# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

APSC 151
First-Year Engineering Geology at Queen's
82
Geology
12/04/2012

Term
 The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at this growth rate is closest to:(a) 5 years(b) 14 years(c) 20 years(d) 28 years(e) 50 years
Definition
 (d) 28 yearsP=Poe^(kt)4Po=Poe^(0.05t)4=e^(0.05t)ln4 = 0.05tt=(ln4)/0.05t = 27.7 --> 28
Term
 Although it is probably impossible to predict PRECISELY when an earthquake will occur, one of the following features may indicate that an area is at high risk of an upcoming major earthquake. Which one?(a) a seismic gap along an active fault zone(b) aftershocks(c) ground subsidence(d) electrical storms(e) low levels of radon in wells
Definition
 (a) a seismic gap along an active fault zoneSeismic gaps are areas where earthquakes have not struck for a long period of time and hence a high build-up of pressure can be assumed.
Term
 In the first 500 million years of the Earth's history, the Earth's atmosphere was probably:(a) similar to today's atmosphere(b) rich in oxygen, but poor in nitrogen(c) rich in oxygen and methane(d) rich in carbon dioxide, and poor in oxygen(e) rich in oxygen and carbon dioxide
Definition
 (d) rich in carbon dioxide, and poor in oxygen
Term
 The seismic wave velocities are lowered in the region of the Earth called the "low velocity zone" because:(a) that region is liquid(b) that region has a higher density than the regions around it(c) that region has a higher elasticity than the regions around it(d) that region contains about 10% partial melt(e) that region is more viscous than the regions around it
Definition
 (d) that region contains about 10% partial meltWith 10% liquid, the low-velocity zone has a lower elasticity and hence a lower seismic wave velocity.
Term
 The Earth's crust includes the following five minerals. If you could mine every last crystal of these five minerals from the crust, which one would end up providing the most lead (Pb)?(a) pyrite(b) potassium feldspar(c) chalcopyrite(d) magnetite(e) galena
Definition
 (b) potassium feldsparIt is true that galena has the highest CONCENTRATION of lead of the five minerals. However, while potassium feldspar contains a lower concentration of lead, is very abundant in Earth's crust.
Term
 Four of the five main structural groups of silicate minerals provide polymerization. This polymerization is achieved by:(a) the covalent bonding of oxygen with positive cations(b) the joining of single chains with positive cations(c) the sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedra(d) the replacement of some silicon atoms with aluminum(e) the sharing of silicon atoms with aluminum atoms
Definition
 (c) the sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedraAs per the the file on the Frosh CD titled "Notes", "every oxygen is shared, and all silica tetrahedra are joined (no other "glue" is needed to hold them together)" in complete polymerization silicates.
Term
 As seismic energy waves travel deeper and deeper in the lower mantle of the Earth, the P-wave velocity increases with depth because:(a) the compressibility modulus decreases with depth in the mantle(b) the chemical composition of the mantle changes with depth(c) the density increases with depth in the mantle(d) the elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depth(e) the lower mantle becomes more plastic
Definition
 (d) the elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depthVelocity of P-waves = sqrt((k+(4/3)u)/p)
Term
 Weathering produces minerals that are more stable to the Earth's surface. Of the five minerals listed below, which one is the most abundant product of the weathering process:(a) clay(b) hematite(c) limonite(d) quartz(e) feldspar
Definition
 (a) clayMost silicates break down into clays, and silicates are abundant in the crust. It can be assumed, then, that clay is the most abundant product of weathering.
Term
 Which of the following features is most likely to be associated with a placer gold deposit?(a) submarine lava flows(b) granite porphyry(c) cross bedding(d) igneous layering(e) vesicularity
Definition
 (c) cross bedding
Term
 If you were in the Kingston area about 450 million years ago, what would you have seen?(a) desert sands(b) ice sheets like in Greenland(c) an oceanic island(d) a Himalayan-like mountain range(e) shallow seas
Definition
 (e) shallow seas
Term
 Of the following five rocks, which one can best neutralize acid rain?(a) rock salt(b) a sulfide deposit(c) a granite(d) a sandstone(e) a limestone
Definition
 (e) a limestoneLimestone is largely made up of the mineral calcite. Calcite reacts with hydrogen ions in acid rain as follows:CaCO3 (calcite) + 2H^+ > H2O + Ca^(2+) + CO2This is why calcite "fizzes" when hydrochloric acid is added.
