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Art History: Second Exam
Ancient Aegean's, Ancient Greeks, Ancient Etruscan's, Ancient Romans
Art History
Undergraduate 3

Additional Art History Flashcards




Ancient Greece
-what was the focus of the art
-how were greek artists
-how was it organized
-how did they see the gods
-the most influential and biggest influence of western art today is this ancient civilization (can be seen in our art today)
-greek art was human centric "man is the measure of all humans
-greeek artists were ever changing and restless creating new evolving trends...very different from the ancient Egyptians who stuck to tradition
-Was organized into city states which were called polis
-athena being the city that was highly focused on education and art, and the first to create a democracy
-they saw their gods through a human lenses in which they would act human....was the sky gods vs the earth gods win. Zeus=in power. This mythology is very complex and a big part of Greek Art and Architecture.
Geometric Period
-period that is characterized by the type of base painting on pottery
-was the most abstract of all Greek art periods
-was stylized by rudimentary shapes...very abstract
Man and Cenatur
-this was apart of the Geometric Period
-we see very simple, abstract, and un-life like depictions of a man battling a centaur and most likely stabbing him (battling a centaur is a theme seen a great deal in Greek art)
-the bodies are not complex and made of shapes, and there is an open space between both figures where you can look at the art in all different viewpoints
-demonstrates the internal battle between innate desires and trying to control them, shows dualism, this is between intellect and basic needs, mind overcoming body
-maybe was some time of votive statues for these were usually found in sanctuaries
-made of bronze
Funerary Vase (krator) from the diplyon cemetery...
-was during the geometric period
-is a krator: in which you mix water and wine
-definitely would have been for an elite person, in order to honor/commemorate their work
-so we have two basic geometric registers. The top is of a persons body lying down dead, and people lined up beside them holding their hands on their head in anguish. The bottom is of a solemn procession in which men are on chariots drawn by horses and on foot. They people are made of geometric shapes, with triangular bodies, rectangular arms and legs, triangular head, and circles for eyes...emphasizing the geometric period.
-was probably a grave marker, also you could pour liquids through it onto graves... their was an open bottom
-made of terra red clay... and slip-which was the black paint which is watered down paint
Orientalizing Period
-this is a period in which there was a good amount of influence from ancient Egypt and the ancient aries... hence the name orient-meaning east...drawn from all these nations in order to create style
-stepping away from dense linear decoration to something new
-was created in Corinth
Archaic Period
-archaic meaning old
-Greeks had not reached their goal yet,but were trying, for perfect harmony and balance mathematically
-elvation...arrangement of art
-order... system of architecture (like columns)
1)doric (archaic)
2)ionic (end of archaic)

^above is simple to complex, and earliest to oldest
-columns would always try to intimate body parts
-three parts to columns
-all were suppose to be perfectly balanced in which Greek architects spent much time on this
Temple of Hera
-this was during the archaic period
-there was two temples dedicated to hera, wife of Zeus, and therefore this is named the first.... this temple might have also been for two gods due to the two entrance ways and two aisles contained...maybe Hera and Zeus or Hera and Poseidon
-the structure contained columns surrounding the exterior: which there were just columns no walls... the columns were Doric for they were simple and wide. The Temple also contained a Cella or sometimes known as a Pronaos... this was the room contained in the temple in which there would usually be a large statue of the god/goddess and you could offer your prayers here. There was most likely columns in the middle of the room to support it. These rooms were extremely ornate and decorated due to the offerings made and the statue. The temple today contains no rooof for most temples during this time were most likely wood....therefore they roof has been destroyed over time. The roof would have been triangular with a perdiment at the front and back that would contain many sculptures. The temple was also shaped in a rectangle due to the fact that Greeks thought that this was the most perfectly sound shape.
Dying Warrior
-this was in the archaic time period...found in the temple of aphia,eastern pediment
-you see a man made of marble that is lying down with his weight on his hip and shield...he is trying to get an arrow out of his bicep...however, death looks inevitable.
-this is better than the temple of Atreus, with the Medusa, on the pediment. The Medusa had to be shrunk down giving it a weird proportion in order to fit on the pediment. The dying warrior is cleverly placed on his side in order to make him evenly proportioned and get his whole body in it. Also more naturalistic.
-would have been painted and had golden accessories creating it more life like.
