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ARTH 335
History of 20th Century Art
Art History
Undergraduate 3

Additional Art History Flashcards






Picasso, Self Portrait, 1901

    • He is sad; pale skin, skinny, and frail
    • His sympathy for people was decided by his own experiences (he was poor himself).
    • For: himself, not to entertain us. (asks himself, "who am I?")
    • Function: Help him discover who he is. 
    • Blue Period



Picasso, Self Portrait, 1906

  • He is bigger, stronger, and tan.
  • Originally holding a brush; he took it out leaving a fist (manly and tough).
  • Wide, strong, thick, expressive lines  around right arm.
  • Emotionally he is cool, strong, and tough.
  • For: himself.
  • Function: To show that he has become strong and "Spanish" (French is fragile, Spanish is sturdy).
  • Primitive Period



Desmoiselles D'Avignon

  • Picasso, 1907-08, Primitive Period
  • Remake of Turkish Bath by Ingres
  • Desmoiselles means young ladies "prostitutes".
  • D'Avignon is the red light district in Barcelona.
  • "The Whores of Barcelona"
  •  We are observers in original sketch, and in the final we are the client. The women are peforming for us.
  • Lines are sharp, curves have been replaced with angles.
  • Bodies are hard not soft
  • Women are dangerous; GF Fernande Olivier was not loyal, and he attempted to control her.
  • Added 2 African Masks; mediator between themselves and unknown hostile forces that surrounded them.
  • Painting is a mediator between hostile world and us.
  • Women standing with legs crossed was originally lying down; flipped upright to be in a position of power.
  • For: himself
  • Function: To give Picasso feeling of control over women.



Ma Jolie

  • Picasso, 1911-1912, Analytic Cubism
  • Popular song at the time.
  • Panting is music; arrangement of line, texture, color to please.
  • Used cross-hatching to define light.
  • He uses lines, color, and light to construct.
  • First impression of Chaos; Longer look shows the triangle and grid, Tension between order and disorder "Chaos is resolving itself into order," This is a shift of something working its way from chaos to order
  • Function: for people sensitive enough to understand the work to enjoy its tension and order. 



Fruit Dish and Glass

  • Braque, 1911, Synthetic Cubism
  • Grapes, wood grain, bar, ale, and plates suggest a place.
  • Quiet because there isn't alot of color and empty space
  • Suggests a quiet bar, sophisicated, and peaceful.
  • Synthetic Cubism is never meant to show a subject outright, only to suggest one.
  • It's for people to piece together the elements and see the subject.
  • Aim is to tell you what it feels like not what it looks like.


Bottle of Suze

  • Picasso, 1912, Synthetic Cubism
  • There is a bottle, a glass, a table, a newspaper, etc.
  • Papers themselves are about trouble; Disease, War, etc.
  • The newspaper is all the horrible experiences outside, which lead to the reason of being in a bar.
  • For: everyone
  • Function: Art that takes you away from bad things. It's an oasis.
  • In a bar drinking and reading a newspaper.




Homage to Bleriot

  • Delaunay, 1914, Cubic Orphism
  • Bleriot was the first to fly a plane across English channel.
  • Airplane = modernity/progress (symbol of social progress) UNITY
  • Circles are an abstraction of the propeller, also a reference to the stain glass windows. Uniting airplane and window.
  • Plane= social/political/technological progress
  • Window=time/God/light
  • Progress is holy, God is behind it.
  • For:everyone
  • Function: to proclaim good news



Dynamism of a Cyclist

  • Boccioni, 1913, Futurism
  • Bright, Strong, Intense color
  • Working from quiet center to noisy outer movement.
  • Bicycle was new, modern, FAST, exciting. Symbolic
  • Expressiv use of lines, color, and form to promote Futurism values.
  • Feels like Italy is stuck in the past.



