner. But, it was very popular to everyday blacks durring ACs heyday.

AC's final heyday years coincided with "the golden age of American Cinema." Both occurred from 30-50s. Theaters were a big part of AC during that period, and there was almost a seat for every year round resident in AC.
Astor Theater
A small neighborhood theater in Ducktown.

AC's final heyday years coincided with "the golden age of American Cinema." Both occeuued from 30-50s. Theaters were a big part of AC during that period, and there was almost a seat for every year round reident in AC.

Astor became the Liberty, and it closed in 1969

Seating was segregated during the heyday of AC. Blacks sat in the balcony on the left hand side.
Strand Theater
The manager of the Strand said, "if it were up to me, negros would sit anywhere they like." But the majority-white tourists didn't want to be close to them.

Located on the b-walk.

Very classy and ornate. It was a leveling up experience.

Installed epensive new aie conditioning system in 1950s.

Business went bad in 60 and 70s. Still showed films into the 70s

By the 1970s segregation in theaters was gone. They were among the last places to have segegation in AC.

Gorge Hamid Jr. bought the Strand and several other theaters in the mid 1950s

Closed right after casino gambling started.

Seating was segregated during the heyday of AC. Blacks sat in the balcony or on the left hand side.

AC's final heyday years coincided with "the golden age of American Cinema." Both occurred frim 30-50s. Theaters were a big part of AC during that period and ther was almost a seat for every year round resident in AC.
Kensington Furniture
Originally in AC. Lide so many other AC businesses, in the late 1950s, the store moved to a suburb because it sought more space, parking, and perhaps it saw what was to come.
1964 DNC
In the explanation of the decline of AC that faults the business owners for not maintaining their properties and military personal for trashing rooms, it is said that the bad press of the DNC of 1964 "let the cat out of the bag."

The reporters who covered the convention wrote about the poor condition of AC.

Many believe that tourists were turned off of AC because they couldn't get a room during the convention.

Hap Farley through his political weight around to get the convention.
Everyone in AC, including Hamid, thought that the convention would be great for business, but it was bad for business. Nobody went to shows etc., and the bad press.
Disney World
Disney succeeded in California and later in FL by copying, and then updaying, the AC model of carefully choreographed control over the public and the creation of exclusion masquerading as inclusion."
Psychedelic Fun House
A coffee shop located on North Kentucky ave., just on the black side of Atlantic. It attracted hippies, and many people wanted it closed.

It applied for a liquor license not long after opening, but it faced fierce opposition from, among others, and impassioned city commissioner.
People who came to AC for one day. (They cramed everything they needed into a shoebox.)

They disturbed Hamid Sr. and many others because they didn't bring much money to the city, took up needed parking, and gave the city a lower-class feel.
Beach fees tags
Pressed by Hamid Sr. as a way to discourage shoobies
Pauline Hill
Tried new things to revive the city. Embraced the idea of market segmentation.

Loved the idea of urban renewal tha involved destruction of the old

Head of Atlantic City Housing Authority and Urban Redvelopment Agency. Got that position in 1963.

Her urban renewal plans coincided with a national trend which was federally subsidized.

She leveled a ten-block area in Uptown, South Inlet. Most people were willing to sell. She wanted to erect a perfect white suburb in the midst of a crumbling white city.

Her Uptown, suburban wonderland never came to pass. Only on relatively small condominium was built during her tenure.

She could have gotten federal funding to build low income housing, but she wanted the upper class perfect suburb.

The residents and business owners hated her. In 1973, she retired.
Housing and Redevelopment Authority
Where Pauling worked as head
Puerto Ricans
One of several minorities that were expected to leave when land prices rose because of the casinos. Reese Palley wanted them to leave. They never completely left.

When casino gambling came to town, landlords of Puerto Rican-filled South Inlet began a systematic attempt to force Ricans out of town in order to sell the property. They rose rent, ignored maintenance, cut off utilitios, bribed inspectors to have the buildings condemned, and even set fire to the buildings. Eventually they were forced out.
Stonewall Riot
ACs gay scene did not start with the Stonewall Riot. There were always discreet gay-friendly places

When Val, an owner of a gay bar in AC, took ABC to court in order to stay open, that was a precursor to the stonewall riots.

