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APSH final exam 2016 chapter material questions...
cards to study for final
89
Civics
10th Grade
12/15/2014

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Term
What state did not attend the Philadelphia Convention?
Definition
Rhode Island
Term
What type of grants in aid is the most specific and controlling?
Definition
Categorical
Term
What is the Contract with America?
Definition
1994 Republican campaign pledge to return power back to the states.
Term
What is patronage?
Definition
Rewarding loyalty rather than merit
Term
What is the intergovernmental lobby?
Definition
Lobby of state and local interest groups representing a state or local government body that lobby for state/local issues.
Term
What are the 6 senate folkways?
Definition
Reciprocity, Apprenticeship, specialization, courtesy, legislative work, institutional patriotism (unwritten rules of behavior to keep order in the Senate)
Term
What VP changed the role of VP into a more involved VP?
Definition
Walter Mondale- first VP to have an office in West Wing and attend cabinet meetings regularly
Term
Who create the model of the modern Presidency?
Definition
FDR (active and involved/problem solving. Think New Deal/100 days standard )
Term
What are concurrent powers?
Definition
Shared powers like taxing, making laws, prisons, courts, etc.
Term
What are reserved powers?
Definition
Powers not mentioned in the Constitution therefore left to the states like education, elections
Term
What 3 groups make up the iron triangle?
Definition
Interest group, agency, committee in Congress
Term
What agency employs 1/3 of all federal employees?
Definition
Post office
Term
Max Weber's characteristics of the bureaucracy?
Definition
Hierarchical (from top to bottom)
specialized
impersonal
rules oriented and
output/goals oriented
Term
pathologies of the bureaucracy
Definition
red tape, waste, growth, turf wars and duplication (problems of the bureaucracy)
Term
Executive Privilege? What is it? Was Nixon able to invoke it?
Definition
Ability of Presidents to keep some things from public in the name of security. No he was not. had to turn over the tapes.
Term
What happens to public opinion the longer a president is in office?
Definition
begins to drop
Term
What model of Congressional decision making says to follow the voters when you vote? the party?
Definition
delegate (voters) partisan (party)
Term
Does the president still have the line item veto?
Definition
NO! lost it after 1 year
Term
What do presidential candidates look for in a running mate?
Definition
Balance the ticket.. make up for your weaknesses.
Term
SEnatorial Courtesy
Definition
An unwritten custom that the President talks to Senators about his nominees before putting them formally up for consideration
Term
What is legislative logrolling?
Definition
Back scratching. Vote trading.
Term
What happened to the make up of Congress in 1992?
Definition
More diverse. Esp. women after Anita Hill- clarence Thomas
Term
Who impeaches? Who is jury?
Definition
House charges, Senate jury
Term
Fillibuster and cloture
Definition
Talk a bill to death. Stop a fillibuster with 60 votes (3/5)
Term
What is a litmus test?
Definition
A test given to see how liberal/conservative you are. Often given of judicial nominees
Term
What chief justice saved the Supreme Court turned around it's image?
Definition
John Marshall
Term
Father of our Constitution?
Definition
James Madison
Term
Conference Committee
Definition
used to work out differences on a bill version from House/Senate
Term
Frostbelt/Sunbelt battle
Definition
Over contracts and grant formulas. Do we base them on growth (south) or decay and tax base loss (North)
Term
How does the national govt. try to control the states?
Definition
Grants, Mandates, Crossover sanctions
Term
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Definition
My legal documents carry over from state to state
Term
Gibbons v. Ogden
Definition
opened up the defintion of interstate commerce
Term
Marbury v. MAdison
Definition
established judicial review
Term
mcCulloch v. MAryland
Definition
national supremacy and implied powers (bank)
Term
Gideon v. Wainwright
Definition
Poor person's right to an atty
Term
Miranda v. Arizona
Definition
Must be told of your rights when arrested
Term
Engel v. Vitale
Definition
faculty may not lead prayer in school
Term
Brown v. Board
Definition
Separate but equal not equal must integrate schools
Term
Mapp v. ohio
Definition
Illegally collected evidence must be thrown out
Term
Who would be antiwelfare, pro prayer in school and pro life? (liberal or conservative?)
Definition
Republicans/Conservative
Term
Authors of the Federalist papers?
Definition
Jay, Hamilton, Madison
Term
Jaded generation that lists divorce, drug usage as largest impacts on generation
Definition
Gen X
Term
Only amendment to use conventions of the people to get passed (instead of state legislatures)?
Definition
21st amendment
Term
A judge that tries to stick to the intent of the framers or exact wording of the laws
Definition
Judicial Restraint.. Activists put their personal views/stretch the law
Term
What is happening to the US population/
Definition
Getting older, more diverse, gender roles more =, gap between rich/poor widening.