States of the Mind: The Farewells

  • Boccioni, 1911, Futurism
  • Train station, electrical
  • Shapes of people, crowded movement
  • Painting is crowded with dynamic movement and bright/bold colors. 
  • Broken forms equate to movement.
  • Intensity of feeling (crowded and noisy)
  • For everyone
  • Function: to promote futurist values





Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash


  • Balla, 1912, Futurism
  • Comes from chronophotography (time lapse photography)
  • Depicts a dog whose tail, legs, leash, and feet of woman walking it are a blur of movement.
  • Perceived world is in constant movement.




  • Goncharova, 1913, Cubo-futurism 
  • Same formal language and subject as futurists such as Boccioni.
  • Cubo-futurists were interested in future and progress, not excitement.
  • Billboards with ads for industrial progress.
  • Russia was last to industrialize,
  • For: Russians
  • Function: to promote industrial revolution in Russia



Monument to the Third International

  • Tatlin Vladmir, 1920, Constructivist
  • Model for a building (combines sculpture and architecture)
  • Inspired by eiffel tower; Dynamic E.T., Spiral and Leaning
  • Meant to be 1300 ft tall, all inner pieces meant to rotate
  • Impossible to create. CHALLENGE
  • Purpose: Inspiration (Key to Constructivist)
  • Optimism following Russian Revolution; End of Old, Beginning of new.



Workers Club

  • Rodchenko, 1925, Constructivist
  • Practical; everything is made out of wood, hard to get ahold of metal.
  • Used for News and Politics
  • Books about Lenin and Posters of Lenin
  • Chess game to develop mind.
  • Promotes good, smart Russians.




  • El Lissitzsky, 1922, Contructivism
  • Proun is an anagram for "towards a new art"
  • Rejecting art that is only aesthetically pleasing
  • Looks like it was made with the aid of instruments.
  • Straight, sharp, precise qualities in all works.
  • During Russian Revolution, the machine was a new ideal for humanity, trying to inspire you to be more logical, rational, precise.
  • Promotes an engineering mentality




  • Gabo, 1923, Constructivism
  • Model for a large sculpture that would be on the campus of University of Moscow.
  • Made from new modern materials like plastic and stainless steel.
  • Clarity and precision shape the piece.
  • For: young Russians at the university
  • Function: Inspire to be more logical and precise




The Grand Luncheon

  • Leger, 1921, Purism
  • Rational and organized, everything is on a grid.
  • Women have no feelings, and feelings are bad and irrational.
  • Women are assembled; their faces are identical, their hair comes in sheets, their limbs screwed together.
  • This dehumanizes them, very purposeful.
  • This is a world of control, logic, and order.
  • Facist painting.
  • Function was to promote reason and the expense of emotion and desire. 



Odalisque with Magnolias

  • Matisse, 1923, Later Matisse
  • New woman is a product of WWI
  • Matisse's response to new woman, "NO"
  • Odalisque is an occupent of a harem (female slave or concubine)
  • He is saying women belong captive and not working.
  • She is happy not doing anything.
  • He can have sex whenever he wants it.
  • For and By Conservative men
  • Remind women where they belong



Woman in White

  • Picasso, 1923, Neoclassical Phase
  • texture looks marble; timeless garb like classical sculpture.
  • Picasso moves to classicism, "look at me im french"
  • french=classical/ cubism=barbarism(destruction)
  • Purpose was personal; new girlfriend, Olga, was the model for painting. Also, work that wasn't french was criticized during WWI so to save career and survive he moved to classisicism.



Composotion with Red, Blue, and Yellow

  • Mondrian, 1930, de stijl
  • Purely compositional.
  • Apply to everything that exists.
  • Yellow keeps painting balanced.
  • Mondrian called this a dynamic equilibrium; harmony of opposites in a chaoti world.
  • Thought the enviroment dictates the way you think and feel and if you live in an orderly world, you will be orderly and balanced.



