Shared Flashcard Set


Japanese Art and Culture
Art History
Undergraduate 3

Additional Art History Flashcards





Middle Jōmon “flame ware” vessel,

earthenware, Jōmon period, c.11,000–400BCE

  • Most famous from Jomon period.
  • Extensive use of coiling.
  • Assymetrical; handbuilt; elaborately decorated; organic quality
  • Flame like projections on top.
  • Top heavy; not utilitarian/functional
  • Flat bottomed, heavy and wide rim
  • Most likely for ritual/cermenoial use.
  • Not widespread and not produced for a long time

Final Jōmon dogū, earthenware,

Jōmon period, c.11,000–400BCE

  • Small hollow figurines
  • Many found broken, possible produced to be broken. (ritual)
  • Maybe broken to heal someones pain or illness.
  • Big round googly eyes (snow goggle eyes) w/ horizontal slits.
  • Similar posture;  rigid, static, frontal
  • Elaborate clothing and head dress
  • Narrow waist, wide hips, and the suggestion of breast
  • V opening on neck of robe
  • Fully modeled in the round
  • "cord erased" pattern (smoothed over and slightly erased) 
  • All seem to be female
  • Speculated to be for fertility purposes.

Middle Yayoi pitcher,earthenware,

Yayoiperiod, c.400BCE– 300CE

  • Shape is specific for a specialized use.
  • Shape is bold and dynamic; spout rim, wide bottom, loop handle, rounded.
  • Preforated base, perhaps to be placed in fire.
  • Incised zigzag pattern diving the vessel into bands.

Late Yayoi dōtaku, bronze,

Yayoi period, c.400BCE–300CE

  • Metal objects brought from continent to Japan, eventually were made in Japan.
  • Bell like shape, not produced after Yayoi (specific to Yayoi)
  • Based on sets of bronze bells popular in China. (central to religious beliefs, used as bells, played by striking them)
  • Not sure why the distinctive shapes; Not playable bells, but certainly ceremonial or status symbol; Many were produced.
  • Surface is decorated with linear design, sometimes abstract like flowing water, sometimes broken into panels with depictions of animals.
  • High semi-circle handle on top; side philanges flaring out (usually decorated); oval shaped footprint; thin, raised like patterns (not insiced); cross hatched pattern.
  • Depictions of Yayoi period architecture is shown sometimes 

Warrior haniwa, earthenware,

Kofun period, 300–710

  • Full body of armor held together by ties, sword, quiver with arrows, heavy pants
  • Not very realistic, not proportional
  • Very detailed
  • Reduced to whimsical, stylized depictions
  • Simple basic descriptions of the face (slits for eyes)
  • Emphasis on military culture
  • Haniwa means Clay Circle;simple unglazed earthenware sculptures; Cylindrical bases that keep them upright and in position; lined up with contours of the mound, placed frontally facing outwards

Dark Warrior of the North mural,

paint on plaster,Takamatsu Tomb, Kofun period,300–710

  • Paint on plaster that was applied to stone wall.
  • Applied plaster, then applied pigment.
  • Black to outline images, and then colored
  • Similar technique and iconography to a Korean tomb mural
  • Looks threatening, (in Chinese, north is negative) and it's an image of a tortoise and snake coiled around it
  • Nice patterning on the snakes, and tortoise legs.

Main hall,Ise Shrine

  • On the coast of Japan's main island
  • empty lot beside it is for ritual rebuilding of the Ise shrine every 20 years in a rite of purification and renewal and it will get rebuilt this year
  •   each lot has a heart pillar, a seven foot post that marks the sacredness of the siteMain hall hidden behind four gated fences.
  • Both lots covered in white pebbles
  •  long side is 3 bays, other side is 2 bays
  •      in Asian architecture, a bay is the space between the pillars

         walls are screen walls, not load bearing

         shinmei zukuri: style at Ise shrine

         posts support roof on both sides

         katsuogi are the big logs on the ridge pole

         chigi are the v shaped cross pieces on the rafters, i.e. forked finials on top of the honden

