Shared Flashcard Set


art 3
Art History
Undergraduate 2

Additional Art History Flashcards





Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Double Portrait, 1434, Netherlandish Renaissance, Oil Painting


  • (talked about the whole class)

  • *oil paint*

  • a new naturalism was conveyed by realistic emotional expressions and gestures, enabled by the invention of the oil painting

  • Emerging merchant class

  • gives a realistic setting in which their images are encountered

    • setting demonstrates wealth (i.e. clothing, furniture, pet dog)

  • taking an oath---COMMEMORATION OF MARRIAGE

  • Arnolfini: Italian textile guy selling fabrics to wealthy

  • actually happened (author is witness) (writes “Jan van Eyck was here in Latin)

  • mirror is an extension of the room

  • gender roles portrayed→ men by window, goes out to get a job to provide for the family, woman by bed wearing green (symbol of fertility), bed shows passion and signifies that her role in marriage is to have babies

  • chandelier with one candle represents unity

Albrecht Durer, Adam and Eve, 1504, German Renaissance, engraving


  • Image sent all over Europe (printing press)

  • very complex and detailed to attempt to give it 3 dimensional form

  • Ideal body type, connects to past sculptures

  • signs his work on the plaque next to parrot: Parrot mimics nature like artist mimics what he sees

  • Gender Roles

  • (doubtful significance)

  • Eve taking forbidden fruit from serpent  (perfection ceases to exist)


Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, 1510-15, Netherlandish Renaissance, Oil Painting


  • Includes the paradise of Adam and Eve

    • Adam looks confused

    • Lots of animals in the “pre-evolutionary” sense to get the idea of transitional form--these animals have 3 heads and characteristics like that

  • There is a scene that is full of debauchery

    • human nature at its most extreme nature--everyone is celebrating the gifts of nature

    • everyone is indulging themselves

  • the disregard for consequence shows the result in war (middle panel?)

    • their sins/punishments are shown and they are connected to doing things they enjoyed.

    • they are punished by the things that they loved too much

Pendant Mask, c. 1500-1550, Africa, Court of Benin, ivory, iron and copper sculpture


  • (431-433,434 in textbook)

  • extremely sophisticated, flesh/facial features very complex

  • would hang from belt of loyalty

  • important religious meaning

  • softly modeled features and lines on the face indicate that the artist was highly skilled

  • decorations and deep stare suggest she had passed on to spirit world

  • symbol of wealth/power

  • top of tiara has two figures: mudfish & portuguese sailors

    • because they occupy both land and sea

  • scar marks suggested royalty

Machu Picchu, 1450-1530, Peru, Inca Empire, stone architecture


  • (414-417 in textbook)

  • utilized the challenges of the mountains

  • parallel terracing

  • Inca King’s summer home

  • most sophisticated stonework in early modern history

  • city between two of the highest peaks in the Andes Mountains in Peru

  • constructed entirely of stone and consists of 200 buildings

  • upper section is urban area (individual residences), lower section is agricultural fields and farms

  • upper and lower sections connected by sophisticated irrigation system and by steps

  • very communal

  • Machu Picchu began to become abandoned after smallpox struck the city




Seated Guanyin Bodhisattva, 10th-12th centuries, China, Liao Dynasty, wood sculpture with gold


  • (214-220 in textbook)

  • *illusionism*

  • recognizably “anthropomorphic”--human like

  • Bodhisattva is a god, kind, compassionate beings who choose to stay on earth to help those that are left behind

  • male in the posture called “royal ease”

  • Artist wants to establish a mood

  • has place for a third eye which is a symbol of wisdom

Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-1402, Italian Renaissance, bronze reliefs

  • Competition between the two sculptors


  • Brunelleschi

    • set up in a triangle form (*quatrefoil shape)

    • less detail in the back (no background) so you are more focused on what is really important in the relief

    • more medeville

    • Isaac portrayed more realistically (not overly muscular)

    • Narrative moment is that the angel has stopped abraham

    • Abraham grabs Isaac by the neck and shows his strength, but that is not what this story is about so his strength is irrelevant



Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-1402, Italian Renaissance, bronze reliefs
  • Ghilberti
    • *Quatrefoil shape*

    • he wants your eye to move so he spreads it all out, he actually gives us the sense of a strong diagonal rather than the triangle we see in the Brun.

    • you move up the mountain with them

    • wants to show off that he knows human form, so when he was given the chance to show he can show youth--he did

    • Shows a muscular idealized form of Isaac

    • Narrative moment is the hand of angel reaching in, can’t tell if she will stop abraham in time

  • part of bronze doors, there was a competition--Ghilberti won

Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral (“II Duomo”), 1420-1436, Italian Renaissance, architecture


  • florentines did not like the look of gothic architecture

  • they wanted something to look more Roman, represent Roman heritage so they needed a dome (similar to Pantheon)