Schroeder House

  • Rietveld, 1925, de stijl
  • major de stijl architect; a Mondrian house, no paintings, no decorations, and no curves.
  • Mondrian thought he was going to be world's last artist.
  • "If everything were beautiful, there'd be no need for beauty"
  • Function: bring the dweller pure harmony through art.




  • Duchamp, 1917, Dada
  • Told nothing would be refused from Academy in U.S. if you pay your dues.
  • Refused, it wasn't "ART"
  • Reversals; taken a utilitarian objet and made it useless.
  • Taken something low and called it fountain. (high)
  • Taken something male and made it female.
  • It's a fun game to Duchamp. 




  • Duchamp, 1919, Dada
  • Title pronounced in french loosely translates to "Hot ass"
  • Gives Mona Lisa a reason for her smile.
  • Reversals: Took highest art and made it low.
  • Changed woman into man
  • Mysterious to Unmysterious
  • Look closer and it isn't Mona Lisa, it is Duchamp.
  • Duchamp has a hot ass, he is preoccupied with sex. 



Elephant Caravan

    • Hugo Ball, 1917, European Dada
    • Ball performing performance art, nonsense poem, childlike.
    • Playful=happiness/Silly=healthy
    • Avoid a language that has been ruined by advertising and politics.
    • Costume wont allow him to move, 20 minutes of a silly performance to try to bring audience back to the original primitive language.
    • Very unclear, Dada gets a rep for being silly.



Spirit of the Age

  • Hausmann, 1921, European Dada
  • Assemblage sculpture
  • Not meant to be beautiful.
  • People should be more machine like.
  • Brain is a watch, precision of the mind.
  • The number dehumanizes the figure which has no personality.



Foreign Beauty

  • Hoch, 1920, European Dada
  • New woman
  • old idea of women as sexual objects
  • combines the body of a woman with a male observer.
  • Viewer of viewe
  • For males; to get them to look at themselves. 



  • Heartfield, 1936, German Post Dada
  • For France, In France.
  • Cock is France
  • Hitler is preparing to kill Cock
  • Warning French that Hitler is dangerous



  • Schad, 1927, New Objectivity
  • Painting of an aristocrat.
  • Cities are breeding grounds for unhealhty sexual activity (prostitution).
  • Unhealthy lifestyle leads to alienations. Cold, hard stare.
  • Unnature sexuality, men as women, and nudes everywhere. 



Self Portrait as Mars

  • Dix, 1915, Futurism
  • Inspiration comes from Nietzsche
  • Moved from expressionist style to futurist
  • Celebration of war.
  • Presenting himself as mars, the god of war.
  • Says war will turn him into cruel, hard, god.
  • Filled with violence, looks like an explosion.



Anita Berber, Dancer

  • Dix, 1925, New Objectivity
  • Famous movie actress and singer
  • Known for lesbianism and dancing nude in public
  • Addicted to cocaine, and married several times.
  • Painting her as aging prematurely.
  • Function:Expressing his view of humanity as a bunch of grotesque people.
  • For: himself



The Artist's Family

  • Dix, 1927, New Objectivity
  • His family; wife, son, and daughter.
  • Wife is warm, but he has a crazy smile
  • Son will become just like dad, while the daughter is warm like the mother.
  • Males are dangerous; women are warm.
  • For himself, expressing his attitudes. 



Persistence of Memory

  • Dali, 1931, Surrealism
  • Self portrait
  • Soft watches are about stopping time and a childhood memory. Most surrealists did not want to die. Remembers a doctor saying show me your tongue and it sounded like soft watch in french.
  • Ants represent anxiety.
  • Function is to help you develop a taste for the marvelous.
  • Free person from reason/morality



One Night of Love

  • Ernst, 1927, Surrealism
  • Automatist painting
  • Bird is loplop his alter ego; appears regularly in surrealists art because it represent freedom.
  • Bird is being held down in painting by oppressive figure.
  • Painting is for him not you
  • Purpose is liberation.
  • Used various techniques to get freedom but always returned to problem.