         gold caps on the roof not in the original, but added over time

  • Roof was originally thatch, now cypress bark
  • Two parts: wooded outer shrine and inner shrine
  • Iso is Japan's most important Shinto shrine because its the ancestral shine of the imperial family. Therefore it is the national shrine, and it heads the rest of the shrine.
  • Emphais on natural beauty; truth to material;beauty in natural materials; organic textures and colors; conforms to natural enviroment
  • Elevated on pillars, stairs leading up
  • Celebrated as Indigenous Japenese Style architecture
  • Looks a lot like a replica of Yayoi period grainery.
  • Main Hall: porch wrapped around, more ornamental roof, more permanant stairs
  • the ornamental added to the ends of Katsuogi and Chigi -gold leaf.

Five-storied Pagoda, Hōryūji, Nara,

Asuka period, 552–645 (7th c.)

  • Reliquary situated in the west of the two main structures
  • Accesible interior space; five roofs (decorative only), only one floor.
  • Oriented to the four cardinal directions.
  • Enterences on four sides, with stairs leading you there. 
  • Circumambulated by worshippers
  • Heart pillar goes from floor to finial, similar to axis mundi (axis of the world within that stupa).
  • Relics in special chamber below heart pillar
  • Large ornamental finial on top

Kondō, Hōryūji, Nara, Asuka period, 552–645

  • "Golden Hall" in the eastern half of the court and is the main image hall of Horyuji; balances the pagoda on the east.
  • Two roofs, but one is ornamental; single story. (More roofs= More grand)
  • Similarities to Chinese palace: elevated on stone platforms, wood frame constructions, white plaster screen walls (not load bearing), heavy ceramic tile roofs held up by elaborate bracketing.
  • Originally pillars and brackets used to be red.
  • Images and circumambulation are a continuation of Indian predecessor, but lacks the congragation area of a chaitya hall.

Tori Busshi, Shaka Triad, giltbronze,

Hōryūji Kondō, Nara 623

Asuka period, 552–645

  • wood and painted canopy above, celestial deities playing heavenly music above in canopy on lotus flowers.
  • predates the new temple, was from original temple; commissioned during prince jatoku's life.
  • Voted offering from the Empress to wish for Prince Jatoku's recovery; he died from illness before it was finished; memorializes him, then dedicated to the karmic merit for good rebirth.
  • Tori (maker of Buddhist images)
  • Tori Busshi was an important scultpor whose grandfather came from the continent, metalsmiths and woodworkers; Worked on another temple paid for by Soga clan; Tori style defines Asuka period Buddhist sculpture.
  • China Phase 2 :disproportionate, elongated bodies, frontal stiff postures, relatively geometric; Sharply defined facial features, giving it a mask like quality; Chinese style robes that open in the center; Geometrical shapes, cylindrical heads, emphasis on line and linear patterning; Fall in stylized drapery (waterfall drapery), hiding the body underneath
  • Bodhisttvas on side (beautiful) crowns, long hair, covered chest, fancy clothes
  • Buddha bump on head, monks robe, dot on head.



Tamamushi Shrine, wood with lacquer and metal,

Hōryūji Treasure House, Nara, c.650

Asuka period 552-645

  • 92 inches tall, very large but still portable.
  • Tamamushi means Jade beetle, and originally irredescent wings of the jade beetle under open work metal, so it would have glittered
  • Kondo (image hall) sits on pedestal, this tells us about arhictecture before Horyuji. 
  • Would have held an image, but the original is missing
  • Pedastal is painted in lacuer of images of bodhisattva and guardian kings; perhaps monks in Buddhist robes and shaved heads, holding objects (incense burners).
  • On another panel is a Jataka (story of the buddha's past lives)
    • Hungry Tigress Jataka; Buddha is a prince and he encounters a starving tigress. Since the Buddha is compassionate, he lets the tigress and her cubs eat him. (Jumps off a cliff to batter body, so it would be easier for the them to eat him)
    • Continous narration 3 episodes in one panel. 