Term
 In carrying out a risk assessment and risk management process, we calculate the risk by multiplying the probability of the hazard occurring by:(a) the type of risk(b) the frequency of the risk(c) the severity of the risk(d) the length of the hazard(e) the proximity of the hazard
Definition
 (c) severity of the riskRisk = probability x severity
Term
 Although it is probably impossible to predict PRECISELY when an earthquake will occur, one of the following features may indicate that an area is at high risk of an upcoming major earthquake. Which one?(a) a seismic gap along an active fault zone(b) aftershocks(c) ground subsidence(d) electrical storms(e) low levels of radon in wells
Definition
 (a) a seismic gap along an active fault zoneSeismic gaps are areas where an earthquake has not occurred for quite some time, and hence there are likely large build-ups of pressure that could result in a major earthquake.
Term
 In the first 500 million years of the Earth's history, the Earth's atmosphere was probably:(a) similar to today's atmosphere(b) rich in oxygen, but poor in nitrogen(c) rich in oxygen and methane(d) rich in carbon dioxide, and poor in oxygen(e) rich in oxygen and carbon dioxide
Definition
 (d) rich in carbon dioxide, and poor in oxygen
Term
 The seismic wave velocities are lowered in the region of the Earth called the "low velocity zone" because:(a) that region is liquid(b) that region has a higher density than the regions around it(c) that region has a higher elasticity than the regions around it(d) that region contains about 10% partial melt(e) that region is more viscous than the regions around it
Definition
 (d) that region contains about 10% partial meltThe low-velocity zone is 90% solid and 90% liquid, which means lower elasticity and lower velocity for seismic waves.
Term
 The Earth's crust includes the following five minerals. If you could mine every last crystal of these five minerals from the crust, which one would end up providing the most lead (Pb)?(a) pyrite(b) potassium feldspar(c) chalcopyrite(d) magnetite(e) galena
Definition
 (b) potassium feldsparWhile galena contains lead in higher CONCENTRATIONS, potassium feldspar is much more abundant in Earth's crust.
Term
 Four of the five main structural groups of silicate minerals provide polymerization. This polymerization is achieved by:(a) the covalent bonding of oxygen with positive cations(b) the joining of single chains with positive cations(c) the sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedra(d) the replacement of some silicon atoms with aluminum(e) the sharing of silicon atoms with aluminum atoms
Definition
 (c) the sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedra
Term
 As seismic energy waves travel deeper and deeper in the lower mantle of the Earth, the P-wave velocity increases with depth because:(a) the compressibility modulus decreases with depth in the mantle(b) the chemical composition of the mantle changes with depth(c) the density increases with depth in the mantle(d) the elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depth(e) the lower mantle becomes more plastic
Definition
 (d) the elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depthVelocity of P-waves = sqrt((k+4u/3)/p)
Term
 Weathering produces minerals that are more stable to the Earth's surface. Of the five minerals listed below, which one is the most abundant product of the weathering process:(a) clay(b) hematite(c) limonite(d) quartz(e) feldspar
Definition
 (a) claySilicates most often weather to form clays, and silicates are the most abundant on Earth's surface. As such, clays are the most abundant product of the weathering process.
