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Art in Mexico Test 2
Second test
Undergraduate 3

Additional Art/Design Flashcards




ALtar Q, COpan, 700-800, Maya

it as 16 images of copan rulers.
Four on each side.
1st Ruler faces 16th, and gives scepter as if passing on the power to rule.
1st ruler is wearing googgle eyes masks, like Tlaloc. as if showing antiquity.
All other rulers are sitting on their name glyphs, 1st on isn't, but name is in his hat.
portrait-esque or like.
metal tools not used.
Murals, Bonampak, 700-800, Maya

Bonampak, must fly in.
Natives still dress and function like ancient Mayans.
Not connected with the rest of the world, so deep in the jungle.
1940 discovered by Jiles Helays.
Rooms are very casual and have a-symetry. Very life like
Primally using Contour lines, and No shading.

Room one.
all walls and vaults are painted.
Top-nobles dressed elab.
Leader wearing Jaguar skins, being prepared for the ceremony for the baby that is the next king.
Band with Gylphs and Seated Fig, seperate the top and bottom.
Lower- blue, showing a later party. People dancing and playing music (Maracas) with Animal impersonators.

Room 2
Battle, between Bonampak, and nearby village.
dispensing of prisoners from battle.
Shows depth because figs. overlap and strong diags. and action.
Could be compared to Raphels painting, School of Athens.
Animal Headdresses = military insignia
prisoners being tortured and beheaded.
Blood is coming from hands.
Book says that 5 figs to leaders right are wives.

Room 3
Bloodletting, after battle.
M/F rulers bloodletting.
Remaining prisoners are dispatched on pyr.
Ceramic FIg. Jaina Island, ca 700, Maya

Found in Burial.
SOme made by molds, others hand made. 9-10 inches tall
two figs might be deities,
old man, younger woman is pop theme, reinforced patrilinear society.
Age valued over youth.
Animal skin cape,
Some are functional.
Nunnery Quad. Uxmal, 800-900, Pucc Maya

on a hill with other hills in distance.
building are built on various levels.
unexcavated mound.
Place where historical fig -Quetzalcoatl, studied reli.
well defended.
blend of maya and cen mexico.
Stelae in plaza- which is Maya not Mex. but carved in mex, style.
has lattice work.
Pyr. of the Feathered Serpent

Talude- Tablero has gylphs of dif places that paid tribute.
Flaring Cornic.
NO Maya Vaulting.

Elab Carving-
Two long serpent on Long sides, two short serpents on short sides.
Spiral disign- undulating serpent with seated fig inside.
NOt individualized .
Joined stones- mass productions?
Speech Scrolls and dates.
HIgh ranking?
Pyr B and Atlantean columns, Tula 850-1150, Toltec

Has 4 levels.
Top- images of Jag and Coyotes as military symbols.
MID- eagles consuming human hearts and recessed is Quetzalcoatl as Venus.

TOp of pyr, pillars remain.
Warrior Pillars.
Stiff Form, No individualized face, beaded headband with tall feather headdress.
wide breast plate,
loin cloth,
the knots are important,
atl atl in right hand,
decorated sandals,
and warsheilds on their back,
and there are 4 total.
Series of Drums connected by dowls.
The Castillo, Chichen Izta 850-1200 Toltec Maya

Symmetrical from ground. in middle of plaza
N. side of temple is Enterance, other don't lead to the altar/room. inside is a carved sone jaguar throne.
Ballstrades are feathered serpent, with heads on the ground.
Reminder of Maya Concept of Time, which is cyclical.
there are 92 stairs on N. side, and 91 on all the rest, 365 in all. 52 recessed panels on each side (calendars restart together every 52 yrs.)
Equinoxes(the day and night are equal), twice a yr on March 21, and Sept. 23 make cast shadows. (plumed serpent comes out of the sky.)
9 levels = burial, but it is not found yet, maybe Quetzalcoatl?
Chac Mool, Chichen Itza, 850-1200, Toltec Maya

Made from Stone.
Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, 850-1200, Toltec maya

ALOT LIKE TULA, or pyr. B. Two huge serpents w/ tails in air, plumed going up the stairs. at the top of the stairs is chac mool, or reclining fig/ fallen warrior. Head faces out, while holding a depression in abdomen, where he receives sacrifices
Chacmool, Tula, 850-1200, Toltec.
Codex Dresden, Yucatan, ca. 1250, Maya

Religious ritual, not historical almanacs.
10 in. tall 3 1/2 in wide.
Writing and illustrations are separate
Corn goddess, Death goddess.
Quetzalcoatl as planet Venus, holding spear thrower.
24 good and evil spirits.
Made on bark paper.
Folding Screen
Codex Nuttall, Oaxaca, 1200-1500, Mixtec.

screen folds are like an accordian.
Usually made out of animal skins, usually deer.
Codex Borgia, Puebla, 14th cent. Mixtec.

very complex. 6-8 left, all but in is in Europe, other is in Mexico. (Conqestador sent them back to king.)
They are either Religious or Historical.
Historical shows geneologies and dynasitc history going back to the 10th cent. and up to the 16th.
Religious is ritual or lore info.
Both are consulted by spiritual leaders or kings. They were hung around the top of the wall of the residence of a learned person.
Palaces, Mitla, 14th cent. Mixtec.

