# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Art/Arch Awareness Test 3
Flashcards based on Rudy's Powerpoints
58
Art History
Undergraduate 1
10/27/2010

## Cards Return to Set Details

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 Vers Pont du Gard, France c. 19 BC - 50 AD Built by the ancient Romans to deliver water to Nîmes, France
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 Problem:  To deliver water from Uzès to Nîmes (the ancient city of Nemausus) a distance of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles).  •   Terrain consists of rolling hills     and steep valleys • •   Gradient between Uzès and Nîmes of 17 meters     over the entire length)
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 Pont du Gard
Definition
 •   Gradient between Uzès and Nîmes of 17 m over the     entire length of 50 km Do the math:  What is the rate of the gradient?  •   In centimeters per kilometer •   In feet per mile Note: 1 meter = 39.37 inches    1 kilometer = 1000 meters    1 meter = 100 centimeters    1 mile = 5280 feet Do the math:  What is the rate of the gradient?   Determine cm/km 17 m    ~  x m 50 km      1 km    17 ÷ 50 = .34m/km = 34 cm/km 17 m x 39.37 in/m = 669.29 in = 55.774 feet 55.774 ft drop  = 1.8 ft/mi = 1’- 9  19/32  in/mile     31     miles
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 Pont du Gard
Definition
 Dimensions: Lower level:  6 arches, 22 meters high, with road     Middle level:  11 arches, 20 meters high Upper level:  47 arches, 7 meters high with water channel 1.8 meters high and 1.2 meters wide Longest span: 24 m 52 cm Shortest span: 4 m 80 cm (consistent) Delivered 5 million gallons of water daily to Nîmes
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 Pont du Gard
Definition
 Dimensions: Lower level:  6 arches, 22 meters high, with road     Middle level:  11 arches, 20 meters high Upper level:  47 arches, 7 meters high with water channel 1.8 meters high and 1.2 meters wide Longest span: 24 m 52 cm Shortest span: 4 m 80 cm (consistent) Delivered 5 million gallons of water daily to Nîmes
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 A masonry arch 1. Keystone 2. Voussoir 3. Extrados 4. Impost 5. Intrados 6. Rise 7. Clear span 8. Abutment
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 Engineers created the first  reinforced concrete structures    Reinforced concrete grain elevators, Buffalo, New York
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 Design and Engineering Is about “figuring things out”, from the grandest to the every day. Sapporo Beer Can: in house Design by Sapporo Brewery, Tokyo, Japan 1977           Formed from aluminum with multi- faceted sides and “S” curve profile Ask yourself how you would make this object.  How did the factory do It?
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 Albert Kahn
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 Albert Kahn (1869-1942), Detroit, MI Known for the Fisher Building, he is overlooked as a genius of modern industrial architecture             He had a vision for the American factory.  He wanted larger spans, more height and natural light.  He worked closely with structural engineers to achieve this.
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 Albert Kahn kept refining his concept, adding more height and clerestory windows.                    Automobile plant from the 1920’s.  Structural          Engineering was a key element in the design solution.
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 Albert Kahn    masterpiece
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 Masterpiece: He reached the pinnacle of his concept with the Dodge Truck Plan, Warren, MI., 1938   Exterior view showing extensive use of glass and unusual clerestory roof/window. Unusual beams follow roof line.
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 Form and Function Louis Sullivan (1856-1924)  An amateur botanist, and close observer of nature, he noted: “Form (ever) follows function”. He was hired by Dankmar Adler, an engineer and became his business partner. This phrase seems to hold most true for objects in nature, and man made objects that express how they were made and/or which are designed to perform in extreme conditions.
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 Guaranty Building, Louis Sullivan, Architect Buffalo, New York, 1894 With this early steel frame “high rise”building, he sought to express columns at exterior walls and to emphasize height. The building’s terra cotta panels exhibit elaborate ornamental designs based on plant life. It could be argued this is an expressive “function”.  A poetic architect’s striving to convey the notion his building is a natural object.
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 Function, Project Description: Store large quantities of water above grade to ensure a steady supply under pressure.  Solutions…   Reinforced concrete        cantilevered funnel shape
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 Function, Project Description: Store large quantities of water above grade to ensure a steady supply under pressure.  Solutions…           Steel, oblate sphere with        steel and concrete columns
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 Airship Hanger, 1916, Orly, France Eugene Freyssinet, Engineer Cast, reinforced concrete, parabolic sections joined 1930 (bombed by Nazis) Pier Luigi Nervi, Architect and Engineer Constructed of “Ferro Cemento” a technique invented by Nervi.  Concrete is sprayed over “chicken wire” over  wood forms to yield repeatable shapes.
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 Structure as a design determinant Municipal Stadium,1932               Florence, Italy     Pier Luigi Nervi, Architect/Engineer          Bold designs use extreme cantilevers to give drama to a common building type.  Municipal Stadium uses cast, reinforced concrete, repeated elements.
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 Structure as a design determinant              Race Course Grandstand, 1935             La Zarzuela, Spain          Eduardo Torroja, Architect/Engineer Bold designs use extreme cantilevers to give drama to a common building type.  Municipal Stadium uses cast, reinforced concrete, repeated elements. Race Course uses thin concrete “shell” structure that gets its strength from  curved, scalloped “fold”.  Sometimes called “folded plate” structure.
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 Spanning Space   Firth of Forth Bridge   Scotland, 1890   Sir John Folwer   Sir Benjamin Baker   Steel truss, cantilever   of 680 feet
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 Salginatobel Bridge Swiss Alps, 1930 Robert Maillart Before equations existed to study, he used models and mock-ups to test his original shapes.