Term
 In building up an understanding of a system in science or engineering, we develop and continually refine, a model of the system. To develop a model of the interior of the Earth, we compare the computer models that we generate with seismic results from earthquakes to see if they match. The more closely the two match, the greater the confidence we have in the model. For our computer model of the Earth that we generate, we must specify to the computer two of the following. Which two are they?1. the compressibility moduli of the different materials in the model "Earth"2. the distribution of the different materials in the model "Earth"3. the densities of the different materials in the model "Earth"4. the shear moduli of the different materials in the model "Earth"5. the seismic velocities within the different materials in the model "Earth"(a) 5 and 2(b) 4 and 2(c) 1 and 2(d) 3 and 2(e) 4 and 5
Definition
 (a) 5 and 2the distribution and seismic velocities within the different materials in the model "Earth"
Term
 If you were in the Kingston area about 450 million years ago, what would you have seen?(a) desert sands(b) ice sheets like in Greenland(c) an oceanic island(d) a Himalayan-like mountain range(e) shallow seas
Definition
 (e) shallow seas
Term
 Of the following five rocks, which one can best neutralize acid rain?(a) rock salt(b) a sulfide deposit(c) a granite(d) a sandstone(e) a limestone
Definition
 (e) a limestoneThe calcite in limestone reacts with hydrogen ions to neutralize. This neutralization of acid is why calcite "fizzes" when combined with hydrochloric acid.
Term
 In carrying out a risk assessment and risk management process, we calculate the risk by multiplying the probability of the hazard occurring by:(a) the type of risk(b) the frequency of the risk(c) the severity of the risk(d) the length of the hazard(e) the proximity of the hazard
Definition
 (c) the severity of the riskRisk = probability x severity
Term
 What is the major danger from fissure eruptions?(a) release of sulphur dioxide gas(b) tsunami(c) earthquakes(d) mudflows(e) solifluction
Definition
 (a) release of sulphur dioxide gas
Term
 When exploring for oil, seismic reflection studies provide the most effective way to search for suitable sedimentary rock structures that might host the oil. What kind of structure is most likely to be a prime target for oil?(a) an up-arch antiform(b) a moraine(c) an unconformity(d) a strike-slip fault(e) mud-cracks
Definition
 (a) an up-arch antiform
Term
 If we want to determine whether humans have been responsible for dramatically changing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane) since the Industrial Revolution, we need to know what their values were before that time. Which of the following approaches can give us that information?(a) drilling and analyzing ice cores from glaciers(b) analyzing the composition of gas in mud layers on the ocean floor(c) analyzing atmospheric gas collected in Hawaii(d) analyzing the carbonates in fossil shells(e) analyzing tree rings in bristlecone pines
Definition
 (e) analyzing tree rings in bristlecone pines
Term
 Roughly what percentage of the world's human population currently lives in urban areas?(a) 10%(b) 25%(c) 50%(d) 75%(e) 90%
Definition
 (c) 50%
Term
 San Francisco, California, sits right on the San Andreas fault. This fault marks a tectonic plate boundary. At this plate boundary:(a) plates are moving towards each other(b) one plate is sliding under another plate(c) plates are moving away from each other(d) continents are colliding(e) plates are sliding past each other
Definition
 (e) plates are sliding past each other
Term
 If the Earth's magnetic field did not occasionally reverse polarity:(a) polar-wander curves would not exist(b) compasses would not work(c) paleomagnetic analysis of a rock would not give the direction to the pole(d) the sea floor would not produce linear magnetic anomalies(e) continental drift would not have occurred
Definition
 (c) the sea floor would not produce linear magnetic anomalies
Term
 What is the MAIN control on the size of crystals produced in an igneous rock?(a) viscosity of the magma(b) volatile content(c) temperature of the magma(d) shape of the igneous body(e) rate of cooling
Definition
 (e) rate of cooling
Term
 What type of fault is most likely to be associated with a constructive plate boundary?(a) reverse dip-slip(b) normal dip-slip(c) nobody's(d) strike-slip(e) transverse
Definition
 (e) transverse
Term
 Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following magma types will generally be richest in water?(a) mafic(b) ultramafic(c) granitic(d) dioritic(e) porphyritic
Definition
 (c) granitic
Term
 There is no single "one-model-fits-all" solution to problems of population growth-rates that are too high. However, one of the following is MOST directly linked to a reduction in the population growth rate of countries. Which one is it?(a) economic incentives(b) use of contraceptives(c) industrialization(d) decrease in per capita consumption(e) education of men
Definition
 (c) industrialization
Term
 Which meteorite type is a best approximation to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth?(a) a basaltic achondrite meteorite(b) a Leonid meteorite(c) a chondrite meteorite(d) an ultramafic meteorite(e) an iron meteorite
Definition
 (c) a chondrite meteorite
Term
 The Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock deals with:(a) the development of the hydrological cycle(b) the plate tectonic cycle(c) the formation of the solar system(d) the physiology of the Earth(e) the rock cycle
Definition
 (d) the physiology of the EarthLovelock likens the entire Earth system to a massive, self-regulating organism that attempts to maintain conditions necessary for the continuation of life.