Heavenly Kings of the Four Directions,

wood with paint and gold leaf, Hōryūji Kondō,

Hakuho,645– 710

  • Each carved from a single block of wood. 
  • A king for each of the four directions, acting as guardians of Buddhist doctrine. We are focused on the Heavenly King of the North.
  • identifyable from the others because he is holding a miniture pagoda/reliquary
  • Stands on top of a demon made from a seperate block of wood (demon symbolizes obstacles and enemies of Buddhism)
  • Style: late 6th century chinese sculpture "columnar"
  • More 3D thought into sculptures, more well rounded, but still not perfect; Scarves are stiff and unnatural but progress toward 3D.
  • Stiff figure and column like due to shallow carving, details remain on surface.

Chūgūji Miroku, camphor wood, Hōryūji Chūgūjiconvent, Hakuho,645–710

  • Highly polished wood
  • Maitreya is Miroku. Maitreya is the Buddha of the future. Maitreya comes when all knowledge of Buddhism is forgotten and is born to preach the law again. (Comes during Chaos to preach) 
  • Depicted as a Bodhisattva sitting in his heaven till the time for his rebirth comes. 
  • Thoughtful pose, resting elbow on knee and chin resting on hand.
  • Increased roundness of form; body proportions are realistic; sharp features, but more rounded than previously.
  • Folds of drapery, a little more natural in the way that they fall, carved deeper.
  • Reflects Chinese and Jorean styles of the time.  

Parinirvana Tableau, clay over metal and wood,

Hōryūji Pagoda, Hakuho,645–710

  • Parinirvana is the Buddha's final death. (Final death of Shaka, entering Nirvana) 
  • We see the Buddha (gilt bronze) surrounded by followers in various states of understanding.
  • Figures are detailed
  • This a a transitional pieve, marking the move from styles of early Buddhist art to a more realistic style
  • More expressive and realistic
  • Conveys emotion with animated figures (shows the enlightenment of the figures)
  • Bodhisattva are in the back, calm are serene
  • Followers are englightened by aren't quite at Bodhisattva's level. (freaking out a little)

Amida Triad mural, paint on plaster, Hōryūji Kondō, Hakuho,645–710

  • 12 murals alligned with cardinal directions
  • We focus on west wall
  • Probably painted last, and the original murals were destroyed in 1949 by a fire during the reconstruction of Kondo.
  • Smoke obliterated murals, repainted according to photos.
  • Buddha of the western paradise is named Amida.
  • 3 figures; Central is Buddha on Lotus throne with a bodhistavva on both sides of Buddha.
  • Kannon is seated to the right (Amida's left)
  • Tang International Style; features rounded fleshy bodies, realistic body proportions, naturalistic folds of drapery, sense of movement/twisting in space 
  • Amida Buddha is in his western paradise; Umbrella over Buddha; full rounded face with fleshy neck folds.
  • Use of shading to suggest fullness of form but no light source; Use of red outline also points back to india.
  • Mini Buddha in the crown signals Kannon
  • Typical Bodhisattva features: long hair and jewelry

Yakushi Triad, bronze, Yakushiji Main Hall,

Hakuho, 645– 710

  • Main image hall at Yakushi; stand at over 8ft tall
  • Debate about the date of the figures, the mandorlas not original 
  • Attendents Nikko and Gakko (sun and moon)
  • Yakushi is the medicine Buddha
  • One hand help up in a teaching gesture, one laid on leg palm up (supposed to be holding medicine jar)
  • Round fleshy face, folded neck, water soaked drapery
  • Bronze darkened due to high tin content

Entertainers Riding an Elephant, biwa plectrum-guard, painted leather, Tōdaiji Shōsōin, Nara period,710– 794 

  • Foreign subject matter; elephant is not indigenous to Japan, landscape is foreign.
  • Young boys and musicians are wearing tall conical hates and have full beards (identified as central Asian characteristics)

Beauties beneath Trees, six panel screen, ink and color on paper,Tōdaiji Shōsōin,                                                   Nara period, 710– 794 

  • Six sided panel folding screen
  • Much had been left unpainted, because bird feathers were glued and attached but have deteriorated over time. 
  • Clothes were originally colored in bird feathers.
  • Painted in Japan, although Chinese in style and subject matter
  • These are the ladies of the Imperial Court, depicted in the International Tang Style, naturalistic drapery folds

