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Art His Final
Art History
Undergraduate 3

Additional Art History Flashcards




1) What is Modernist Architecture?
• Internationally known as Art Nouveau
• European movement, known as Spain’s modernismo
• Sought to reflect modern advances and the modern lifestyle in its designs
2) What is the Revival period?
• This European movement( Spain’s modernismo) , evolved to reflect the modern lifestyle and allow the implementation of former styles known as Revival Period
• Known as the Revivalist Styles: Neo-Gothic, Neo-Renaissance, Neo- Mudejar, Neo Romanesque
3) The Cathedral of Almudena, in Madrid, is a good example of what? It was designed by?
• Architect: Francisco de Cubas
• Elements of different styles can be admired in: Cathedral of Almudena/ outside- Neo-Classical/ inside- Neo-Gothic/ crypt – Neo- Romanesque
4) Gaudí: summary of his life & works.
• Born near Barcelona
• Most famous Modernist architects of all time
• Studied architect at University of Barcelona
• Credited for showing this new style to Spain
• Went further as an innovator : designed buildings, interior design, furniture
• A student of Gothic Style
• Influenced by: French architect Eugene Viollet-le-Duc( reinvented Gothic Style)
• Most remembered for contributing to the Sagrada Familia church in Barcelona / became an architect there
• Works: Casa Figueras, Barcelona/ Casa Mila, Barcelona/ Casa Batllo, Barcelona
5) Anibal González: summary of his life & works.
• Student of New Mordernist architectural style/ designed Café Paris ( based on the Parisian influenced of Modernism)- last Modernist Design
• New designs: based on Neo- Mudejar and Neo- Gothic styles that began the Andalusian Regionalism style
• This new style: he designed Edificio Manuel Noriega
• Under New Regionalist style: designed several private homes for prominent people of Seville ( Casa “el barril”)
• Most remembered for his contributions as director of the Ibero- American Exposition in 1929
6) Santiago Calatrava: summary of his life & works.
• Born in Valencia
• Began studies in architecture, traveled to Zurich and earned a PhD in civil engineering
• His work: combined traditional architectural design with civil engineering
Renders a grandiose but slender and harmonious style
• Designed different buildings: (libraries, airports, office complex) most famous for his bridges
• Was chosen to design the Olymics Sports Complex for the 2004 Olympics in Athens
• His Designs have be criticized for: lacking utility, originality, being repetitive, non- environmentally friendly materials, and for their impracticality
7) Who were Pablo Gargallo & Eduardo Chillida?
Pablo Gargallo:
• Influencial developer of comtemporary sculpture (avante- garde movement) in Spain
• Born near Zaragoza in 1881
• Studied art in Barcelona/ traveled to Paris to study works by Rodin
• Lived with Picasso (who greatly influenced him)/ met many Vanguard painters such as Max Jacobs
• For the next 20 years, he worked between Paris and Barcelona, learning new styles and meet new artists who influenced him
• His creative tendencies went towards analytical cubism ( influenced by Picasso and Juan Gris)
• This period marked his experiments with new materials, not just iron but also lead and copper
• Last years of his life: reverted back to his love or iron, creating his most famous piece The Prophet (Died of pneumonia on the day of the opening)
• Most prominent vanguard sculpturer of the early 20th century
Eduardo Chillida
• Born in San Sebastia
• Moved to Madrid to study architecture, shortly after pursued a football carrier
• 1940 back to Madrid to paint and draw
• His work with iron brought him success and notoriety( similar work to Jorge Oteiza)
• 1950: Married and went to Paris to study- here his style was defined, moving back to San Sebastian in 1951
• Work: Use of iron, cement, concrete. Style called informalism, also known as abstract expressionism (Us/Uk)
• Informalism- figure is avoided in favor of the artists rendition
• His work is characterized for being of monumental scale and avoiding figure art
8) Define two (2) of these styles: Realism, Impressionism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Surrealism. Give example of painters and works.
• Realism: (began in France in 1850s) this style depicts daily life and activity
• Realist artists opposed the idealization found during the neoclassical period
• Painter: Francisco Goya – precursor to this style in Spain
• Goya’s paintings/ works : 2ond of May of 1808 and 3rd of May of 1808
• Costumbrismo is a similar style found in Spain
• Expressionism: (Began in Germany as a reaction to Impressionism in early 20th century)
• Characterized for trying to express emotion and feelings
• Painter: El Greco as a precursor
• Work: Martirio de San Mauricio
• Some of the influences filtered into Cubism when arrived to France from Germany
9) Small biography, including examples of works, of two (2) of these artists: Fortuny, Pradilla Ortiz, Joaquin Sorolla, Miro, Granell, Tapies, Laffon, Lopez, Valdes, Barcelo.
• Pradilla Ortiz: initiated his studies in Zaragoza, then later Madrid, traveling to Rome and then Paris.
• Returned to Spain and painted Doña Juana la Loca earning the Medal of Honor at the National Exhibition of Spain
• Spanish Senate commissioned him for another piece, La Rendacion de Granada
• Held many academic posts in Roman and Madrid. He later left to continue painting
• Most of his works are of a historical nature but he is considered a constumbrista, demonstrating Impressionistic and Realism tendencies
• Died in Madrid
• Juaquin Sorolla:
Born in Valencia, began academic career as a painter at a very young age, known as his formative stage
• Traveled to the US where Hispanic Society commissioned some of his work/commissioned a series of paintings to portray different aspects of Spanish Society resulting in the painting Provinces of Spain 1911-1919 ( he had to travel all over Spain to depict scenes of everyday life and regional festivals/ works he is most remembered for)
• Also held an exposition at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1911
• Died in Madrid
• Painted portrait of President William Taft at the White House
• Most important Spanish Impressionist artist
10) Picasso or Dali: summary of his life & works.
Dali was born in Figuera, Catalonia. He demonstrated his painting abilities at a young age. He is one of the most prominent surrealist artist in history. He also worked in sculpture, photography, and moving pictures. Dali experimented with Impressionism at a young age, from this period came Landscape Near Figueras and The Boat.
In 1922, Dali moved to Madrid to study at the Academy of San Fernando. There he met Federico Garcia Lorca and Luis Buñuel. Dali was expelled on the day of his final exams and then decided to travel to Paris a year after where his friend Joan Miro introduced him to Pablo Picasso. During
this period , Dali worked with the style that made Picasso famous: cubism. Dali abandoned Picasso's style and was integrated into Breton's movement where here made the Pierrot and the Guitar and Muchaca en la Ventana.
Dali became integrated into the surrealist movement with the work of The Great Masturbator. His first visit to NYC resulted in him having to issue a public apology, which the surrealists were not pleased with. Additionally, he further aggravated the movement by not denouncing fascism. This lead to Dali being tried by his surrealist peers and expelled from the movement, to which Dali replied "I am Surrealism." Soon afterwards he moved to NYC where he painted The Enigma without End marking his introduction to the American Market. He was nicknamed "Avida Dollars" or greedy money but Breton. After the end of WWII Dali moved back to Figueras where he remained till his death.
The final period of his life was characterized by conservative Catholicism and the lack of creativeness. He also moved away from surrealism but combined different techniques and copied masters such as Velazquez or Goya. The Modonna of Port lligat are representative of his new found faith. During this period he reinterpreted previous works of art such as Las Meninas.
11) Which Spanish painters are considered fathers of Cubism?
• Picasso and Juan Gris
12) Eugenio Granell is considered to be?
• Considered to be the last great Spanish Surrealist Painter/ characterized for his depictions of nature and animal life
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