Shared Flashcard Set


Archaeology of the Near East
Undergraduate 2

Additional Archaeology Flashcards




Natural Habitat Zone Model
—theory for origin of agriculture advocated by Braidwood
-end-Pleistocene conditions like the present
-experimentation occurred in natural habitat zones of wild ancestors of earliest domesticates, because these cultures were ready to experiment
    -derived from cultural anthropology theory of the “superorganic” in which culture exists outside of and above individuals, but organizes individual action
-studies at Jarmo in Zagros (place of early domestication) support this model—show no significant change at end of Pleistocene
-problems: conditions at end-Pleistocene were slightly wetter than present, does not explain how/why these changes in culture occurred
Marginal Zone Hypothesis
—theory for origin of agriculture advocated by Binford and Flannery
-late Pleistocene saw innovations in storage and ground stone technology
-wetness at end-Pleistocene allowed people to exploit a broader range of resources, and allowed for settled life (ex: aquatic resources)
-settled life led to population growth—communities expanded into areas not as well-suited for dependence on foraging, and food shortages led to experimentation with cultivation
-problems: archaeological evidence that agriculture took place in heart of natural habitat zone, not on fringes, no evidence for population growth at period just before agriculture, no evidence for Natufian reliance on aquatic resources
Propinquity or Oasis Theory
—theory for origin of agriculture advocated by Childe
-climatic change at end of Pleistocene: conditions of increasing aridity in Near East… People and animals cluster in oases
-in close proximity people learn habits of plants and animals, eventually experimented and gained cultural control over reproduction
-follows general principles/laws derived from cultural evolutionists: Marx, Engels, Morgan
-supporting data: presence of earliest civilizations in river valleys
-problems: domestication must occur in natural habitat zones, not river valleys; end Pleistocene climatic changes not for greater aridity
Cultural Ecology/Population Push Model
—theory for origin of agriculture advocated by Cohen and Moore
-population growth was inevitable, and under resource stress people were more likely to undertake more labor intensive subsistence strategies
    -agriculture could be means of maintaining large groups in areas not suited for large-group foraging
-supported by Khoi San data on sedentism leading to population growth
-problems: lack of evidence for resource pressure
Surplus/Competitive Feasting Hypothesis
—theory for origin of agriculture advocated by Bender and Hayden
-hunters maintain a population equilibrium, and food is shared, so increased labor seems silly
-food production might only occur when resources are abundant, leading to experimentation with resources that might not be shared
    -food production for delicacies at feasts, to demonstrate leaders’ success and ability to control others
-supported by ethnographic data on leaders who accumulate surplus and turn it into socially valued objects, evidence for trade and grave goods, lack of evidence for population pressure, communal areas at early sites, relatively elaborate serving utensils
Biocultural Evolution/Beer Theory
—theory for origin of agriculture advocated by Katz
-cereal protein cannot be fully synthesized by humans unless grains are processed and changed into compounds that humans can digest
    -sprouting and fermenting is one of these ways
    -bread or beer would do, but barley doesn’t work well for bread, and barley is way important early on (evidence at Netiv Hagdud)
-people who consumed beer had a selective advantage, being better nourished
-ritual behavior surrounding mind-altering food
-problems: relies heavily on knowledge of living societies, how do you explain early domestication of lentils and rye?
Halaf tradition
earliest found from 6000 BC, occurs in piedmont and mountain zone, from central Zagros/Kermanshah area to Taurus near Mersin, north to Diyarbekir, south to Mandali
-begun when Hassuna/Samarra sites abandoned but origins poorly known (continuous settlement from Hassunan times at Sabi Abyad?)
    -may represent several areas of origin (painted ceramics from one place, but wider cultural tradition from others)
-seems to expand rapidly
-First occurrence of archaeological assemblage over a wide area
- Characterized by uniformity of ceramics, figurine and sealing technology, but variation in house form, economy, nature/size of settlements
    -dependence on ceramics for diagnosis complicates its identification, Sabi Abyad may reveal important aspects of architecture
    -geometric seals, pierced so you could wear them, likely represent individuals
    -figurines and pottery suggest female sexuality
    -cell buildings and tholoi: storage in cells, hearths/ovens in tholoi, could be for specialized production—storage units seem to imply chiefdoms
    -subsistence seems to be based on cereal and sheep/goats (not cattle), as well as hunting
    -diverse mortuary practices, no evidence for social stratification from graves
-Extremely high quality pottery with geometric and naturalistic motifs (daisies, snakes, birds, leopards, fish, bulls), dark paint that is technically a glaze similar to that on Attic black-figured ware, regular use of polychromy (using different minerals to paint vessel and produce different colors, including blue and white—unusual), difficult shapes to make (imitating forms in metal?).
    -horned animals, bucrania (bulls)—implies they are mostly eating sheep and goats
    -maltese crosses
    -most sophisticated pottery ever produced in Mesopotamia
    -also lots of plain pottery, varying in quality
-Sites: Yarim Tepe, Tell Hassuna, Sabi Abyad, Fistikli Hoyuk, Gerikihaciyan
Ubaid tradition
6000-4000 BC, initially southern Mesopotamia, Khuzistan, the Gulf—then expands into Northern Mesopotamia, Taurus, Zagros, Eastern Iran, through Urmia Basin into Transcaucasia
-Develops out of Late Samarran tradition called Chogha Mami Transitional
-More complex archaeologically than Halaf
-“True” Ubaid, uniform throughout Mesopotamia
-characterized by a few large towns dependent on .5-1 ha villages (two-level site hierarchy)
-economic pattern: broad-based agricultural economy w/ irrigation
-craft specialization: ceramics, beads, stone tools, probably metallurgy
-development of monumental architecture
-based primarily on ceramics, but to some extent architecture, ceramic seals, and figurines
-lack of evidence for warfare
-little evidence for exotic goods (pottery is standardized, little metal, little imported stone)
-uniform burial practices, few grave goods
-highly stable, little change over time
-may reflect “staple finance” type of chiefdom, according to Stein
-At end of period, strong regional variation between north and south, greater differences beyond Tigris/Euphrates Valley
Early Ubaid Period
6000-5000 BC, in southern alluvium
-probably developed from Samarran
-earliest period only at Tell Ouelli
-basic sequence from Eridu
-poor preservation of sites due to changes in sea level
-had to have an agricultural system based on irrigation (shallow basins?)
Late Ubaid Period
5000-4000 BC
-Ubaid developed in S. Mesopotamian, spreads to Mediterranean
-mix of cereal agriculture and herding
-characterized by a few large towns dependent on .5-1 ha villages (two-level site hierarchy)
-rectangular houses, varied in size; tripartite house is typical; roofed central room running the length of the building with banks of smaller rooms to each side (standardized)
    -grid plan?