Term
 Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains?(a) greywacke(b) banded iron formation(c) quartz sandstone(d) limestone(e) mudstone
Definition
 (d) limestone
Term
 A silicate material that is not in the presence of water is most likely to be above its melting point at:(a) a low temperature and a high pressure(b) a high temperature and a high pressure(c) a low temperature and a low pressure(d) a high temperature and a low pressure(e) the surface of the Earth
Definition
 (d) a high temperature and a low pressure
Term
 The average temperature at the surface of the Earth is currently approximately 16 degrees Celsius. However, what would the average surface temperature of the Earth be if the Earth had NO atmosphere?(a) greater than 100 degrees Celsius(b) 50 degrees Celsius(c) 15 degrees Celsius(d) 0 degrees Celsius(e) -20 degrees Celsius
Definition
 (e) -20 degrees CelsiusThe generally cited value for the surface temperature of the Earth without an atmosphere is -18 degrees Celsius. This is similar to the surface temperature of the moon, which, at -23 degrees Celsius, is at a similar distance from the sun and has no atmosphere.
Term
 Which of the following rock types would tend to chemically weather LEAST rapidly?(a) diorite(b) gabbro(c) limestone(d) granite(e) rock salt
Definition
 (d) granite
Term
 Brad R. Allenby, in his paper on Earth-Systems Engineering, argues that the desired goal, or end-point, of Earth-Systems Engineering should be:(a) economic growth(b) sustainability(c) climate change(d) equity(e) decreased population
Definition
 (b) sustainability
Term
 Which of the following rock types is most likely to be well-sorted?(a) greywacke(b) limestone(c) quartz sandstone(d) glacial till(e) arkose
Definition
 (c) quartz sandstone
Term
 Quartz and feldspar are minerals that belong to the same silicate structural type. Their compositional difference is due to the replacement of some silicon atoms by another element to form the feldspars. What is the element that replaces the silicon?(a) Al(b) Na(c) Ca(d) Fe(e) K
Definition
 (a) Al
Term
 A mafic dyke would most likely be associated with:(a) a pyroclastic flow(b) a fissure eruption(c) a strike-slip fault(d) a tsunami(e) a translational slip
Definition
 (b) a fissure eruptionA dyke is a sheet intrusive that cuts perpendicular to the surface.
Term
 Hubbert's Peak refers to:(a) the first site, in the early 1950's, for measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide(b) the total resource of a commodity(c) the highest average global population growth rate in the 20th century(d) the highest global production level of crude oil(e) the highest continental mountain
Definition
 (d) the highest global production level of crude oilHubbert's Peak, also known as "peak oil", is the point in time at which the maximum rate of crude oil extraction is reached.