  • pointed arch was used to elongate and hold the weight

  • there is an interior and exterior dome

    • the interior structure is ugly and is made of like tin

    • it was the outside one that was pretty and decorative

  • he had to invent all of the tools/machines in order to build this dome

    • a lot of engineering went into it

    • Overcame massive engineering problems

  • one point linear perspective

    • system for representing the illusion of 3D space on 2D space

    • converge lines into a vanishing point

    • Brunelleschi invented perspective  

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503-1506, Italian Renaissance, oil painting


  • In the Lourve in Paris

  • Painting is dirty

  • She slightly smiles which was unorthodox for paintings at that time

  • Mysterious landscape behind her

  • Leonardo carried the portrait around with him

  • represents an actual woman named Lisa Gherardini (married to a wealthy merchant, was not an aristocrat)

  • He is embodying her name in the painting

  • Wearing drab clothing, not vibrant like other paintings at this time

  • Sfumato: fumey, smokey→ using oil painting in a blurred manner to give it a smokey atmosphere. The dirtiness of the painting emphasized this

Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, 1508-1512, Italian Renaissance, fresco


  • One of the many paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

  • figura serpentinata: figure like a serpent

  • God swooping in amidst angels

  • One angel under God’s arm suggesting that she is not an angel but a woman who represents Eve

  • God coming to infuse Adam with life but the fingers do not touch so he has not yet brought life to him

Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-1511, Italian Renaissance, fresco


  • Pope’s private library, each wall represents a different area of learning

  • School of Athens represents philosophy

  • Philosophy= everything that was not law, theology, or literature

  • Two key centered philosophers under the arch are Plato and Aristotle

  • Plato more about forms from Heaven, points to Heavens

  • Aristotle more about the central world that one can experience, points to world

  • many of people painted are Raphael’s friends, his own self-portrait is in there as well

  • has Michaelangelo writing and leaning on a block of stone but he is not painting

Veronese, Feast in the House of Levi, 1573, Italian Renaissance, oil painting


  • using own artistic style, Veronese was condemned for tarnishing the last supper---imagination of artist not accepted

  • portrayed it like an everyday event, not a theologically significant

  • We don’t see Christ pointing out the bread and the wine

  • Michelangelo is the one who inspired him to break the rules of painting as he did here

  • distractions took away from significance, so they requested he redo it

  • He signs it and labels it not at the last supper but as the Feast in the House of Levi

Titian, Europa, 1560, Italian Renaissance, oil painting [Sakai]

  • Portrays an abduction

  • Manipulation of the medium

  • *colore*--rough canvas so you can see the texture, paint, materials

    • more naturalistic way of painting


  • Europa--desired by Zeus,

    • Zeus has her cut off from her family so he can have his way (rape)

    • moved away from the term “rape,” however, painting ALL ABOUT RAPE

    • powerful military leader who took what he wanted

Bramante, Michelangelo, Maderno, Bernini, et al, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, 1506-1667, Italian Renaissance to Baroque, architecture


  • Obelisk moved from off to the side to a more central location, took thousands to move it without breaking it.  In front of St. Peter’s and used as a marker to signify one of the 7 pilgrimage churches in Rome

  • Establishes the power of the papacy in the Vatican

  • Enormous building, dome can be see all over Rome

  • Has many entrances so many people can come in

  • Not the experience of a gothic church, doesn’t have the same light coming through the stained glass windows. lt is bright and soft--it is a blitz and an overwhelming experience

  • Moving from Renaissance style to Baroque Style

  • Baldachin→ made entirely of bronze, gives grandeur to a space.  Built with huge spiralling columns.  Reason it spirals is because they are going back to an early Christian form or architecture.  Reviving old styles. To build it entirely of bronze basically bankrupted the Catholic church

  • Piers are anchored by the statutes

  • The curves (you can see them on the aerial view) are the “arms of the church”

Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1645-52, Italian Baroque, marble sculpture


  • No sense that it was originally a block because there is no rectilinear form to it. It is extremely vast, detailed and over the top

    • he makes marble into things that it isn’t supposed to do

  • St. Teresa mimicking a nun who had a divine experience

  • St. Teresa floating on a cloud

    • mounted on the wall so it doesn’t touch the ground, which gives it the appearance of her floating

    • Angel piercing her in the heart and has a smile

    • Writes that this is like a sexual experience but much greater because it is divine.

    • Texture of her drapery is augmented by deep undercuts

  • Natural light comes down and illuminates the sculpture

Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew, 1600-1602, Italian Baroque, oil painting


  • Lighting creates atmospheric effect

  • Powerful sense of illusionistic space

  • Was not looking to make the appearance of softness but stark

  • Chiaroscuro: Light and dark. Things that are in the light are clear (chiaro) things that are in the shadows are not clear (scuro)

  • Confusion over which one St. Matthew is in the picture.  Depending on which guy it is it gives different meaning to the work

  • Presenting Christ as the new Adam (influenced by Michelangelo's paintings)

Artemisia Gentileschi, Susanna and the Elders, 1610, Italian Baroque, oil painting

  • They confront her because they want to have sex with her

  • Her reputation was only restored after they had gone to trial and found out that their (the two guys?) stories did not match up, and that they were lying.