-extramural cemeteries for adults
    -mostly female lizard-headed figurines as grave goods
-geometric stamps and sealings from S. Mesopotamia
    -from north and Khuzistan, figures and scenes (of dancing and copulation) identified as religious
-Sites: Eridu, Ouelli, Abada, Madhhur, Tepe Gawra
determined sequence of Ubaid 1-4, site in S. Mesopotamia
-temples raised on platforms, buttressed walls
-Temple of Eridu identical to temple in Gawra
    -shows how north and south were linked
-both Eridu and Gawra had tortoise-shaped jars
-cemetery showing development of religious culture
-overall simplification of designs on ceramics
-resource-poor; imported stone from Zagros
    -used clay sickles for harvesting (not long-lasting)
helps to establish relationships between regions, as for the Ubaid tradition
-geometric stamps and sealings from S. Mesopotamia (late Ubaid)
    -from north and Khuzistan, figures and scenes (of dancing and copulation) identified as religious
-method of controlling commodities in Uruk period
    -applied to doors, jars, bales
-two types of seal designs at Uruk and related sites:
-figurative representations (worshipping at a temple, processions of boats, prisoners before an authority, feeding animals, animals in combat, animals in general)—detailed enough to identify individual responsible
    -musicians, battles, and workers on seals from Susiana
-smaller seals with abstract symbols and patterns, mass produced, hard to tell one from another, made with drills and cutting wheels—refer to administrative unit?
-seals at Al Hibba used to cross-date
Sabi Abyad
—PPNB to proto-Hassuna/Hassuna to Halaf in N Mesopotamia
-E.T. face figurines
-cell plan houses with corridor down middle (standard PPNB)
-coil basketry
-grit-tempered pottery, thick-walled, with paint
    -likely coil method
-burnt village reaching ~4.5 ha, at least during early part of Halaf period
-large rectangular/cell plan structures surrounded by small round structures
    -huge amount of storage space in cell plan structures implies nomadic population
-clusters of seals/sealings stamped on mud
    -people kept sealings even when broken
Yarim Tepe
site in Iraq that could have had agriculture
-some storage units
-one part of settlement with all kilns and enclosure wall around kilns (special purpose area)
-Hassuna Standard pottery: painted, incised
-figurines not a specific gender, long pointy heads
-Halaf site above abandoned Hassuna settlement
-tholoi buildings (largest tholos)
Tell Hassuna
—site in N. Mesopotamia
-has both Samarran and Hassunan pottery
    -making the geometric Samarran designs from basketry
-limestone hoes
-Halaf site above abandoned Samarran/Hassunan settlement
Fistikli Hoyuk
.5 ha, short-term occupation during Halaf period
-covered in pistachios
-large number of houses with storage units kind of attached
-cattle most important food animal by count and weight (may be due to survival bias of denser bones)
-age at death indicates year-round occupation at this site but short-term occupation may be related to mobility of population
-lots of plain pottery, varying in quality (in addition to normal Halaf pottery)
-geometric seals, pierced so you could wear them, likely represent individuals
-cell buildings associated with every tholos
-many activities occurred outside, between buildings
-community may be main unit of production and consumption rather than household, partly because Fistikli lacks households in the most rigid definition of the term
Domuz Tepe
Halaf site in Turkey
-burial pit with evidence of butchery on human bones: cannibalism?
-ate pork
zooarchaeological data revealed a lot about subsistence during Halaf period
-mostly sheep/goats, not cattle
Tell Ouelli
only site with evidence from earliest period of Ubaid (Ubaid 0-4)
-barley, cattle, and pig predominate
-cell-like granary on early level
Tell Abada
3 building phases with subphases in each; from Ubaid period of Mesopotamia
-large number of kilns scattered throughout village in open areas
-tripartite architectural plan
-houses arranged somewhat haphazardly in settlement
-one larger house—for headman of village?
    -later used for burial
-one building used as communal storehouse
-almost no evidence for religious function of any buildings (except maybe two)
-large number of infants in pots beneath floor of large building
-clay tokens in groups inside pots
-hunting = major source of game (gazelle, equids, deer)
burned house in center of a mound, contents left in situ
-plan similar to temples at Eridu and Tepe Gawra
-central hall roofed, evidenced by fallen beams and survival of fragile wall paintings
-drainage system
-staircases: to roof or second story?
    -buttresses suggest second story
-food procurement and processing equipment
-cloth production (spindle whorls, bone awl, stone weights for looms)
-lack of oven/hearth in house may mean it was located in open area as at Abadah
-minimum of 10 residents
-stepped façade created by staggered rooms, of which no two are identical
-building razed after burning
-large quantities of pottery, seeds, and bones
a form of social organization in which statuses that are associated with power are institutionalized, hereditary; chief is a center for exchange and redistribution of goods, occupying a permanent role in the social structure
-inequality between families, kin groups; chiefly families form an elite that controls resources, accumulates surplus, and redistributes it to others in the form of exotic goods (status markers) and food used to support specialized parts of community
 -according to Stein, characterized by warfare, long-distance trade for purposes of conspicuous consumption, exaggerated symbolism of social ranking, unstable political system (cycles of consolidation and collapse)
-Stein’s “wealth distribution type”: chiefs control manufacture of exotic goods and redistribute to show status; unstable because of potential disruptions in exchange networks; high payoffs, high risks, can develop into state-level society
-“staple finance type”: surplus staples used to support elite; can’t grow without coercion
-Indicated archaeologically by: images justifying chief’s reign with religion, trade/presence of surplus, elite burials esp of children (inherited rather than earned status), monumental buildings, images of leaders at war, 2-level site hierarchy
form of social organization in which societies are divided into sharply differentiated social classes, membership based on residence within territory, individual or elite group monopolizes power
-more ethnic diversity than a chiefdom
-many more ways of viewing one’s place in the world (position within class system, occupation, institutions one belongs to)
-bureaucracy coordinates different aspects of hierarchy, allocates rewards and punishments
-state levies taxes, exacts tribute, manages budget, drafts soldiers, wages war, administers laws, maintains religion and priests
-central settlement is in a city (large, dense, diverse)
-archaeological indicators: city, settlement hierarchy, representations of ruling elite with monopoly of force (ex: communal structures symbolizing unity and power), evidence for ethnic diversity (indicates expansion/incorporation), evidence for economic diversity (specialization), managing of agricultural surplus, information managing devices (writing, recording, measurement system)
large size and population, relatively dense, heterogeneous (territory not kinship as bond), craft specialists supported by surplus, relatively wealthy
-archaeological problems: size, sampling
-methods for examining cities archaeologically
    -excavation: slow and costly, must do large area excavations
    -surface remains
    -subsurface testing (magnetometers, resistivity)
alluvial plains region of southwest Iran
-partially isolated from Tigris-Euphrates Valley by strips of desert and marsh
-divided into two zones:
    -Lower Zone: from outer chain of Zagros to Gulf, marshy, lower quality alluvium, not inhabited in prehistoric period
    -Middle Zone: well drained soils, numerous prehistoric sites, in piedmont zone fringing the Zagros (Assyrian steppe to Khuzistan), Karun River is key
-possible evidence for craft specialization at Jaffarabad (pottery village for Susa?)
