Shared Flashcard Set


Arms Control
For the final
International Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional International Studies Flashcards




Problem of Definition
What forces should be considered?
SALT/START: what forces are strategic forces? BMs of what range? Bombers? What range? CMs: On subs? ALCMs?
Problem of Objective
What should be expected in terms of the goals of negotiations (what should be pursued as desired ends).
Equal level of armaments?
Equal security?
Raises questions on security is maintained.
Through superiority
Through balance
Reduce costs of armaments?
Problem of Threat Comparability
Focuses on: who should be in threat calc and why
Addresses: who are the adversaries and what is an equitable AC solution, adds to a 2-sided negotiation, a multidimensional aspect
ex. National Security with Strategic Nucs - China, Fr, US, UK, USSR
Combined - UK, Fr, China could destroy every city over 200 K in USSR
Problem of Force Comparability
Focuses on: What is to be counted and how?
Addresses: How does one achieve equal force levels and equal security
Problem - upon what do you base agreements? (number of weapons? launchers? aggregate deliverable megatonnage? hard target capability? which bombers should count?
Problems of Vulnerabilities
Addresses: How non-force factors should be considered in arms control negotiations
Focuses on: Which side is more vulnerable to first and follow-on strikes and what kinds of quantitative and qualitative adjustments should be permitted in arms agreements
For example:
US - no civil defense, no air defense, NE megapolis, but C3 redundancies, proximity to coastline of major UIC/vulnerable to SLBMs
USSR - civil defense, sophisticated air defense, but lack of C3 based redundancies
Problem of Verification
Once you have decided on all the other factors, how do you verify that the adversary is staying in compliance?
Interactive part of negotiations - frequently start with considerations about what you can verify
enter problem of basing agreements on WH, Megatonnage, throw-weight, etc.
Problem of Technological Change
Addresses the likely future as it affects such problems as Threat and Force, Comparability and Vulnerabilities, etc.
Increasing accuracy affects Hard Target kill capabilities
MIRVs add to # of targets that can be attacked
Accuracy + MIRVs affects survival of retaliatory capabilities
Miniaturization affects number of WH, deliverable megatonnage
Advances in heavy hydrocarbon fuels affects range of CMs
Problem of Sanctions
Addresses issues of what one should do if suspects a violation
Problem becomes more acute when one moves to more difficult to verify limitations (ex. number of MIRVs, WHs, etc.) or WPNS system
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