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 Spanning Space   Golden Gate Bridge   San Francisco, CA 1937   Joseph Strauss, Engineer in Charge   Irving Morran, Architect   Charles Alton Ellis, calculations   Art Deco masterpiece   4,200 feet center span
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 George Washington Bridge New York City, 1931 Othmar Amman, Engineer Cass Gilbert, Architect 2 decks, 14 lanes, one of busiest in the world.
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 Streamline Design, the look of speed   New York Central modern Hudson   locomotive, 1938     Designed by industrial designer   Henry Dreyfuss     Gray and silver scheme     Little affect on actual speed
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 Heavy running during World War II took its toll.  Design didn’t wear its grime well.  Soon the modern shrouds came off for easy repair, ruining design.
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 Aircraft Design                                SR-71 Blackbird, 1964         Lockheed “Skunkworks”         Designer: Clarence Kelly Johnson         2,193 MPH         L.A. to Washington D.C.,1 hr.4 min.         At extreme conditions, the design         has to follows laws of nature with         no elements “just for affect”.          Plane is mostly titanium.  Fuel          is circulated through skin for          cooling.  Has to account for          extreme expansion/contraction          Fuselage has shape of wing.
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 Pruitt Igoe St. Louis Minoru Yamasaki
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 Levittown  Long Island, New York First mass-produced suburb, built  1947 – 1951
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 Habitat 67  Montreal, Canada Designed by Moshe Safdie, 1967
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 Frank Gehry’s House Santa Monica, California, 1920 pink colonial Remodeled in 1977 and 1991
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 Maison à Bordeaux  Rem Koolhaas  Bordeaux, France   1998
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 Palladio
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 Andrea Palladio  (1508 – 1580)
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 Andrea Palladio  (1508 – 1580) •  Italian stonemason and sculptor, then an   architect, engineer, and author •  Traveled to Rome to study ancient buildings •  Illustrated Vitruvius’ Ten Books on   Architecture •  Wrote The Four Books of Architecture •        “High Renaissance” and “Mannerism”
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 Symmetrical & Asymmetrical compositions
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 Symmetrical & Asymmetrical compositions   Type       Contrast  Resulting Attributes ____________________________________________ Asymmetrical         Maximum  Emotionally Active  Aesthetically dynamic   Spatially in depth   Sense of vitality _____________________________________________________ Symmetrical         Minimum  Emotionally passive  Aesthetically decorative  Spatially static   Sense of order _____________________________________________________
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 Villa Rotonda Vicenza, Italy Built 1569           Facade
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 Villa Barbaro Maser, Italy Built 1560           Facade
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 Villa Foscari Mira, Italy Built 1563           Front Facade
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 Winslow House 1893 By Frank Lloyd Wright; River Forest, Illinois
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 Vanna Venturi House 1959 - 1964 By Robert Venturi; Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania
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 Guild House 1961 By Robert Venturi; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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 Dream House 1998 By Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Virginia
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 Hill House (House for an Art Lover) 1901 By Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scotland
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 Gropius House 1937 By Walter Gropius; Lincoln, Massachusetts
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 Douglas House 1973 By Richard Meier; Harbor Springs, Michigan
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 Rachofsky House 1996 By Richard Meier; Dallas, Texas
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 Paris History
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 Paris History: •   4th – 5th C BC     Settled by the Celts •   1st Century     Romans take control •   11th – 13th Centuries     Gothic Period •   Paris becomes the      intellectual center of      Europe •    1347 – 1351      Black Death kills      one-third of Europe •   Louis XIV     Ruled 1643 – 1715 •   Louis XV     Ruled 1715 - 1774 •   Louis XVI     Ruled 1774 – 1792     Guillotined 1793     Marie Antoinette,     his wife, guillotined     later •   1789     French Revolution
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 Paris History 2
Definition
 •   Napoléon Bonaparte     Ruled 1804 – 1814     First Empire •   Napoléon III     Ruled 1852 - 1870     Second Empire •   Georges-Eugène Haussmann     modernized Paris     1852 - 1870 •   World War 1     1914 – 1919 •   World War 2     1939 - 1945 :  Haussmannization       1.  Urban Planning   2.  Lighting 3.  Sewers 4.  Uniformity of Buildings 5.  Wide Boulevards 6.  Monuments at      Hubs/Nodes Parks & Trees
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 Notre Dame Cathedral 1163 - 1345 Gothic Architecture
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 Jardin des Tuileries:  1660 - 1664 Designed by André le Nôtre, gardener of King Louis XIV
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 Museé du Louvre:  Opened in 1793 Designed by Pierre Lescot, Pyramid designed by I.M. Pei Previously a Royal Palace for the monarchy
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 Arc de Triomphe:  1806 – 1836 Designed by Pierre Chalgrin Commission by Napoleon Bonaparte to commemorate his victories
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 Place de la Bastille:  Colonne De Juillet Commemorates the 1830 Revolution Built on the site of the original Bastille Prison where The Revolution first started on July 14, 1789
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 Opéra Garnier:  1862 - 1875 Designed by Charles Garnier as part of the Haussmannization of Paris under Napoleon III
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 Tour Eiffel:  1889 Designed by Gustave Eiffel Commemorates the 100th Anniversary of the French Revolution
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 Washington D.C. Urban Plan for Washington, D.C. By Pierre L’Enfant Designed in 1791 at request of President George Washington
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 Musée d’Orsay:  Completed in 1900 Designed as a railway station for the Exposition Universelle 1939:  No longer used for trains. 1961 to 1977:  Sat vacant 1977 – 1986:  Converted to an art museum
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 La Défense :  1982 – 1989 Designed by Otto van Spreckelsen Commission by President Mitterand as a 20th C Arc de Triomphe Commemorates the 200th Anniversary of French Revolution
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 Detroit Urban Plan for Detroit by Augustus B. Woodward Designed in 1807 After the fire of 1805
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