-Elamite capital at Susa—moving here = political decision (moving away from previous focus of power)
    -probably founded as a religious center
-distinctive pottery, stylistically and technologically—coded information?
-seals depicting battles, musicians, workers
Uruk Period
4000-3000 BC
-Uruk as capital (also type site)
-vast increase in size and number of sites
-territorial principles phasing out kinship
-evidence of warfare in images (urbanization and maintenance by force?)
-material advantages of S. Mesopotamia may have encouraged urbanization (Algaze)
    -denser & more varied concentration of exploitable subsistence resources
    -complementary ecosystems (irrigable alluvial plain for barley, small irrigable areas near rivers for gardens and orchards, fallow fields for pasture, and bodies of water for fish, birds, and reeds)
    -higher & more reliable agricultural yields
    -exponentially more reliable distribution system based on water transport
        -also could procure information, labor, and commodities
    -joined Tigris & Euphrates joined, larger alluvial area
    -temperate conditions
-controlled/command economy (mass labor organized and sustained with rations
    -temple estates own land, maintain large number of dependent laborers and slaves (war captives)
-villages feed specialists in Uruk
-evidence for extensive long-distance trade
    -late Uruk: initial contacts between Egypt and Mesopotamia
-mostly religious architecture excavated during this period in general
-provides evidence for stratification
-Late Uruk: fewer sites occupied in North, number of sites in South rose (due to change in river courses?)
    -also abandonment of Solduz Valley in Azerbaijan
type site for Uruk period, occupied from Ubaid times to 3rd C AD
-elaborate buildings in center, later sites for temple—identified as religious structures from beginning
    -no houses at Uruk yet, and only one fragment of a workshop
    -probably tripartite house plan (based on nearby, related sites)
-seals used to control commodities (applied to doors, jars, bales)
    -seals rare, but sealings common
    -two types of seal designs at Uruk and related sites:
    -figurative representations (worshipping at a temple, processions of boats, prisoners before an authority, feeding animals, animals in combat, animals in general)—detailed enough to identify individual responsible
    -smaller seals with abstract symbols and patterns, mass produced, hard to tell one from another, made with drills and cutting wheels—refer to administrative unit?
-tablets written in Sumerian
    -list of professions, arranged in hierarchy: sharru (holders of highest office, king?), officials (control production of barley, beer), priests, specialist occupations, ordinary occupations
-earliest known written documents—spectrum/development of logographic to cuneiform
    -precursors to writing visible in tablets and seals
-art being used for first time to illustrate role of ruler and illustrate his position
    -Warka vase: depicted chief priest and a priestess or goddess
-eanna: large economic unit within Uruk, controlled agriculture, pastoralism, crafts, trade in raw materials
    -responsible for maintaining temple complex, ceremonies
    -dedicated to goddess Innana?
    -provided rations for workers? Evidence in bevel-rimmed bowls
-White Temple: walls coated in gypsum plaster
    -offering table and altar
    -on high platform—predecessor of ziggurat
-city wall built by oppressed laborers under Gilgamesh during Early Dynastic period?
-identical clay cones to Buto
Beveled-rim bowls
standard in size, perhaps to control measurement of rations?
-capacity corresponds to size of daily ration for laborers in texts
-cheap, mass-produced by mold, discarded in quantity (often still intact)
-sign for “to eat” has head with a bevel-rimmed bowl
-characteristic of Uruk period
-evidence of increased labor demands?
-found at Tell Qannas (evidence of Late Uruk influence)
-arguments over use of bowls: votive offerings, salt-making containers, for bread-baking
site from immediately after the abandonment of S. Mesopotamia by Uruk people
-reflective of local culture without writing
-major urban site
-ethnically Semitic, not Sumerian—but culturally similar to Sumerians, with iconography
-Mari standard like Ur standard
-picture of singer named Ur Nanshe, perhaps beginning of tradition of eunuchs
-votive figures (men in sheepskin)—goofy smiles with giant eyes
Nile Valley
long corridor, with strip of alluvial soil watered annually by flooding (required minimal irrigation technology)
-arable land 3-20 km on either side of river
-easy transportation by ship
-levees next to channels
-well-drained soils (salinization not a problem)
-some side branches, but not meandering
-fish and birds important resources (Nile perch = 75 kg, wildfowl)
-constitutes Upper Egypt (Lower Egypt is delta and fayum)
Western Desert
contains oases about 200 km west of Nile River
-minor variations in rainfall have dramatic effect (can create grasslands that support herds of grazing animals including cattle and giraffe)
-Paleolithic sites on cliffs above Nile
-cattle probably domesticated here then brought to Egypt
-evidence from Nabta Playa for eating seeds and domesticating sorghum
-cattle and barley domesticated independently at Dakhleh Oasis?