Term
 Limonate can form by the chemical weathering of which of the following minerals?(a) quartz(b) olivine(c) K-rich clay(d) feldspar(e) muscovite mica
Definition
 (b) olivine
Term
 Salt domes are important for oil exploration because:(a) they form antiformal fold structures above them(b) salt is the source rock for oil(c) salt rock squeezes oil out of the source rock(d) oil is trapped in the salt dome(e) water fluxing out from the salt carries oil
Definition
 (a) they form antiformal fold structures above them
Term
 In an attempt to model the composition of the deep layers in the interior of the Earth, we re-create conditions deep in the Earth's interior using:(a) a smelting furnace(b) a diamond anvil press(c) a seismometer(d) the mineral composition of metamorphic rocks(e) the inverse-theory approach
Definition
 (b) a diamond anvil press
Term
 The textures and structures of sedimentary rocks can yield information on the conditions of their deposition. Just by looking at the grain size of a sandstone at an outcrop, one can infer:(a) the number of times the sand has been reworked by successive currents(b) the grain size of the rocks from which the sand weathered(c) the distance over which the sand has been transported(d) the composition of the rock from which the sand weathered(e) the velocity of the current by which it was deposited
Definition
 (e) the velocity of the current by which it was deposited
Term
 The Earth's carrying capacity refers to:(a) the number of "sinks" available for human needs(b) the fact that humans move more material annually than all other Earth processes(c) the ultimate total amount of a non-renewable resource available to us(d) how large a human population the Earth can sustainably support(e) the level of overshoot and oscillation
Definition
 (d) how large a human population the Earth can sustainably support
Term
 The thickness of lithospheric plates was determined by:(a) discovering the low-velocity zone(b) detecting an increase in seismic velocity of seismic waves crossing the Moho(c) detecting the shadow zone for seismic P- and S-waves(d) noting that seismic S-waves are stopped at the base of the plates(e) noting the refraction of seismic P-waves at the mantle-core boundary
Definition
 (b) detecting an increase in seismic velocity of seismic waves crossing the Moho
Term
 In February 2008, S. Self and S. Blake called one of the following "probably the greatest natural hazard to mankind in terms of the severity and longevity of impact - the ultimate geologic hazard." Which one were they referring to?(a) a caldera collapse and super-eruption(b) a Richter Magnitude-9 earthquake(c) a mega-landslide in the Himalayas(d) an earthquake-generated tsunami(e) enhanced global warming and resultant climate change
Definition
 (a) a caldera collapse and super-eruptionThe abstract of Stephen Self and Stephen Blake's 2008 paper, Consequences of Explosive Supereruptions:Rare but extremely large explosive supereruptions lead to the catastrophic formation of huge calderas, devastation of substantial regions by pyroclastic flow deposits, and ash falls that cover continent-sized areas. The effects of future supereruptions will be felt globally or at least by a whole hemisphere. The most widespread effects are likely to derive from the volcanic gases released, particularly sulfur gases that are converted into sulfuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere. These will remain for several years, promoting changes in atmospheric circulation and causing surface temperatures to fall dramatically in many regions, bringing about temporary reductions in light levels and producing severe and unseasonable weather ('volcanic winter'). Major disruptions to global societal infrastructure can be expected for periods of months to years, and the cost to global financial markets will be high and sustained.
Term
 Which of the following minerals is closest to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth?(a) pyrite(b) feldspar(c) quartz(d) calcite(e) olivine
Definition
 (e) olivine
Term
 An unconformity, like the one in the Kingston area, is best defined as:(a) a gap in the rock record(b) a basal conglomerate(c) a layer of sedimentary rocks(d) a thin, tabular or sheet-like, igneous intrusion(e) a layer of rocks with very unusual fossils
Definition
 (a) a gap in the rock record
Term
 For an exponential equation of the form y=e^(kt), where "y" is growing as a function of time "t", the "k" term is:(a) the growth rate of quantity "y" in percent(b) one one-hundredth of the growth rate of quantity "y" in percent(c) a constant whose value is the base of the natural logarithms (i.e. 2.78182818...)(d) the doubling time(e) one one-hundredth of the doubling time
Definition
 (b) one one-hundredth of the growth rate of quantity "y" in percente.g. With a growth rate of 5%, k would be 0.05More on exponential growth rates on page 52 of lab manual.