-The emotion seen here also gives a great deal of empathy to the dying warrior!
Anavysos Korous
Korous-free standing statue...
-many found in which most are immobile, standing upright, look like they cant move, archaic smile, musucular and young
...however this one has a bit more detail and individualism making him a little more life like
-thought of as symbolic, not a real person, although the name krisios was written on the bottom
-maybe was diety but very few detail, most like a stand in statue for those in temples for gods.
"Peplos" Kore
-from the archaic period
-gets the name "peplos" for this was what the girl appears to be wearing in the kore statue...there are quotations around them name due to the fact that some people do not believe this is a peplos
-made at the same time, and basically the female version of anavysos koroous
-has the same immobile position in which she is free standing, however, she is clothed which is different from the men. Most of the time women were fully clothed and the men were named during this time...most likely due to the fact that the male body was thought to be the most beautiful
-she at one time had accesories and painting which made her more life like. The painting at one point revealed a scenery of animals all in which you hunt so we wonder... was this a statue of artemis (god of hunting) or another goddess
-found at many gravesites...funerary statue?
*archaic smile, made of marble
Achilles and ajax playing a game
-this was during the archaic period
-the artist was exekias...great artist in painting dramatic scenes
-uses black figure ware
-is an amphora which is a vase characterized by shape and size
-the story is told starting with ajax and Achillies playing a game... you can see that Achillies is clearly going to win for his helmet is is almost as if the two are playing for the lives... the vase also Chronicles after achillies dies in battle (from being hit in the ankle..."Achilles heel") and ajax is carrying him back.... When ajax does not get Achilles old army which he thought he would...he is so sad that he kills himself falling on his own sword.
-this piece of art shows exekias ability to say so much in a story without painting that much
The Classical Period
...This is the most significant time in art... in which the greeks finally reach their their goal
-three parts to it
goal is
1)prefect proportions 2)natural
3 words that greek scholars associate with this time... 1)humanism 2)idealism 2)rationalism
Early Classical
-time period where the persians have destroyed athens leaving city states in chaos
-time known as the severe style in which the art takes on a more somber image...most likely due to the war
-athens and sparta team together in an alliance in order to overthrow persia... shows a new self confidence in them
The Kritian Boy
-early classical...
-made of marble
-you see a man that is nude and very athletic... he looks more life like then what was seen in the archaic time... much more detail.
Also due to the composato... in which their weight shifted to one side giving him a more relaxed life like image... causing hips to twist and shoulders to face the other way. Much more relaxed then the arachic also.... this position dominated classical age...fully developed in high classical.
-calm expression.... shows a self confidence in this time period
Warrior A (Riace Warrior)
-early classical period...found at riace italy from a shipwreck
-it is very uncommon for us to find bronze... this is due to the fact that it was really sought out during this time... it was easy to bend and durable making it preferred. Therefore, many would take these arts and melt them down in order to create something else.
-this structure takes the compastoo even further, he is so detailed that they even draw his veins in his arms, gold paint on his lips and nipples, thick beard, completely nude and muscular.
-we think this was used in order to symbol war between persia and greece
great example of greek naturalism and idealism of the body
High Classical Period of Greece
-the period in which Greek Scholars think Greece art reached it's goal...even labeling it the "golden age"...even though there was a lot of war and destruction going on at this time
-there was no central enemy at this time so Athens and Sparta had a civil war...Pelpoenisian War.
-Sparta was a very simple town that had unfancy clothes and art and trained individuals at a young very different from Athens.
-pekiles dominated athenian politics
-contained an acropolis....this was a city on a hill...and a holy city. Persians burned down they wanted to make it better than ever showing them that they were back.
The Parthenon
-this was during the high classical age...located in Athens Greece...Acropolis
-temple dedicated to the goddess of Athea
-artists were Ikitnos and Kalikrates...they were very smart in mathematics and architecture which was needed to create this perfect structure
-the most beautiful temple made in Greece at the time
-the entire thing made out of white marble, even the roof. The Cella/Pronoas...contained 40 foot statue of Athena completely made out of gold. Every block of marble was carved in which there were sculptures. Many that showed the life of Athena and her story.
they used the...
-4:9 ratio in which there is a relationship of the diameter of a columns and the distance between them
-Entasis: technique in which the top and bottom would swell and curve slight from top to bottom, base and entabulature would curve to fix the optical illusion in which far away horizontal lines look like they sag.