Dakhleh Oasis
600 km S-SW of Cairo; 250 km west of Nile at latitude of Luxor
-no rainfall, agriculture depends on groundwater
-no human occupation dating to Pleistocene, but remains from post-Pleistocene categorized into hunters, pastoralists (with rock art!), and herders
-cattle and barley may have been domesticated independently in this area
    -Bashendi A (6500-5900 BC): projectile points like those in Nile, lozenge-shaped with wings, pressure-flaked; ostrich eggshells, drills for bead manufacture; all wild fauna
    -Bashendi B (5500-4000 BC): tanged points, side-bow flakes; polished stone axes, shell beads and pendants; palettes; fauna are mostly domestic cattle and goat
Predynastic Egypt
-Paleolithic hunters
-Early cultivators 5500-4000 BC (Fayum Neolithic, Badarian periods)
-Amratian/Naqadah I period (4000-3500 BC) : new pottery—red, burnished, have white paint mostly showing wildlife but also scenes of people, inc. in groups
-Gerzean/Naqadah II period (3500-3200 BC): developed art style, rectangular mud-brick architecture
    -creation of “centers of authority”(ex: Hierakonpolis, Naqadah)
    -increasingly specialized craft activities
    -first evidence of styles common to both Upper and Lower Egypt
    -increased trade with Near East (ceramic imports, semiprecious stones)
    -first evidence for leaders with power
        -status differences shown in grave goods, design, and tomb size
    -significant increase in warfare
        -small sites abandoned, towns walled
-Unification of Egypt under King Narmer in Dynasty 0, commemorated on Narmer Palette
Narmer Palette
symbolic evidence of emergence of kingship and the unification by conquest of Upper and Lower Egypt on the part of Narmer (a local nome ruler from Upper Egypt)
-thin sheet of stone about 25” tall found at Hierakonpolis
-shows Narmer bashing enemy with mace, with crown of Lower Egypt on reverse
-hawk (symbol of king, connected to Horus) has enemy (Lower Egypt) by the nose
-defeated enemies at bottom
-has serpopards (mythical beings with serpent-like necks)
-rosette: associated with king, likely religiously significant
Agriculture in Egypt
happened late compared to rest of Near East
-domesticated plants and animals developed outside of Egypt
    -cattle probably from Sahara (Western Desert)
    -domestic goat adopted from Levant
-earliest evidence within Egypt proper: in fayum
-by 4000 BC, agriculture in most of Egypt
-Fekri Hassan: food production in Egypt as a result of fusion
    -Indigenous/Nilotic fishing strategy and hunting things like hippos
    -Saharan Neolithic economy of cattle
    -Crops and animals from Levant, agricultural techniques adapted to Egypt
northwest of Fayum, on western edge of delta
-occupied between 5000-4100 BC
-small community living in pole and thatch constructions
-subsistence based on hunting, fishing, herding, some cultivation of emmer wheat, barley, lentils, peas, and flax
-animals include cattle, sheep, goats, pigs
-upper levels have subterranean dwellings and granaries constructed of mud
    -burials beneath houses or in adjacent living areas
-population at end of occupation estimated at 1300-2000
-monochrome pottery red to black, burnished
several settlements (Shifting? Short term?), occupied ~5500-4000 BC
-most are clusters of pole-thatch construction associated with hearths
    -grain silos of plastered straw
-agriculture of wheat, barley, lentils
-thick layers of sheep and goat droppings—evidence for animal penning?
-continued reliance on hunting and fishing
-black-topped pots
-imports: shells from Red Sea; turquoise and copper from Sinai; pine, cedar, cypress, and juniper from Levant
provides complete sequence for predynastic Egypt
-initially settled ~4000 BC by people from north
-ecologically diverse with high agricultural potential
-subsistence economy based on cereal agriculture and intense exploitation of domestic cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs
-specialized production center for pottery for Upper Egypt?
-produced maceheads, vases, palettes, other fine stone commodities
-artifacts related to Late Uruk Mesopotamia
    -seals most similar to Susa, but also to sites in Taurus/Zagros piedmont region
-population explosion between 3800-3400 BC
-Narmer Palette found here
Predynastic site near Cairo, dates to 3650 BC
-scores of semi-subterranean pit houses covered by thatch roofs supported by poles
-ceramic styles reveal relationship with Levant and Uruk-era Mesopotamia
-diverse burial patterns reflect status differences and “emergent social ranking”
-specialized commodity production and exchange
-evidence for copper smelting and working, maybe even ground-stone artifact production
-domesticated equids, presumably donkeys used for long-distance transport (copper ore maybe from Sinai?)
-black-topped wares, but distinctive local style
5th millennium = substantial metalworking in Turkey, N. Iraq, the Levant, and Iran
-major industry in Levant during Uruk period, implies specialization
-hammered native copper into sheets, then bent or rolled sheets to form artifacts
-some tools subjected to heat, “annealed” to reduce strain built up in metal due to working, reduces cracking, increases hardness
-awls, hooks, beads at Çayönü, sheet bead at Ali Kosh
-copper tools and jewelry characteristic of Hassuna culture
-evidence of working at Maadi, raw materials may have been transported by donkey from Sinai
-in Early Dynastic Egypt, copper given by king to reward clients
-lots of copper on Ulu Burun shipwreck
-copper in grave goods, as at Minshat Abu Omar
-we know where sources are but hard to study because it is alloyed and usually remelted and recast (many sources combined over time)
“legendary capital of Lower Egypt”, late 4th millennium BC
-clay cones, pottery, and other artifacts that reflect contacts with SW Asian states
-clay cones made locally but identical to those from Uruk
-clay nails like those from Susa
-Buto may have been a port for a sea route
Minshat Abu Omar
late 4th-early 3rd millennium occupation on a sand dune
-great variation in grave goods, grave construction
    -some graves with stone vessels, flint knives, stone palettes, copper artifacts, carnelian, amethyst, rare gold
-little evidence of contact with Levant despite location in Eastern delta
First Dynasty capital of newly unified Egyptian state, formerly an independent nome
-each king built own tomb, storage areas surrounded by burials of royal retainers
-some/many buried at same time as kings (human sacrifices)
-during Dynasties 0-2, simple brick-lined subterranean chambers with interior mudbrick walls, roofed with timbers
-become larger over time
-sculpture from Second Intermediate Period showing Hyksos style
tombs of high officials in Dynasty I
-stepped facades
-cattle skulls
-royal cemetery in Dynasty II
-In Dynasty III, first pyramid built by architect Imhotep for King Djoser 2630-2611 BC (first king of Dynasty III)
    -enclosure has platform representing throne used in Sed festival of royal regeneration
    -Kemp: initial function of pyramid was to symbolize king as a territorial claimant, focus of rituals centered on his person
Egyptian Kings
associated with Ra (sun god) during Old Kingdom
-technically high priest and head of state
-personified well-being of kingdom
-gifts to king prevent universe from degenerating into chaos
-waged war, led expeditions (in Old Kingdom, into Nubia, Sinai, Palestine, Lybia)
Egyptian concept of order, restrained king’s rule
-dictated that only acceptable system was one with integrated state and church
Human sacrifices
ethnographic criteria: groups of people usually with an elite burial but not always, dedicated to some kind of supernatural power
-archaeological criteria: large groups of people buried at same time
-victims usually appear to be elite individuals (not just finding anyone to sacrifice)
-if the sacrificed are members of the court, it’s to memorialize a family and show its power; killing war captives is a demonstration to the enemy of your power over their lives and deaths
- in tombs at Abydos
-Royal Tombs/Death Pits c. 2500 BC at Ur
    -sacrificed people seem to be household staff of interred dignitary and possibly menial laborers (bone shape/wear indicates heavy labor from childhood—slavery?)