Term
Thomas Paine
Definition
Wrote common Sense
Term
Dominant values of a society and attitudes toward government
Definition
Political Culture: In us we believe in equality, liberty, political mistrust, etc.
Term
Generation Y
Definition
Very global thinking, racially diverse generation
Term
How hard is it to make an amendment?
Definition
Very hard. Out of 10,000 ideas only 33 have made it to step 2 (3/4 vote) and only 27 ideas have gotten through step 2.
Term
Rule of 4
Definition
Takes 4 judges to pull up a case for consideration and grant a writ of certiorari (ct. order to send up all lower records on a case)
Term
Stare Decisis
Definition
Let the precedent stand. Don't overturn past decision.
Term
Amicus Curaie Brief
Definition
friend of the court brief filed by a 3rd party
Term
Who tends to vote Republican?
Definition
white males, wealthy, educated, religious, South (now) and Interior West (UT, ID, WY)
Term
25th amendment
Definition
Disability of president and filling an empty VP spot
Term
Who draws the House boundaries every 10 years with the census?
Definition
Normally state legislatures
Term
10th amendment
Definition
Reserved powers
Term
17th amendment
Definition
let's us elect our Senators (no more state legislature appt)
Term
22nd amendment
Definition
limits president to 2 terms
Term
Who said men form govts. to preserve life, liberty and property? Locke or Hobbes Who was the pessimist about man's nature? Locke or Hobbes?
Definition
John Locke - enlightenment thinker
Hobbes - pessimist Man's natural state is war.
Term
During an arrest what can be searched/seized?
Definition
Things on warrant, things in plain view, things on a person (pat down) if they have reasonable suspicion. Not things in other rooms or not on warrant. That will be excluded.
Term
Free speech tests? limits?
Definition
Clear and present danger, obscenity (community standards), slander libel if maliciously done, commercial speech must be truthful, sedition during crisis times for security, bad tendencies, fighting words, etc.
Term
What demographic changes occurred in last century?
Definition
population growth, aging of America, equalized gender roles, much more diversity esp from new non European countries.
Term
Push poll v. exit poll v. tracking poll
Definition
Push poll tries to get you to not support your candidate with bad info.
Tracking poll asks the same question over a period of time to see if opinion changes
Exit poll asks you how you voted after you leave voting booth.
Term
Father of modern polling?
Definition
George Gallup
Term
Is America's voter turnout high or low?
Definition
Low!!
Term
What party are 90+% of African American's loyal to?
Definition
Democrat
Term
Republicans were the federalists or antifederalists originally?
Definition
federalists
Term
The republican party started as a pro or anti slavery party?
Definition
Anti
Term
Most critical period of socialization?
Definition
Adolescence
Term
Process by which over time you obtain your political values?
Definition
Political socialization
Term
What is the general margin of error on a poll?
Definition
+/- 3%
Term
Stratified or nonstratified polls are scientific?
Definition
Stratified.. they actually make sure that various subgroups are questioned.
Term
Who is most likely to vote?
Definition
Whites, educated, wealthy, church goers
Term
What is a PAC?
Definition
Fundraising portion of an interest group.
Term
PETA is what type of interest group?
Definition
Social
Term
Red tape, waste, growth, conflict/turf wars and duplication are _______ of the bureaucracy.
Definition
pathologies
Term
What party tends to raise more money?
Definition
Republican
Term
What amendment is cited for reserved powers?
Definition
10th.
Term
Bakke v. University of CA
Definition
quotas illegal. Affirmative action used to break a tie okay but setting asides spots is not.
Term
Texas v. Johnson
Definition
Flag burning legal
Term
1994 campaign pledge by republicans was called ______ What did it do?
Definition
Contract with America. REturned power back to people and states. Cleaned up govt. and wanted people to do more for themselves.
Term
Gender Gap?
Definition
Difference in how men and women vote on issues.
Term
Literary digest problems?
Definition
Polled too early from an elite source (phone book and vehicle registrations in 1916) it mailed cards they had to return in the summer for a November election.
Term
What is happening to party today?
Definition
Been replaced. Pollsters, media consultants more important. More ticket splitting and issue voting today.
Term
Theories on why we form interest groups?
Definition
Selective Benefits (we get something from joining- status/discount)
Tocqueville- America is just a nation of joiners.
Salisbury's theory- people join when resources are scarce.
Disturbance- when one group forms on one side of an issue, another group forms on the other to counter other group.
Term
What can determine party ID?
Definition
Family is #1, race, gender, region, religion, etc. can all have a role.
Term
Which party would be prolife and NOT want gun control or welfare?
Definition
Republican
Term
Early attempts to "sway public opinion"?
Definition
Sons of liberty, committees of correspondence, Common Sense, Declaration of Ind. federalist and antifed essays.
Term
What characteristics can give Interest groups more influence?
Definition
Money (fundraising), technical expertise and knowledge, more widespread their membership or the issue they support is can help increase clout.
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