Battle of the Fishes

  • Masson, 1927, Surrealism 
  • Produced using line, glue, and sand
  • Discovered dog eat dog world.
  • Under the sea is a chief image in surrealism; represents the unconscious.
  • Image of the violence of the unconscious; we discovered our fears and anxieties.
  • reveal violence of unconscious, for us.


A Star Caresses the Breast of a Negro

  • Miro, 1938, Surrealism
  • Automatist painting
  • Fantasies are childlike and marvelous
  • Ladder common in work, rising uo into imagination
  • Return to childlike imagination (farm)
  • Fantasy poem and is an examply of how marvelous fantasy is.
  • Function: open our eyes to the marvelous  




  • Magritte, 1936, Surrealism
  • Makes paintings for you; not to make you dream, but to wake you up.
  • Don't paint what is there, paint the potential, do the potential.
  • Deals with many cliches to make you think.
  • Lesson painting; Inspires you to see the potential



My Governess, My Nurse

  • Oppenheim, 1935, Surrealism
  • Assemblage of high heel shoes
  • Erotic female with legs spread
  • Masochistic (tied up)
  • Governess=teacher (root of word is govern-->control)
  • Anti-authoritarian
  • Revenge 



The End of the World

  • Leonor Fini, 1949, Surrealism
  • Surrealist notion of what is above and below the surface.
  • Reflection is frightening/evil looking.
  • Rational and the Id
  • Light and dark
  • Reason and Irrational
  • Women surrealists identify with animals and nature-->their muses were animals and nature.
  • For herself and whoever
  • Promotes freedom and recognition of the 2 sides of yourself



Self Portrait, 1938

  • Leonora Carrington, 1938, Surrealism
  • rebellious child, thrown out of many religious schools
  • ran away with max ernst at age 20
  • Irish nurse told her Gaelic fairytales, centered paintings around them,
  • Falls in love with hobby horse Tartar. Escapes world of men who are afraid of the magic and the night. (dark magic)
  • Free from bougeiosie (chair and curtains)
  • ID with animals: Hienna
  • Had the hienna wear a mask of her face to debutante ball, emits a bad smell and it becomes offensive to event. When  someone discovers the hienna, the hienna eats them.
  • Hair is totally free
  • Function: freedom from men of authority
  • For: her




  • Tanning, 1942, Surrealism
  • Self portrait of when she first met Ernst.
  • Identified with the fantasy creature wth wings, symbolizing freedom.
  • Doors equate to movement from one place to another.
  • For herself
  • Function to free themselve s from Victorian notions. 
  • tristan tzara
  • automatism
  • paranoic critical method
  • la femme-enfant
  • Man who brough Dada from Zurich to Paris
  • Stream of consciousness in writing or drawing. Created by Andre Masson
  • Dali's development of the ability of the paranoid to see things different.
  • Woman child; youth and spontaneity; leads to better access to the unconscious
  • Manifesto
  • Marinetti
  • Hugo Ball
  • Emmy Hemmings 
  • published statement of the ideals and aims of a movement. used for publicity and advertisting.
  • father of Futurism
  • founder of Dada 
  • hugo ball's gf/cabaret singer; ruined nationalistic songs
  • Formalism
  • Gosol
  • Fernande Olivier
  • Assemblage
  • careful arrangement of the formal elements of art for aesthetic purpose.
  • Picasso spent the summer in this tiny spanish town in the Pyranees to get back to spanish roots.
  • Picasso's gf 
  • Sculpture made by assembling objects to create a new subject.
  • New Woman
  • Van Doesburg
  • Readymade
  • Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. Group of artists trying to promote revolution by using a realit and representational art.
  • Women who were independent after WWI; they wanted to work and enjoyed getting paid.
  • cofounder with mondrian of de stijl
  • object that already exists that becomes art through dedication 
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