    -Dickson: carefully staged political dramas that portray only the official/public transcript of the rulers, intended to terrorize the public at large (“theatre of death theory”)
    -MMV: BUT public at large isn’t witnessing this (people witnessing are other members of elite)—perhaps more of a tactic to honor the king and queen, and to ensure loyalty to that individual
rocky plateau site of royal tombs/best known pyramid complexes starting in Dynasty IV, around time when rich graves for officials disappear
-limestone used for pyramids’ core
-presence of storage units represents tie between religion and economy
-worker’s quarters near Menkaure pyramid
-Great Pyramid of Khufu (2551-2528)
    -king in later times known as a tyrant who asked too much of his people
    -robbed, outer casing stripped
    -subsidiary pyramids for queens
    -5 boat pits
-Second Pyramid of Khafra (second son of Khufu, 2520-2494)
    -limestone casing intact
    -5 boat pits
-Menkaure Pyramid (2490-2472)
    -3 subsidiary queen’s pyramids
-initially stepped
-experimentation by Sneferu
-limestone used for core but not casing at Giza
-significance of building them
    -centralized and institutionalized the state, drawing in the labor, loyalty, and resources of village to the service of the pharaohs
    -created specialization: labor pools at government’s beck and call
    -created redistribution system with government or king providing food for labor
tried many styles of pyramid
-at Meidum, tried to get away from stepped pyramid
-Bent Pyramid at Dashur: fairly steep angle, fairly successful, straight-sided
-Red Pyramid at Dashur: first true straight-sided pyramid, shallow angle
Abu Salabikh
small town (25 ha) from Early Dynastic Mesopotamia (3000-2330 BC) with excavated houses
-in center of alluvial plain, between Kish and Nippur; formerly on main branch of Euphrates
-information on settlement pattern collected by shovel scraping
-basic residential unit = compound surrounded by thick walls
-most houses outfitted with hearths/ovens and storage jars were set into floors
    -sickle blades: participating in harvesting
    -manufacture of chipped stone tools—concentration of evidence in one particular building
    -different than houses at Khafajeh—participating in food acquisition and processing here
-shows decline in exploitation of caprids, increase in pigs
    -animals slaughtered at young age: for meat production
    -preponderance of limbs emphasizes this, as well as wealth of urban area
    -hunting does not play a large role but fishing does
-barley = major crop plant recovered, glume wheat also grown
    -also fig, flax, sesame, lentil
-burials associated with houses show interment of ordinary people
    -location of burials in different rooms of the house and their positions with respect to other burials were a function of the deceased persons’ age, gender, and position within the family; children and women placed in peripheral rooms/peripheral positions
-surface covered with ceramic slag: “clinkers”
-walled city with gates
    -massive wall for more than just defense—also a visual statement of power
-streets paved with potsherds
-midden containing sealings and figurines, as well as floral and faunal remains
-evidence of bilingualism: Early Dynastic scribes had Akkadian names but wrote Sumerian
large and complex site with only known large-scale secondary building
-NE of Hilla, E of Babylon
-seat of Sumerian rulership after flood but before it moved to Uruk
-brick building usually interpreted as a palace
    -built in phases
    -buttressed outer walls, columned chambers
    -50+ rooms, some for storage, some with kilns
-above palace, rich cemetery
    -graves were pits with brick coffins
    -grave goods: pottery, stone and metal vessels, copper/bronze tools and weapons, occasional seals, carts, shells
-another building had inlaid panels of schist, limestone, and mother-of-pearl showing scenes like those on the Standard of Ur
-domestic deposit succeeded by findings of a chariot/cart drawn by bovines or equids
    -shows that Ur is not the only one with this stuff (may even be earlier at Kish)
-tablets from early development of writing—from Uruk period
-city god was Zababa (warrior)
located in Diyala River drainage, E of Baghdad
-large (over 200 ha)
-on highest part of site: Sin Temple, Nuntu Temple, Temple Oval, associated houses
    -Sin Temple = for moon god? Conforms to space left by adjacent houses, typical tripartite plan, long rectangular sanctuary with podium altar at one end and entrance on side
        -founded before any houses in the area but rebuilt twice
    -few signs of production but many seals and jewelry, suggesting considerable authority and wealth
    -hearth and kilns
    -Temple Oval = unprecedented in size and shape, to unknown god
        -founded at the beginning of Early Dynastic II
        -house built between inner and outer enclosure walls
        -material wealth (ex: jewelry), seals
        -involved in food acquisition and craft production
-houses constructed starting in Jemdet Nasr
-no fire installations in houses—obtained cooked/baked food from Sin Temple?
-protocuneiform tablets found
-tombs often contained multiple burials
    -tombs construction confined to older section of housing
    -stone slabs as grave goods
-destroyed by fire in Early Dynastic III, rebuilt somewhat differently
Al Hibba
important city-state
-excavated temple of Innana
-controlled stratigraphy for Early Dynastic Period
-provided close dating of cylinder seals, used to cross-date
-not published
Tell Asmar
Early Dynastic city and Temple for Abu, lord of vegetation
-numerous houses but only a single temple
-plan of temple like that of houses, but with podium/altar and cache of 21 images of worshippers buried in pit next to it
-next to temple, large structure made up of several suites of rooms centered around courtyards (“Main Northern Palace”)
    -some rooms contained bins maybe used for tanning
    -lots of food preparation equipment
    -cloth manufacture, sculpting, engraving, inlaying
    -no indication was actually the home of a ruler
-in early Akkadian period, many houses had cooking/baking facilities
-limited evidence for cloth production and tool maintenance
-substantial quantities of seals, sealings, and stone weights attest to the conduct of authorized transactions and exchange in houses
-weapons in small quantities
-pig remains common; mostly young ages along with sheep, means wealthy households?
-scarlet ware pottery (distinctive pottery from this region during ED I)
-tablet use in domestic context
-both temple and Main Northern Palace abandoned by late Akkadian period; houses enlarged—reflection of trend toward secularization in Akkadian period?
    -lots of artisanal production now
    -lots of weapons (implying less centralized control?)