Term
 The MOHO is a boundary in the Earth across which, as one goes deeper in the Earth, a number of changes occur. Only one of the five changes listed below is correct, however. Which one is the correct one?(a) the Fe content goes down(b) the temperature goes down(c) the density goes down(d) the Si content goes down(e) the seismic velocity goes down
Definition
 (d) the Si content goes down
Term
 Evidence of abundant fossils of life-forms (an "explosion") that made hard protective shells did not appear in the geologic record until how long ago?(a) 3.5 billion years(b) 5 billion years(c) 65 million years(d) 600 million years(e) 300 million years
Definition
 (d) 600 million years
Term
 Which of the following will NOT help to determine the recurrence history of large (greater than magnitude 7.5) earthquakes in a region?(a) looking for evidence of ancient tsunamis in the soil record(b) determining the age of peat layers(c) studying human historical records of the region(d) digging trenches and pits around the faults(e) setting up seismic stations to record the foci of earthquakes over a 20-year period
Definition
 (e) setting up seismic stations to record the foci of earthquakes over a 20-year period
Term
 The process of unloading can produce:(a) amygdules(b) mud cracks(c) joints(d) cross bedding(e) leaching
Definition
 (c) jointsAs rocks are brought to earth's surface by the erosion of overlying rocks, pressure is released and the rock expands by cracking to form JOINTS. A joint is a crack or break in a rock where there has been no movement of one block of rock past the other; if there has been movement, then it is called a fault.
Term
 The three most abundant elements in the continental crust are:(a) O, Al, Fe(b) O, Si, Fe(c) O, Fe, Mg(d) O, Si, Al(e) K, Ca, Na
Definition
 (d) O, Si, AlThe top 6 elements in Earth's continental crust are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, and sodium, in that order.
Term
 A crystal of K-feldspar from a granite has been analyzed by the K-Ar method of geochronology. The ratio in the crystal of the number of 40K atoms to the number of 40Ar atoms is 1 to 3. Given that the half-life for the decay of parent to daughter is 1.3 billion years, which of the following is closest to the age of formation of the granite?(a) 0.30 billion years(b) 0.65 billion years(c) 1.3 billion years(d) 2.0 billion years(e) 2.6 billion years
Definition
 (e) 2.6 billion years
Term
 A sample of basalt in which the remanent magnetic field is oriented vertically probably formed and cooled:(a) at the azimuth(b) under sea water(c) near the equator(d) at 45 degrees north or south latitude(e) near the north or south pole
Definition
 (e) near the north or south pole
Term
 The fact that, over time in the sedimentary rock record, fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order is the basis for:(a) the principle of original horizontality(b) the principle of biotic succession(c) the law of superposition(d) the doctrine of catastrophism(e) the principle of cross-cutting relationships
Definition
 (b) the principle of biotic succession
Term
 If you are exploring for a bauxite ore deposit, which of the following is most likely to be associated with it?(a) a laterite(b) a porphyritic rock(c) an ultramafic rock(d) a salt dome(e) sandstone
Definition
 (a) a laterite
Term
 In carrying out a risk analysis and risk management plan to minimize damage from a natural or anthropogenic hazard, which of the following is a step that needs to be done after we assess the risk from the hazard in the area under consideration, but before we undertake any risk-control solutions?(a) a poll to determine the wishes of the public(b) further collection of scientific data over a sufficiently long time period(c) refinement of the emergency measures organizations(d) public education(e) a cost-benefit analysis
Definition
 (e) a cost-benefit analysis
Term
 In order to have an ore deposit, you need:(a) an accumulation of a mineral that you can extract and make money from(b) a local accumulation of a metal(c) a porphyry-copper deposit(d) a mineral deposit of non-silicate minerals(e) a mineral deposit that is close to market
Definition
 (a) an accumulation of a mineral that you can extract and make money from
Term
 At which of these locations are fissure eruptions most prominent?(a) subduction zones(b) central Canada(c) mid-ocean ridges(d) the Andes mountains(e) Mount Pinatubo
Definition
 (c) mid-ocean ridges
Term