Buddha engraved on lotus petal, from throne of original Birushana, bronze, Tōdaiji Great Buddha Hall,

Nara period,710–794

  • there is a Buddha carved on every petal
  • the eye opening ceremony is done in 752 (when an image of the Buddha is made, the last thing made is the eyes) Buddhist monks from all over the Buddha world came here and brought gifts, many were put into the Shosoin. 
  • Lavish festival with dancing, music, sutras, gifts, and decorations.
  • Can circumambulate around the image

Fukūkenjaku Kannon, dry lacquer with gold leaf,

Tōdaiji Lotus Sutra Hall, Nara period, 710–794

  • Over 11 1/2 feet tall
  • Emperor Shoumu issues a decree in 740 that every provincial temple should have a Fukūkenjaku Kannon.
  • Fukūkenjaku Kannon: Kannon of the never ending lasso, meaning he can save anyone, even those who arent looking for it by lassoing and making you a believer. 
  • Multiple arms (8) and a third eye.
  • Standing on top of a Lotus pedastal and halo made of radiating rays with alternate flamework patters.
  • Each hand holds a different attribute of Kannon
    • pilgrims staff; lasso; lotus
  • Tang International Style
  • Probably made in a government run studio
  • Dry Lacquer application; create wooden armature, cover it with a clay core, apply strips of lacquer soaked cloth, then cut it open and finish with dry lacquer paste (lacuer mixed with sawdust and incense)
  • Gakko and Nikko are the butsu on the side of this image. They are not wearing jewlery, instead are fully covered. They are not Buddhas because they still have long hair, they are not original to this alter, most likely were images of Hindu Gods.
  • Made of clay, originally painted
  • Tang International Style: more movement, more realistic detail, much more animated

Shūkongōjin, painted clay, Tōdaiji Lotus Sutra Hall,

Nara period, 710–794

  • paint left due to being in a cabinet behind the main platform. (sacred image)
  • Original image of the Hokkedo
  • Kongo=vajra (diamond thunderbolt, or diamond scepter)
  • Ferocious and effective guardian
  • "Embodiment of the power of enlightenment" his name literally means this.
  • Diamond thunderbolt symbolized the indestructable nature of truth (truth of the Buddhist doctrine)
  • Only shown once a year
  • Extrememly naturalistically depicted (Hyperrealistic), a result of style and iconography--fills the role as a guardian deity.
  • Furrowed brow, teeth exposed, muscular

Priest Ganjin, painted dry lacquer, Tōshōdaiji Founder’s Hall, Nara period,710–794

Ganjin was a Chinese monk; In 754 he comes to Japan after several failed attempts to get there. Old and Blind now, but came because Shoumu requested him to teach the monks of Toudaiji. Establishes Ritsu school Buddhism in Japan. 

Ritsu Buddhism looks back to Therevada/Hinayana Buddhism, and uses the Buddhas teachings to establish codes to live by. 

Sets up the proper ordination rituals for Buddhist monks; unsatisfied staying at Toudaiji so he started own temple at Toushoudaiji

  • 2.5 feet tall, 763 =year of Ganjin's death
  • Sits behind a sliding door behind an alter
  • earliest example of portrait sculpture from Japan
  • Tang International Style
  • Eyes are closed, refers to his blindness (naturalistic)
  • Idealized dimension due to proportions
  • Has an expressive quality that conveys the spiritual quality of Ganjin

Birushana, dry lacquer with gold leaf, Tōshōdaiji Kondō, Nara period, 710–794

  • Birushana is the Cosmic Buddha, each Lotus petal would have symbolized the other buddhas
  • The origin of all other Buddha deities
  • Face is less rounded, more square, losing sense of neck.
  • Still some interest in full fleshness

Kichijōten, color and gold on hemp, in Yakushiji,

Nara period, 710–794

  • Hindu God incorporated into Buddhism
  • Lakshmi, goddess of wealth and good fortune (Buddhist version of a Hindu goddess)
  • Empress Kouken
    • Issued a decree for prayers to be recited at all residual temples for rain.
    • Daughter of Emperor Shoumu
    • One of only two empresses in Japanese history
    • Continues tradition of Buddhism as political propaganda to reinforce her control.
    • still T.I.S. plump looking, idealistic of an 8th century beauty, also clothed like a lady of the Tang court