"By the time of the stonewall rebellion in 1969--a protest triggered by the repressive tactics of NY City police and state ABC representatives--there were eight clubs and a number of gay-friendly shops and restaurants on South NY ave and the adjoining streets."
AC Expressway
Linded Philly and AC more directly than ever before (talking about cars). Completed in 1964. It was vital to Pauline's plan to build a perfect suburb in AC. It would allow residents to commute as far as Philly in an hour.

The main entry point to the city

The casinos, with their parking decks, are designed around the Expressway. The Expressway has replaced the boardwalk as the focal point of businesses.

The city built a private driveway from the Expressway to what-should-have-been Steven Wynn's new casino. Eventually the Borgata was built there, the H-tract.
Brendan Byrne
Governor between 1974 and 1982. Democrat. Former Judge. Consedered incorruptible.

Backed the casino advocates who wished to legalize casinos in order to fiex the fiscal problems of NJ. Casino advocates said it would be a way to fix problems without social service cuts or more taxes. Fiscal problems were in the 1970s.

He also supported the demolition of old hotels to make way for new casinos because he felt that refurbishing the old hotels wouldn't create enought jobs and spending.
Steve Perskie
Played a large role in gambling referendum campaign. Close to Governor Brendan Byrne. Helped write the second gambling referendum.

In order to make the reerendum appeal to the at-large electorate, Perskie's new bill would make the revenues from gaming go into a fund earmarked specifically to pay the utilit bills and property texes of the state's elderly and poor.
Casino Gambling Referendum
It was sggested that gambling could fix the fiscal problems of state without raising taxes or cuting services. Fiscal problems occured in 70s

The first referendum gave only AC the right to gamble for the first two years, and then it aloud other municipalities to vote in gambling. Brendan Byrne supported and signed in the referendum, but he did so reluctantly because he wanted gambling to stay in AC only.

The first referendum lost 3-2

The gambling boosters got back to work creating a referendum that state voters didn't fear and in fact liked. The second referendum was voted on during the presidential election because blue collar and blacks supported the measure and were more likely to show up during that election. The second lessened the previous fears of mobsters and ubiquitous slot machines and assured the at-large voters that they would benefit from the casinos. The second passed in 1976
Casino Control Act
Written in 1977.

Stipulated who could work in a casino, who could own one,how big and elaborate they had to be, how long they could stay open, whether they could issue credit, if they could give away drinks, and how many bars restaurants and lounges they had to have.

Designed to keep out the mob. You couldn't work there with a criminal record. Designed to not turn AC into a tacky gambling city. Betting could only take place in a casino, and a casino had to have a minimum of 500 first class rooms.

Stipulated that 8% of revenues would go to the state and then to seniors. Initially stipulated that 2% of revenues, after a casino paid off its entire initial investment, went to the municipality for community development; later changed to 1.25% and paid to a public corporation for community development.

The stopulations aimed at keeping mobsters out of town have made it impossible for many of the poor black residents of AC to get a job
Casino Reinvestment Development Authority
Public Corporation formed in the 1980s to oversee the reinvestment of casino dollars

In the mid 1990s the authority spent 88 million dollars fixing up the area where the expressway enters AC so tourists would have a good first impression. Much of that involved uprooting black residents and bulldozing their neighborhoods

Residents of AC complained that the Authority was designed to make casino tax money work for the city but it was going right back to the casinos

Built the Convention Center and the Sheraton, the first non-casino hotel of the gambling age.

Built the Sand Castle, the former home of the former surfs

The city government has little control over what CRDA does

Refurbished the b-walk hall

In an effort to make neighborhoods like North Inlet safe and economically viable, CRDA subsideized mortgages of police officers and gave them cop cars to drive off duty if they lived in on of those neighborhoods
Boardwalk Hall
Refurbished with casino tax dollars by CRDA

In 2003 Sprinsteen sang there The chorus of his opening song illuminated the downfall of AC and its possible comback:
Everythin Dies baby that's a fact
But maybe everything that dies somday comes back
Put your makeup on fix your hair up pretty and
Meet me tonight in AC
Home of the surfs minor league baseball team

Built by the CRDA

Author calls it "last best hope" that is "probably too late" and he was right, the stadium closed
A company which owns casinos and hotels in several states

Imploded the Sands in 07

Wants to Build a new casino where the sands was, but they put that on hold because of the bad economy
Steve Wynn
Was goin to open a casino in AC, but never did. He forced the city to build the underground tunnel at the end of the expressway to the H-tract(and old land fill)

He is again talking about returning to AC, but he has new conditions which must be met first (he wants to be able to build on the old airport)
Venice Park
Neighborhood in AC
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