    -lots of participation in authorized transactions and exchange
large sample of graves including 16 “royal graves”/“death pits”
-graves provide snapshot of elite material culture
    -all 16 elite graves have stone chambers
    -roofed with corbelled vaulting of stone or fired brick
    -tomb set at the base of a deep pit entered by a ramp
    -all except 2 robbed in antiquity
    -Woolley (excavator) divided them into 10 “Royal Tombs” with identifiable tomb chamber and 6 “Death Pits” with only preserved approach pit
    -Tomb of Queen Pu-Abi, both intact
        -18 bodies
    -Great Death Pit: most bodies (74)
    -anomaly: Tomb of Meskalamdug
        -seems to be a king but doesn’t appear on formal king list
        -clearly a soldier: has sword, saw
        -no chamber, no sacrifice
    -great wealth: gold helmet, lots of lapis and gold beads, silver belt (had seal—only one in cemetery with seal)
        -collection of female jewelry, maybe as offering to goddess
-standard of Ur found here
-arguments over identity of deceased but most recognize them as kings and queens
-large quantity of associated bodies (victims of human sacrifice)
-Dickson: carefully staged political dramas that portray only the official/public transcript of the rulers
Akkadian Empire
first large territorial polity in Mesopotamia
-established by Sargon and his sons around 2200 BC
    -Sargon reigns for 55 years of stability, but revolts at end plague his sons
    -origin myth of Sargon found in boat
    -Sargon maintains iconography from Sumerian times
-Naram Sin reestablishes stability, reigns for 64 years
-capital (Akkad) has yet to be located but probably near Kish
on Euphrates
-first archives found in situ, when palace burnt down, it burnt around them
-defensive boundary wall
-heavily influenced by Sumerians
-burnt down by Naram Sin after 2250 BC
-rich (Akkadians didn’t take everything)
    -both worked and raw lapis lazuli
Early Dynastic Egypt
Dynasty 0 – Dynasty III
-centralization of government; increased dependence on bureaucracy
-giving of gifts by kings
Old Kingdom
2686 – 2150 BC (3rd dynasty to 6th dynasty)
-establishment and expansion of long-distance trade (like what was happening in W. Asia)
-military expeditions by king into Nubia, Sinai, Palestine, Libya
-diplomats in Levant
-evidence for trade with Nubia and south
-kings viewed Western Asia as “their territory”
1st Intermediate Period:
2150-2080 BC
-after 6th dynasty, Egyptian government disintegrated
-nomarchs acted independently and proclaimed themselves as kings
-famine common: result or cause of central breakdown?
-corresponds to dynasties 9 and 10 ruling from Hierakonpolis, and dynasty 11 ruling from Thebes
-reunification in dynasty 11 by Mentuhotep
Middle Kingdom
2080-1640 BC
-includes dynasties 12 and 13
-bureaucracy, ethos of control
-instability at end of period
-few royal monuments
-Egypt was prosperous, leveling of wealth: private monuments, elaborate tombs for governors
-development of a middle class?
-capital moved back to Memphis
-planned towns like Kahun
-fortresses in Nubia
-extensive trade with Levant, Syria, Turkey
-detailed inventories for temples, reflect mathematical precision for rations
-literary works
-tomb models
Second Intermediate Period
(1640-1550 BC)
-another breakdown of centralized authority, with competing kings
-dynasties 13-17
-loss of Nubia to local rulers who eventually come to rule all of Egypt, much later
-delta split into several kingdoms, including Asiatic group called the Hyksos with capital at el-Dabba
    -buildings of mudbrick but in Egyptian style
    -grave and scarab of Aamu, “the Asian”
    -wall paintings related to Minoan art
-contemporary with apex of Minoan civilization
distinctive art style
-took over major delta kingdom during second intermediate period in Egypt
-had close connections with inhabitants of Palestine
-brought many Near East innovations to Egypt   
    -bronze working
    -improved pottery wheel
    -vertical loom (much more efficient than Middle Kingdom’s horizontal loom)
    -new plants and animals
    -horse and chariot, composite bow, other weapons
    -new musical instruments, style of dance
New Kingdom
(1550-1069 BC)
-Ahmose (1550-1525 BC) drove out Hyksos, made Egypt chief power of Near East
-reestablishment of indigenous dynasty (18), based in Thebes
-some of best-known Egyptian rulers
    -Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten: changes self-portrayal to have a superlong face, fleshy boobs, and a jutting out stomach; raises question of how much is portrayal and how much is propaganda
    -Tuthmose I (1504-1492 BC)—great military leader, campaigned all the way to Euphrates, established greatest geographical rule of Egyptian state
    -Tutankhamen (1336-1327 BC)—revived cult of Amun
    -Rameses II (1279-1213 BC)—defeated at Battle of Qadesh by Hittite ruler Suppiluliumas, later signed treaty in 1296 BC with a Hittite ruler
    -Hatshepsut (1490-1436)—female pharaoh (wife of Tuthmose II, regent for Tuthmose III), sent famous expedition to Punt to obtain dogs, monkeys, incense trees, rare wood, gold, ivory, myrrh; focused on internal domestic affairs, restored temples, period of peace, little military activity
-big population jump (prosperity?)
-political organization
    1) Elite: at top, pharaoh held absolute authority over complex system of divided powers, made appointments of religious, political, and military leaders
    -below pharaoh, two viziers controlling civil government and extensive bureaucracy
    -royalty and high-ranking officials = true elite with great wealth
    -high-ranking priests controlled temples with attached estates
    2) Middle Class: lower-ranking officials in provinces, lower ranks of nobility, craftsmen, wealthy farmers
    3) Lower Class: farmers, soldiers, minor officials/priests
    4) Slaves: worked for temple in mines and quarries, often war captives
-with ability of king to appoint individuals, talented individuals more mobile within society than ever before
-civil government controlled taxation, agriculture, weak police force, mayors
-professional army discouraged revolts, collected tribute abroad
-position of women in wealthy families = very good
-diplomatic ties with Syria and Anatolia, went to war with Hittites
-reconquered Nubia
    -provided gold, semi-precious stone, ostrich plumes, wood, skins, oil
-beginning about 1200 BC, period of disruption (Peoples of the Sea/Dark Age)
royal capital throughout most of New Kingdom
-two major temples
    -Luxor: temple of Amun as Min, a fertility god, smaller
        -colorful, decorated
    -Karnak: dedicated to Amun-Re, immense
        -temple complex done by Ramsses II
        -lake, open courts
-mortuary temple of Hatshepsut (at center of Deir el-Bahri complex)
-tombs and Valley of the Kings on west bank
capital of Egypt at time of Akhenaten (14th C BC)
-located halfway between Memphis and Thebes
-short occupation, never reoccupied
-best evidence for city plan
    -seen as typical city of New Kingdom
    -boundary stones laid out, shows signs of city planning
    -not walled
    -divided into sectors linked by a N-S royal road, paralleling the river
        -central zone: palace, temples, storehouses, police barracks, laid out on grid
        -north and south zones: residential and commercial areas, a slum
-major buildings
    -Great Temple: long narrow building, surrounded by 365 offering tables
    -Palace: straddles Royal Rd; agglomeration of courts, gardens, rooms, pillared reception halls; royal living quarters to East; reception and administrative to West; linked by bridge with “window of appearances”
    -Private Houses: square living room with high ceiling in center of house; other rooms lead off this space; walled compound for wealthy including gardens, storage, stables
-constructed of mudbrick with stone or wood columns, doorsills
    -decorated with limestone, sometimes carved in reliefs
    -could be plastered or painted
Deir el Medina
tomb workers’ village from late New Kingdom
-occupied during 18th-19th Dynasties
-on west bank of Nile opposite Luxor
-close to Valley of King and Queens where men worked
-regulated plan (walled enclave, houses mostly the same that housed the tomb workers)
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
changes self-portrayal to have a superlong face, fleshy boobs, and a jutting out stomach; raises question of how much is portrayal and how much is propaganda
-attempted to overthrow conservative priesthood of god Amun-Re (god of air and sun)
-revolution substituting Aten, solar disc, whose worship had begun 50 years earlier
-power struggle between king and priesthood
-all other gods rejected, but not a monotheistic religion (both king and Aten were gods)
-revolution in art, for “naturalistic” style
-founded new capital at Akhetaten, Amarna
-lack of attention to foreign affairs: loss of revenue in Asia, loss of Syria to Hittites, Nubia regained independence
-successor Tutankhamen revived cult of Amun, but kings from there on out lacked the individual imperialist power that Akhenaten had
tin is super rare, widely distributed in mountains and at one site near Gulf of Aqqaba; mine in Anatolian plateau
-19th C BC trade dominated by Assyrian colonies in Anatolia
-send textiles and tin from Ashur, get gold and silver from Anatolia
-tin needed for copper alloys (bronze)
-Kestel Mines: evidence for ore processing and smelting at settlement Göltepe (ca 2500-2000 BC): found on a survey (lots of ground stone tools identified as being associated with metal processing/grinding up ore); initially rejected as being too early for a “fancy copper-working source”; pottery shows evidence of contact with Cyprus
-could be related to enormous wealth of central Anatolian groups
-ingots found on Ulu Burun, along with copper ingots—on way to make bronze?