 In carrying out seismic modeling to determine the structure of the Earth, we make use of "Occam's Razor." With this, we:(a) obtain a measure of the difference in arrival times of seismic waves(b) determine the refraction patterns of seismic waves(c) locate the focus of the earthquake(d) determine the magnitude of the earthquake(e) choose the simplest solution that fits the data
Definition
 (e) choose the simplest solution that fits the data
Term
 Which of the following types of seismic waves arrives first at a seismic station following an earthquake 500 kilometres away from the seismic station?(a) Love waves(b) Rayleigh waves(c) tsunami waves(d) shear waves(e) compression-rarefaction waves
Definition
 (e) compression-rarefaction waves
Term
 Which of the following materials best represents the behaviour of the mantle of the Earth?(a) water(b) wood(c) an India Rubber ball(d) Silly Putty(e) plasticene
Definition
 (d) Silly Putty
Term
 What is the basic building block in the silicate minerals?(a) (SiO4)^(-4)(b) (SiO2)^(-2)(c) SiO4(d) SiO2(e) (SiO4)^(-2)
Definition
 (a) (SiO4)^(-4)
Term
 Which of the following rock types has provided evidence for a change over Earth history in the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere?(a) greywacke(b) rhyolite(c) chert(d) iron formation(e) rock salt
Definition
 (d) iron formation
Term
 When most rocks experience partial melting, the melted part is:(a) denser than the original rock(b) more felsic than the original rock(c) poorer in water than the original rock(d) darker in colour than the original rock(e) concentrated in iron compared to the original rock
Definition
 (b) more felsic than the original rock
Term
 If the current rate of exponential growth of human population were to continue in the future, the Earth's human population will have doubled in about how many years?(a) 5 years(b) 10 years(c) 30 years(d) 60 years(e) 90 years
Definition
 (d) 60 yearsWith a current population growth rate of 1.1%...2=e^(0.011t)t =(ln2)/0.011t = 63 --> 60 years
Term
 Which of the following types of faults is likely to be connected with the most dangerous earthquakes?(a) nobody's(b) transform(c) strike-slip(d) reverse dip-slip(e) normal dip-slip
Definition
 (d) reverse dip-slip
Term
 It is only in the last 40 years that geologists have developed the plate tectonic theory. One of the most important consequences of this theory is that it has provided an explanation of how continental mountain ranges are formed. In the framework of the plate tectonic theory, where are major continental mountain ranges produced?(a) constructive plate boundaries(b) destructive plate boundaries(c) strike-slip boundaries(d) conductive plate boundaries(e) transform plate boundaries
Definition
 (b) destructive plate boundaries
Term
 In the more-industrialized parts of the world, countries are looking for ways to manage the problems generated by population decline. Which of the following approaches is least likely to have an impact on these problems?(a) change our economic model(b) raise retirement age(c) promote immigration(d) increase rates of urbanization(e) encourage women to have more children
Definition
 (d) increase rates of urbanization
Term
 Which of the following is the first (in order of importance) of the principles for doing Earth Systems Engineering, according to Brad Allenby?(a) engineered changes should be incremental and reversible(b) know what the objectives of intervention are from the beginning(c) must accept high level of uncertainty(d) at all stages, the project must have inclusive dialogue among all stakeholders(e) only intervene when required, and to the extent required
Definition
 (e) only intervene when required, and to the extent required
Term
 What is the present human population of the Earth (approximately)?(a) 1 billion(b) 3 billion(c) 7 billion(d) 10 billion(e) 14 billion
Definition
 (c) 7 billion
Term
 The rotation axis of the Earth is tilted approximately 23 degrees to the plane of the solar system. This results in:(a) ocean crust that is distinct in height from continental crust(b) seasons(c) a moment of inertia value of the Earth less than 1(d) flattening of the poles of the Earth(e) the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis
Definition
 (b) seasons
Term
 Approximately what fraction of the crude (i.e., conventional) oil resources are estimated to be in the Middle-East?(a) 1/10(b) 1/4(c) 1/2(d) 2/3(e) 8/10
Definition
 (d) 2/3
Term
 In road construction, a fill structure is used:(a) to keep the water table at an adequate depth(b) to spread out the load from traffic(c) to reduce the cost of road construction(d) to maintain a constant elevation of the road(e) to prevent rock falls from obstructing the highway
Definition