"Town of the Dead" (at the valley of Oaxaca) because of the tombs found there.
Palaces wrap around court. Primarily residential.
Spanish built church right ontop one palace.
Steps go the tomb under palaces.
People would come here to settle disputes. They would go into tombs and drink. Big party afterwards.
Walls here are complex. Talud-Tablero except the wall tilts outward. Each pattern is dif and reps. a dif village textiles.
Made in limestone.
Lentils over doorway are painted. Walls also have painted lores on them.
Gold Pectoral Ornaments from Tomb 7, Monte Alban, 14th cent, Mixtecs.
Elaborate Burials, gold, ceramics, beads, and rock crystal.
Xipe, the flayed one. There are two dates in the manuscripts, left is wind god, right is HOuse and #.
The Second longer pectoral ornam. is ballcourt with two competing figs. A solar disk, with a ring of fire. A flint knife is symbol of he moon. A frog face is the earth symbol.
Temple Mayor, Tenochtitlan 1487, Aztec

Aztecs call themselves Mexica. We know alot about them, they are supposed to originate from mythical place, Aztlan. the town they settled in is Tenochitilan, because the eagle perching on a cactus, holding a serpent in its beak. which was sign for them to stop, where they built the city Tenochtitlan.
Templo Mayor is a double temple, of Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli which are national Aztec gods. used for sacrifices, illustrated by Father Duran, shows blood flowing down stairs. Father Sahagun illustrates in with a ballcourt, building and a rack for skulls.
Excavation = drama, Indians past: wanted, Contemporary past: didn't want it.
Few canals survive today @ Xochimilco Xochitl=flower, milpa=place, chtli=field. Pyr. rebuilt after 52 yrs when cal realign.
Current streets is part of the old one.
huge market
Aztecs are vegetarians.
Codex Medoza, Tenochtitlan,1540-42, Colonial.

Not pre-hispanic but some of content is.
List of some aztec emperors
Aztec warriors wore cotton armor. used clubs studded with blades. Shows dif tribute collected, jag skins, jade beads, feathers, shown with town names.
Also has pages of professions, drummer, ballplayer, gambler, carver, painter, goldsmith, thief and drunk. women professions are cooking cleaning and weaving.
Spanish took away colorful clothing and make them wear white.
Sculpture is important for Aztecs
coatlicue, Tenochtitlan, 15th cent. Aztec.
Excavated in 1790s was in main sq. for a while them hidden due to spanish.
Sculpture might have been in a shrine to aztec deity. Shrine was of wood or something edible.
Coatlicue stuck a turkey feather in boobs and became preg.
Coyoxauhqui was her daughter, the moon goddess. Mother became preg. again and daughter got jealous. She cuts her mothers head off. The son, (Huitzilpochtli) who dismembers sister, either by pulling off limbs or throwing her off the pyr.
Coatlicue is an image with woman beheaded with serpent heads, wearing a necklace of severd hands and extracted hearts and skulls. Serpent heads repalcing arms. Woven serpents make up skirt. Has hariy legs and claw feet. Might have menstrual flow or penis between legs. Sun or earth god carved in bottome. Sculpture leans forward and shallow, on top pyr.
Similar to great goddess at teo, because compact, squarish design.
Highest lvl of afterlife reserved for mother died in childbirth, men who died in battle.
Coyoxauhqui, Tenochtitlan, 15th cent, Atzec.

12 ft. in diameter
found at foot of pyr. facing up. as if to be seen from above.
Found dismembered, like the myth.
Solar symbols.
Taloc faces at joints.
Solar ray earrings.
Skull attached to belt.
Has a headdress.
Calendar Stone, Tenochtitlan, 1502+, Atzec.
NOT a calendar.
12ft in diameter.
24 tons.
MOst carving on one side, solar stuff on top cyllindrical stone.
Was painted
Expains a crucial part of Aztec world view, blood sacrifice.
Sacrificed alot!
Reference to the 5th age/ or 5th sun.
Started on 13 reed, which is about 1011.
the 4 previous sun are illustrated,
Earth, wind, fire, water- cen. of monument.
Glyph for movement "ollin" 4 dots with twisted H shape
Prediction that the world will end, if not enough sacrifice.
Goddess in cen. with knife tongue and claws holding hearts.
Associated with fallen sun, earth, goddess.
She demands sacrifices.
20 glyphs of 20 days named in Sacred calendar, NOT solar calendar. encircling this are two fiery solar serpents coming out of sky w/ human head coming out if mouths, becoming a crown.
Past and future and need foe sacrifice.
Usually have depression that lets out blood.
La Soledad, Oaxaca, 1689-95, Pilgrimage Church.
built where someone was healed.
Soledad= sadness/ loneliness
Based off of a folding altar piece.
Elements: virgin mary.
Levels lowest Tustan highest is Solamonic
Gabriel has scroll, because of inuciation
lower level- virgin, soledad, the death of the son is over door way.
Top is the imaculet conception of Mary.
Saints are in niches
Carving is deep, with strong diag,
St. peters = keys
has good gender parade
as many female st as male.
Lucy has eyes plucked out known because eyes are on plate.
St. Rosa first st in new world. founder of social work, identified with crown of roses.
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