Ulu Burun Shipwreck
shows mechanism of 14th C BC trade
-date determined by dendrochronology: 1318 + 67, after time of Nefertiti
-discovered by sponge fisherman in 1982, 100 m off coast of island
-anchor = key to identifying type of ship as Syro-Palestinian/Cypriotic
-ship made of cedar from Lebanon
-most contents are Syro-Palestinian/Cypriotic, but some Mycenaean
    -may reflect an ethnically mixed crew
-current interpretation: this was a royal dispatch, evidenced by prestige items and accompaniment by Mycenaeans.
-organics: Baltic amber, amphorae (carrying perfume) with residue from pistachio trees, murex dye in Canaanite jar, pomegranates, ebony logs, olives, grape seeds, ostrich eggs, wooden book with ivory hinge, hippo and elephant ivory
-inorganics: ingots (prepared raw materials) of copper, tin, cobalt glass (blue), manganese glass (purple), turquoise-colored glass (chemically identical to Egyptian and Mycenaean glass), Canaanite amphorae with residue from incense, ceramic lamps, gold cup, faience rhyta (ritual pouring vessels/sprinklers), jewelry (inc. scarab of Nefertiti)
copper alloy with tin
-Hyksos brought bronze-working to Egypt
-both necessary components of bronze found on Ulu Burun shipwreck
-became common in 3rd-2nd millennium BC
Hittite Empire
1350-1200 BC, Shupuiluliuma defeats Ramsses II at the Battle of Qadesh
-followed by major period of construction
-capital at Boğazköy (Hattusha)
-formal establishment of state during Hittite Old Kingdom (1680-1420)
-separated by Kizil Irmak—Upper Land and Lower Land
-gods/temples receive regular sustenance from people as well as a share of booty from war
-primarily an agricultural state; people contribute both taxes and corvee labor, farming and herding as a source of wealth
-recently found: huge granaries, probably royal storehouses
    -but no textual evidence for type of redistribution characteristic of Egypt and Mesopotamia
    -addition rather than replacement of deities
    -Hatti/Teshub is primary deity (storm god)
    -sun goddess Arinna related to the underworld, ruler of universe and heaven, king is chief of state for her, shows Hurrian influence
-“People of the Sea” appear beginning in late 13th century under Merenptah (1237-1226 BC)
    -potentially related to collapse of Hittite empire (contemporary with destruction in Levant) -may have been ended by Phrygians
Hittite Kings
seen as deputy of storm god who owns the world
-as agent of god, the king is center of the universe, juncture between humans and gods
-not themselves divine until after death
-organizes people to defend and exploit land of Hatti for the benefit of the gods
-responsible for warfare and diplomacy; expected to personally lead the army into battle and make decisions affecting troops and garrisons—deputy when he was involved elsewhere
-expected to be compassionate to people
-office inherited patrilineally, solidified through judicious marriages
-ruled through deputies, viceroys, and bureaucrats appointed by the king
    -inherently weak—when a vassal did rebel, they easily severed ties with the king
-sacred animal was the bull
capital of Hittite empire, built by Shupuiluliuma
-located in center of modern Turkey
-bowl-like area, fortified around back
    -4 km circuit wall with 3 gates
    -bronze tablet describes journey of king around this wall as part of a ritual
-contains citadel with king’s palace, archives
-Upper City is mostly temples
-Lower City dominated by Temple I (to storm god and his consort the sun goddess) with residence for priests and craft specialists attached to temple across the street
-high area with large-scale storage systems
-destroyed by fire ca. 1180 BC—good preservation
like “People of the Sea” in 13th C BC
-archaeological indicators
    -change in domestic structures
        -house construction and plan
        -features associated with houses (pits, hearths)
    -change in layout of settlement
    -change in artifact types (ex: pottery)
        -manufacturing technique
        -style and form
    -change in diet and subsistence practices
        -species preferences
Assyrian Empire
Assyrian resurgence after 2nd millennium (esp end 10th C BC)
-maximum empire: 7th C BC, from Persian Gulf to mountains at north of Mesopotamia; from Western Iran to Egypt
-Assyrians = super strong militarily
    -relatively good historical texts written in Akkadian recount their military campaigns
    -militaristic and patriarchal society in general
    -all males obliged to give military service, received a plot of land in return
-king had absolute power, both head of the army and chief priest
-art was state-sponsored, showing what the state deemed important (ex: deeds of the king and his armies)
    -shows locations (ex: rivers, mountains)
    -shows types of sites (ex: forts)
    -shows techniques of warfare (ex: siege machines, archers, chariots)
    -shows consequences of battle (ex: captives before king, impaled victims, wailing women)
-Assyrian sculpture basically all carvings in stone in low relief, brightly painted
-used astrology based on astronomical observation
-separated from Urartu by mountains but conflict arose between their allies
    -Sargon eventually conquers Urartu (mostly)
-Middle Assyrian period (1750-1000 BC)
    -Tikulti-Ninurta I (1243-1207) and Tigleth Pileser I (1114-1076) united Assyria, conquered Babylon, Syria to Mediterranean
-Neo-Assyrian period (1000-609 BC)
    -ruled by a successful series of warrior kings starting with Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC)
-~878 BC, Ashurnasirpal II moves capital from Aššur (first capital) to Kalhu (Nimrud)
    -Nineveh = Assyria’s natural capital, chosen by Sennacherib after Sargon dies in battle
        -vast irrigation system
-Assyria weak from 828-750 BC after revolt
-Tiglath-pileser III restores its former glory in 750 BC (good until 626 BC)
    -formalized army, appointed eunuchs as governors (no desire in establishing a dynasty), resettlements/deportations
-667 BC: Ashurbanipal attempts and succeeds in conquest of Egypt
    -has a library
-allies with Babylon
    -used Babylonian dialect in literary works and royal inscriptions
    -652 BC: civil war between Assyria and Babylon—kings are brothers
        -Assyria wins, but insurrection in Babylon leads to destruction of Assyria
Assyrian rival, comes around 9th C BC, established by Sarduri I, also Menua and his massive civic building projects
-actually separated from Assyria by mountains but conflict arose between their allies
    -Assyrian king Sargon eventually mostly conquers Urartu
-consisted of pockets of land around Lake Van rather than contiguous territory
-used Assyrian script but own language which was closely related to Hurrian
-known for architecture, waterworks, military conquests
    -distinctive lions
-distinctive seals used like cylinder seals
-period of expansion in 8th C BC coinciding with Assyrian weakness
-chief god: Haldi (god of war?)