-had a two on the outer around the peristyle, and the other on on the inside of the cella
-one on the outside... shows centaurs and greeks battling
-inside...procession in which greeks would make huge peplos dress for the statue of that Athenians are healthy and vigorous people

This temple was to:
1) show triumph of democratic city states over imperial Persia
2)to show Athena's greatness and thank her (shown in procession frieze)
3)To show greeks fighting off outsiders like the barbs (cenaturs symbolize barbs in frieze)
Nike (Victory) Adjusting her Sandal
-the high classical a smaller temple than the parthenon...therefore this temple is more innate
-we know it is her by the wings on her
-no head today
-has a wet like drape look that emphasizes the female body...basically can see whats going on underneath
-shows greek moving to different of the most discreetly erotic images in ancient art...
-more attention to female body is new starts in this age
...this was created during the high classical age
-the artist is polkletios who is known for developing a canon which a form they use to measure a perfectly proportioned body...has a basic unit and create a ratio with these body parts
-he also shows symmetry and a controposto
-the original was called the "spear bearer"... now there are just roman copies cause those don't exist anymore ...was originally made of bronze
The Late Classical Period
...period in which there was great adversity...a lot of political upheaval.
-phillip the second, kind of Macedonia, took over Greece and made them macedonian ...they are apart of them
It changes art, but only in a subtle ways
-shows more dieties than just Zeus and Athena and -also showed more eroticism
Alexander the Great
...was the song of Phillip the II, he dies around when Alexander is 20. He is extremely smart (taught by aristole at one point) and a great leader.
-in revenge he conquers Persia which is a huge the battle of issos
~he conquers many other places, but dies young at 33... he leaves the country in turmoil... (Hellenistic period)
Hermes and the infant of dionysos
-this is in the late classical period
-this is a great example of feminized sculpture in in Greek art...he is in an S pose in which his weight is shifted to give his body a more curvy look to it...he has a smaller head than dophorous...also more slender and curvy
-originally thought to be made by praxiteles...not now just thought to be a roman copy looks humanized with the narrative of the story between the two gods... hermes looking at the child nuturing manner, kid looking at him as playful ...nice companionship
-is ephebe...only male..beautiful god or lover of a god
Aphrodite of Knidos
-late classical period..found on the island of knidos
-praxiletes... he was the first to show a women fully nude, at this time it was thought of as bad character. Only men had been fully nude, but he made this extremely life like sculpture of Aphrodite. She is about to take a bath...
-she was made very erotic... gave her the pose of venus pudica pose... trying to cover up body parts,however, drawing attention to them. It is modest and erotic at the same time. S
-shows transition from nike fixing her sandal (water drape) to being fully nude. -was so beautiful there was an open shrine for it even though it was daring at the time
-toned body w/ knee seductively swelling
Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Isssos
-late classical period of the Greeks
-mosaic using the mosiac a 3D look to it for they use light and shanding
-you see the battle in which both Alex the Great and King of Persia Darius come to.... almost looks like a duel between two
-Darius has hand outstretched as almost as to admit to defeat before he is carried to the safe territory of Persia
Important for shows:
-the dramatic shift of politics at this time
-the growing taste for dramatic narratives that is soon to come
-really elicits emotion
Hellenistic Period
-hellen..meaning greek for this is a time where greece style gets very spread out
-after alex the great dies there is turmoil in which his 3 genearls fight over the land, eventually split the land in threes...longest lasting is egypitan
-will soon all be overtaken by Rome
-period that starts to focus on the individual, mortal instead of god, to emotion. Art becomes very DRAMATIC! ..start to break from rigid greek art and architecture..
Altar from Pergamon
-Hellenistic period ... located in pregamon...modern day turkey but now in berlin
-was similar but different to classical greek temples.
-the frieze is on the bottom of the altar in order to create drama... it's eye level and makes the altar higher. The altar is a precinct...
-it also is dramatic in the fact that the sculpters on the frieze are actually coming off the temple and onto the steps...dramatic and life like
-the frieze depicts the battle of earth gods from sky gods (symbolizing the battle between greeks this case it would be the gauls)
...ionic columns however breaks away in some aspects from greek art...also has diagnol lines instead of horizontal further breaking away...contrast of light and dark opposed to evenly illuminated...huge arrangment of emotions that demands you to empathize with the art
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