Senzui byōbu, six-panel screen, coloronsilk,

Heian period, 794–1185

  • Senzui-landscape; Byobu-folding screen
  • Beginning of Japanese stype of painting, still a little Chinese elements present
  • Subject matter: Tang dynasty poet present, retired to live in his thatched hut, but was still sought out by other to be his students. (rustic hut with figures and attendents)
  • The way individuals are depicted (clothing, style) are all chinese.
  • Everything else around the hut (landscape) is Japanese style
  • Yamato-e= Japanese style painting
  • Softer landscape forms with rolling hills and rich colors
  • Kara-e= Chinese style painting

Tale of Genji Scroll, handscroll, ink and color on paper, Heian period,794–1185

  • Scroll originally combined text and artistic depiction for each scene. Originally had 54 chapters, and each chapter had around 1-3 illustrations. Gold is sprinkled on the background of the text.
    • Onna-e, reflects the subject matter reflected, it comments on the nature of women's lives. The women lived very strict lives inside of the inner quarters begind screens, they were trained to mask emotions. 
    • Style, made to look down on the scene from a high angle, as if the roof has been blown off "fukinuki yatai." There is little movement or action, the emphasis is on the costumes and the long rich hair. The faces are highly stylized and devoid of emotion "hikime kagibana." Emotion is felt through angles and rich use of colors "tsukuri-e" because of a thick application of opaque colors and created a subtle harmony of colors. Also, lines are used to outline the figures (lines are firm and even) also called "iron wire."
  • Heian period women were supposed to hide emotions completely.
  • Chapter 38 "Bell Cricket": A meeting between Genji and the emperor.
  • Chapter 36 "Oak Tree": Scene when Genjo receives his wife's son. He looks at the boy and knows it isnt his son, but another mans when Genji was gone neglecting his wife.

The Legend of Mount Shigi Scroll, handscroll,light color & ink on paper, Heian period, 794-1185

  • Example of Otako-e (mascline), and also yamato-e
  • Set of 3 handscrolls
  • Very active, color is not very vivid, a lot movement, dramatic facial expressions; Dramatic and full of action.
  • Subject matter, ususally based on true events with exaggerated facial expressions and physical activity, dramatic brush strokes
  • Priest Myoren, a Japanese Buddhist monk who founded a temple on Mount Shigi. He sits beside his rice bowl that people could have placed money or food in. 
  • The use of continous narration, only painting, no written story with this painting. 

Frolicking Animals Scroll, handscroll, ink on paper,

Heian period, 794–1185

  • Monochromatic
  • Animals are frolocking about
  • Otoko-e (masculine painting), line width variation, exaggerated movement, no color. 
  • Animals are mocking human actions

Major Counselor Ōtomo Scroll, handscroll, ink and color on paper, Heian period, 794–1185

  • In 866 the gate to the Imperial palace burnt down.
  • Major Otomo blamed rival for arson.
  • Emperor did not want to make a decision based on a rimor, so waited to see if more evident came up

Seated Shaka, cypress wood with traces of paint, Murōji Mirokudō, Heian period, 794–1185

  • Wood block was hollowed out so that the wood would dry evenly to avoid cracking.
  • Shaka is the buddha of the future.
  • Use of stylized drapery called honpa shiki (rolling wave pattern)
  • Figure is leaning forward, this creates a sense of tension
  • A heavy somewhat stern expression
  • The temple in which this Shaka lies is in the mountains.

Kondō, Murōji, outside Nara, Heian period,794–1185

  • Smaller in scale, not receiveing as much funding as like in the Nara period.
  • Conforming to the landscape
  • The roof is not tile, but cypress bark roofing, less elaborate
  • This Kondo only has enterance on one side
  • More natural looking compared to the Horyuji Kondo.