  • Loomed over by two men and physically reacts

Rembrandt, Three Crosses, 1653, Dutch Baroque, drypoint etching


  • Dry point- like a drawing on a piece of metal

    • printed on a piece of vellum

  • atmosphere creates a theatrical effect, the light is shining on Christ and the others are in the shadows

  • broad narrative scene showing the crucifixion

    • not just Christ, other two crosses as well

  • Change of the *state* (1st and then 4th)----reprinted/reworked

Rembrandt, Militia Company of Frans Banninck Cocq (“The Night Watch”), 1642, Dutch Baroque,oil painting

  • Rembrandt’s most famous work

  • Action scene

    • Captain is wearing black leading men forward and holding out his hand→ foreshortening

  • Similar composition to School of Athens by Raphael

  • All of the men portrayed in Night Watch are contemporary people who lived in Rembrandt’s neighborhood

  • Baroque paintings: painterly, open form, recession, relative clarity, unity, juxtaposition between light and shadows, greater sense of unity

  • Renaissance paintings: linear, closed form, plane, absolute clarity, multiplicity, focus on multiple things in the painting

  • woman in the front has a chicken hanging from her belt→ Claw is the emblem of the company

Johannes Vermeer, Woman with a Balance, 1664, Dutch Baroque, oil painting

  • Vermeer: worked slowly, expensive materials, 1 couple owned most works

  • Women are the main subjects of his paintings

  • Comparable to Arnolfini Double Portrait

    • In a domestic space, focus on women

  • Represents home

  • Spaces everything out and gives us negative space

  • Nothing actually on the balance

  • Painting in the background displays the Last Judgement

    • She’s balancing worldly concerns against eternal preservation of her soul--what the Last Judgement is about

  • Vertical and horizontal lines allow viewer to focus in on the balance

  • Question on if the woman is pregnant.

  • If she is pregnant it brings out her social gender expectations

*genre painting*-a style of painting depicting scenes from ordinary life, especially domestic situations.


Peter Paul Rubens, Henry IV Recieving the portrait of Marie de Medici,1621-1625, Flemish Baroque, oil painting (info needs to be cleaned up)


  • Mountain landscape and town on fire in background

    • King henry has left the battle..what battle? why?

  • Woman whispering in his ear is supposed to be France

    • She is talking up Marie de Medici, he has fallen in love upon seeing the portrait (presented as a gift)

    • You can tell by his tilted head and his romantic gaze

    • Cupid is there, so is god of marriage..., zeus, and Hera

Diego Velazquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656, Spanish Baroque, oil painting


  • Velasquez is not yet a knight, works for the king

    • campaigning for knighthood with picture

      • Objections to this: He didn’t come from nobility, he worked with his hands (nobility don’t work)

      • Response was that his occupation was based off of service to the king, not for money...paints himself with the princess and her entourage, puts himself in a painting with the royal family

        • Unprecedented to portray oneself with royal family, chills with fam all the time

  • Setting is a hall that is filled with other paintings and collections belonging to the king

  • Arnolfini portrait in the background

  • Turns portrait into an event, everyone turning to look at king and queen (standing in front of the painting)

  • He is not just working with his hands, he is working with his mind to create illusions and events

  • After his death, King Philip had the knight’s cross painted on velazquez

Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Palace of Versailles, 1668, french Baroque, architecture


  • Older architecture very decorative, except for the back which was very ordered, symmetrical

    • Metaphor for the way Louis ruled (Sun King)

  • Gardens are very open to hold large gatherings

  • Water was pumped in from miles away,

    • water was reflections to show apollo, the sun king

  • Everything in the palace was produced in France

  • Hall of Mirrors: every morning Louis would wake up at dawn and walk through this hallway

    • If anyone wanted something from him they would line up along this hallway waiting to ask him for help

Michelangelo, Last Judgement, 1534-1540, Italian Renaissance, fresco, KNOW


  • Response to Protestant reformation--promotion of Catholic ideas

    • good ideas and action, not just having faith

  • first work of Catholic *Counter-reformation*

  • seen other last judgements (i.e gislebertus’ relief sculpture)

    • influenced Michelangelo's work

  • grand entrance as you walk into the Vatican

  • painting in sections--people being sent to heaven or hell by the angels

    • they don’t have halos or wings, it’s all about human form

  • Dead people being ascended by own exuberance

  • angels denying those condemned  

  • Christ lifting up with his right hand, pushing people down with his left hand

  • shows to be heliocentric,

    • everything revolves around Christ (literally and in fresco)

    • puts the virgin mary next to Christ

    • Mary represents the Church and is right next ito Christ→ represents God within the Church

  • Michelangelo put his own self portrait in the Last Judgement

  • Two angels in the front holding books with the names of people who will either be saved or damned(much bigger book)

  • Emphasis on the human form

  • Man covering his face, realizes he is damned

  • Reference to mythology with the picture of Cheron carrying dead across the Styx

  • Figure in bottom right was a real person who critiqued Michaelangelo’s painting because of the nudity.  He is portrayed with donkey ears because of his bad judgement and stupidity, has a serpent around him biting his dick and he is in Hell
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