-agricultural wealth
-beaten by Kimmerians in 7th C BC
lived on Mediterranean coast cities in 1st millennium BC
-traded timber
allies with Assyria
-religious/cultural center (affected Assyrian policy)
-652 BC: civil war between Assyria and Babylon—kings are brothers
    -Assyria wins, but insurrection in Babylon leads to destruction of Assyria
arrive in Anatolia end late Bronze Age, dominate Anatolia in 8th C BC
-ended Hittites?
-capital at Gordion
    -Early Phrygian period: burning of city
    -Middle Phrygian period: rebuilt
    -Late Bronze Age: large-scale pottery produced by specialist potters
    -Early Iron Age: handmade pottery (variable vessels), large time investment, open firing—ceramic production on an individual basis
        -buffware: part-time specialst potters work on a modest scale of production
        -no known local antecedent
    -public area (megaron plan) built by leaders to command labour of others
    -form of gateway, metal artifacts show interaction with Hittite empire
-Midas tomb: brass = golden touch myth?
-fall in 7th C BC, replaced by Lydians
W Anatolian power after fall of Phrygians in 7th C BC
in Ushnu-Solduz Valley, well-excavated but underpublished
-borders Assyria and Urartu
-great preservation due to repeated fires
-shows human cost of warfare
-findings: greyware, horse accoutrements, Egyptian blue ceramics, rightons in the shape of animals (drinking vessels), ivory (ex: box Phoenician in style), Assyrian seals and local imitations
-violence likely acceptable: many men with healed fractures on head, women with healed fractures on face
-sacked either by Shalemenester or by Urartians
    -more likely Urartians because of large quantities of Assyrian/Mesopotamian goods including royal gifts and rebuilding of site with Urartean fortifications
Marxist model for creation of a state
by V. Gordon Childe
-set out critical/diagnostic characteristics of “civilization”—attempted to base them on both New World and Old World societies
    -presence of very large dense settlements or cities (wider level of social integration) (ex: Habuba Kabira, Hierakonpolis—both in 4th millennium BC)
    -full-time craft specialists (reorganization of production with systems of distribution and exchange, include everything from bureaucrats to beer-makers) (ex: stone vessel-making in Egypt, given by king to followers, transition to wheel-made pottery in Mesopotamia, never made except by specialists)
    -concentration of surplus: collection and management of surplus from farmers and craftsmen (evidence in Egypt of tax collection esp in New Kingdom)
    -division of society into economic classes: elite composed of political leaders, perhaps religious leaders, military—and then everyone else (Warka during Uruk period shows hierarchy)
    -monumental public works: mobilization of labor for collective enterprises (palaces, temples, storehouses, agricultural systems)
    -no elite tombs from Uruk period: instead, lots of temples (partly due to archaeological sampling
    -long-distance trade (specialization and exchange beyond the city) (ex: lapis lazuli from C. Asia, turquoise from Sinai, carnelian from Anatolia—to Egypt, but passing through Mesopotamia on the way)
    -portrait art (depictions of individuals, leaders, and deities) (ex: Narmer uniting Egypt, also Mesopotamian king—both show maleness and power)
    -written language: facilitated communication, organization, and management
    -numerical systems and predictive sciences
Demonstrations of power
-human sacrifice
-killing of enemy warriors
-capture of people for enslavement
-carrying off booty including items of great symbolic value
-extraction of tax or tribute
-relocation of populations
Wenke’s theory of primary states
-People were trying to deal with spatial and temporal variability in resources
-People were attempting to manage more complex (intensified) productive systems (ex: irrigation)
-People were trying to manage problems arising from population growth
-People were responding to conflict between social groups which had more and less wealth and power—something that happens with chiefdoms
Urban Revolution Theory
by V. Gordon Childe
-development of metallurgy and craft specialization depends on agricultural surplus
-development of efficient irrigation systems supported more and more specialists
-water transport/wheeled vehicles allowed collections of large quantities of surplus at a few centers
-facilitated emergence of ruling class
Irrigation Hypothesis
by Karl Wittfogel
-based on historical research in China
-construction of elaborate hydraulic systems, irrigation is key
-required bureaucracy to coordinate and control people -> centralized ruling class
-control vested in water, denied to those who did not accept system
-although does not match data, still popular with some theorists
-MMV does not like
Circumscription Theory
by Robert Carneiro
-worked in S. America
-resources always limited
-population growth inevitable
-population pressure -> warfare
-centralized government develops to mobilize armies
-works in very limited cases (we don’t have evidence for unbridled population growth, or often stress on resources)
Trade Theory of State Formation
by Guillermo Algaze
-areas that are poor in raw resources (ex: Mesopotamia) have to establish relationships with resource-rich areas
-large-scale trade required administration
-administrators had greater access to wealth and power
-growth in some settlements and resulting competition for agricultural land
-large settlements adaptive since they promoted efficiency
Robert McCormick Adams
theorized on state formation by synthesizing other theories—very complicated
Evolutionary Theory of State Formation
by Kent Flannery
How to be an agent of state formation:
-where the environment permits, use corvee labor to provision armies and provide food for the general population to make them content
-where the environment does not permit, raid for food and supplies
-solidify your position by power-sharing
-change ideology of leadership by destroying old symbols and creating own distinctive new ones
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