Diamond World Mandala, hanging scroll, color on silk, Tōji, Heian period, 794–1185

  • refers to the spiritual world, refers to the diamond like knowledge of the Buddhist universe
  • 9 squares laid out on a grid
  • Dainichi is depicted twice, at the very top in the middle, and in the very center-diamond fist mudra- supreme enlightenment 

Womb World Mandala, hanging scroll,color on silk, Tōji, Heian period, 794–1185

  • Mandala of the physical world in which we exist
  • Main deity in the very center is Dainichi with a simple meditation mudra inside of an 8 leafed lotus, each leaf holding a Buddha.
  • Court of wisdom is located directly below this middle section
    • the 5 kings of higher knowldege, enlightened. They are in wrathful form. Intended to destroy illusions. They have the power to destroy obstacles to Buddhism.



Fudō Myōō, painted wood, Tōji Lecture Hall, Heian period, 794–1185

  • Most important of the kings of higher knowledge
  • Is holding a lasso in one hand, to force people in to accept Buddhism
  • In the other hand is a sword representing the thunderbolt or supreme knowledge of Buddhism
  • Sits on top of a throne that looks like a stone
  • Often referred to as the "immovable one".

Hachiman Triad, painted wood, Yakushiji,

Heian period, 794–1185

  • Consists of 3 figures, Princess Nakatsu, Empress Jingu, and the main figure Hachiman (Emperor Ojin)
  • Depictions of Shinto deities
  • Kamis and Buddhist deities are considered different emanations of the same beings, just manifesting itself in different forms.
  • Hachiman serves as protector of Buddhism, a Shinto deity, god of war. Depicted as Emperor Ojin. Ojin was an emperor back in the Kofun period. 
  • Became deified over the years. Depicted just like a Buddhist monk. 
    • Empress Jingu -Ojin's mother
    • Princess Nakatsu -Ojin's wife
  • Medium and style reflect Shinto influence, figure retain a strong sense of Japanese-ness.
  • A celebration of the natural material
  • Believed that all 3 figures were carved of the same single block of wood, believed to have come from a sacred tree.

Shaka Nyorai, hanging scroll, color on silk, Jingoji, Heian period, 794–1185

  • Example of Buddhist art
  • A red outline was used to outline figures
  • Kiri-kane- cut gold technique

Amida Raigō Triptych, color and gold on silk,

Heian period, 794–1185

  • nearly 7 ft tall
  • Pure land Buddhism
  • Established in Japan, thanks to 2 monks in the 10th century. They went around Japan and spread the word about Amida Buddha (Buddha of the western paradise)
    • Monk kuya, advocated the chanting of Amida's name. Chanting allows entry into the Western Paradise.
    • Monk Genshin, describes Amida's Western Paradise and all of its glory. Also talks of an alternative, a type of hell.  He also talking about Amida coming down to collect the souls of the dying believer and take away to paradise. This is called Amida Raigo "Amida coming to welcome."
  • Becomes more influential because it is easier, can go to a paradise, open to all levels of society.
  • In the center Amida is depicted frontally as he sits on his lotus throne. Him and his followers are coming forwars on clouds, with wispy cloud tails behind them (lesser Buddha deities). They are carrying instruments, incense, banners. 
    • Kannon (butsu) is in the front holding a lotus pedestal. Use of kiri-kane. A hint of landscape in the yamato-e style.

Phoenix Hall, Byōdōin, Uji, Heian period, 794–1185

  • Uji was a suburb outside of the capital. A summer retreat of the Fujiwara family. Eventually turned into a Buddhist temple. The main building here is called Phoenix Hall. 
  • Dedicated in 1053. It resembles a Phoenix, some are depicted as finials.
  • The geography of the Hall reflects Amida's paradise.

Jocho, Amida, gilded wood, Byōdōin Phoenix Hall,

Heian period,794–1185

  • Located in the Phoenix Hall; over 9.5 feet tall
  • Assembled and carved of several blocks of wood and then gilded.
  • Yosegi, multiple blocks of wood technique.
  • Jocho was a celbrated sculptor, known for his wooden images.
  • Amida is raised high on a lotus throne, looking down on the viewer. Standard iconography, mudra of meditation.
  • Distinguished in the style, refined. Profound sense of tranquility, slender youthful body, slender proportions, depiction of a simple robe with naturalistic folds, simple gestures, and rounded head, gentle inward expression on his face.
  • Deities are fixated around this room surrounding the viewer and Amida. They are sculpted as well.
  • On the doors are painted scenes of Amida
  • Scripture is also written on wall. 

1) jōmon

2) dogū

3) dōtaku

4) kofun


1. "Cord pattern"

2. Small hollow clay figurines

3. Bell shaped item made of metal

4. "Old Tomb" and the period


5) Haniwa

6) Shinto

7) Kami

8) Amaterasu

  1. "clay circle" earthenware clay sculpture
  2. "Way of the Gods"
  3. Deities and spirits of the shinto religion. Can be people of the past, protectors of the clans. They can also be beautiful natural places such as waterfalls.

  4.  Sun goddess and she is the ancestor of the Imperial family.


9) Buddha

10) Shaka

11) Parinirvana

12) Circumambulate

  1. Prince living in Northern India around 5th century B.C. Attains enlightenment discovering the truth.
  2. Historical Buddha
  3. Final death of Buddha at age 80 in a grove of trees.
  4. Circling an object in worship

13) Mahayana Buddhism

14) Mudra

15) Bodhisattva

16) Prince Shotoku



  1. Developed a few hundred years after the Buddha's death. "The Greater Vehicle" Travels over to eastern Asia. Depictions of Buddha and belief that there are many Buddhas.
  2. Symbolic hand gestures; hands up mean fear not; hands turning means setting the wheel of law in motion.
  3. Recieved enlightenment but have resolved not to enter Nirvana until the last being has achieved the same state. (approachable, popular)
  4. Greatest Buddhist patron and responsible for the widespread conversion.

20) Pagoda

21) Kondō

22) ToriBusshi

23) Kannon

  1. Reliquary is on the ground in the center, many have stairs leading up to upper stories.
  2. Main Image Hall, can be circumambulated, no space for congregation
  3. Maker of the Buddhist images, important sculptor, grandfather came from continent
  4. Butsu of compassion, duty was to save the believer, became the mots popular deity in East Asia, holds a wish granting jewel, sacred.

25) Jataka

26) Miroku

27) Amida

28) Yakushi

  1. Story of a Buddhist past life.
  2. Buddha of the future
  3. Buddha of the Western Paradise
  4. Medicine Buddha

29) Nara

30) EmperorShōmu

31) Birushana

32) kongō

33) Ganjin

  1. Period named after present day city of Nara which was once the capital.
  2. Second Great emperor of Buddhism, Todaiji was built for him.
  3. Cosmic Buddha
  4. Diamond lightning bolt or diamond scepter
  5. Established school of Buddhism called Ritsu


34) Kichijōten

35) Heian-kyo

36) Fujiwara

37) cut gold(kiri-kane)

38) byōbu

  1. Decree issued from Empress Koken that this deity be prayed at all of the provincial temples.
  2. Capital of peace and tranquility
  3. Dominant clan in the Heian period. Married their daughters to the Emperors. Helped give them control.
  4. Gold foil was cut and applied to the surface of an object
  5. Folding Screen

40) Yamato-e

41) Lady Murasaki
42) emakimono
43) onna-e
44) blown-offroof(fukinukiyatai)
  1. Japanese style painting
  2. Wrote the most famous example of Womens literature of the Heian period called the Tale of Genji
  3. Illustrated narrative handscroll
  4. Women's painting, refers to the subject matter depicted.
  5. Blown off roof, onna-e normally have this style, viewers can see down into the building

45) hikime kagibana

46) tsukuri-e

47) otoko-e

48) Priest Myōren

49) ichiboku

  1. “a line for the eye,a hook for the nose”
  2. manufactured painting 
  3. Masculine painting; dramatic, full of action; typically based on true events, dynamic brush strokes, exaggerated physical movements and facial expressions

  4. single block of wood technique; didnt hollow center

50) Honpashiki

51) Kūkai

52) Shingon Buddhism

53) Mandala

54) Pure Land Buddhism

  1. rolling-wave pattern
  2. founded Esoteric Buddhism
  3. Shingon Buddhism
  4. Mandala
  5. Focused on Amida
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