# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Applied Social Research
Exam 2
33
Social Work
04/05/2012

Term
 Measurement
Definition
 The process of describing abstract concepts in terms of specific indicators by assigning numbers or other symbols to them
Term
 Indicator
Definition
 An observation that we assume is evidence of the attributes or properties of some phenomenon
Term
 Four Levels of Measurement
Definition
 1. Nominal2. Ordinal3. Interval4. Ratio
Term
 Techniques of Measurement
Definition
 1. Verbal Report (Most Common)2. Observation3. Archival Records
Term
 Nominal Measures
Definition
 Classify observations into mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories
Term
 Ordinal Measures
Definition
 In addition to having mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, they have a fixed order (e.g. socioeconomic status)
Term
 Interval Measure
Definition
 Mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, fixed order, and equal spacing between ranks (e.g. scales)
Term
 Ratio Measure
Definition
 Mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, fixed order, equal spacing, and true zero point
Term
 Discrete Variable
Definition
 A variable having a finite number of distinct and separate values
Term
 Continuous Variable
Definition
 A variable which can take on an infinite number of values; no theoretical limit to how precise the measurement might be
Term
 Validity
Definition
 The accuracy of a measure
Term
 Face Validity
Definition
 A measure of validity based upon logic and common sense
Term
 Content Validity / Sampling Validity
Definition
 An extension of face validity, involving a detailed analysis of the breadth of the measured concept and its relationship to the measuring device1. Determines full range or domain of the content of a variable2. Determines whether all the domains are represented among the items that constitute the measuring device(JURY OPINION-outside analysis by multiple practitioners)
Term
 Criterion Validity
Definition
 Establishes validity by showing a correlation between a measurement device and another known accurate measure (More objective)TWO TYPES1. Concurrent Validity2. Predictive Validity (p.116-117)
Term
 Construct Validity
Definition
 Measure of validity which instruments are assessed in terms of how they relate to numerous criteria derived from the same theoryMultitrait-Multimethod Approach:1. Two measures of same concept should correlate highly2. Two measures, even if similar, should not correlate highly if they measure different concepts
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 A measure's ability to yield consistent results each time it is appliedr=.80 or better
Term
 Types of Validity
Definition
 1. Face Validity2. Content-Validity / Sampling Validity3. Criterion Validity (2 types)4. Construct Validity (Multitrait-Multimethod)
Term
 Types of Reliability Assessment
Definition
 1. Test-Retest2. Multiple Forms3. Internal Consistency Approach
Term
 Test-Retest
Definition
 Most generally applicable assessment of reliability; comparing scores of test and retest
Term
 Multiple Forms
Definition
 Two separate but equivalent versions of a measuring device are administered and compared
Term
 Internal Consistency
Definition
 Split-Half Approach - test group responds to complete measuring instrument; results split and compared
Term
 Errors in Measurement
Definition
 1. Random Errors - neither consistent or patterned, cancel each other out, weakens precision of correlations2. Systematic Errors- consistent and patterned, may not cancel themselves out, more troublesome-lead to false conclusions
Term
 Survey
Definition
 Most widely used in social science research; Gathering information from a broad sample of individuals (respondents) by having them responf to questionsTWO TYPES1. Interviews2. Questionnaires
Term
Definition
 1. Inexpensive and quick2. Geographically dispersed sample3. More accurate answers when dealing with personal/sensitive questions4. No interviewer bias
Term
Definition
 1. Require minimal degree of literacy and facility in English2. Questions must be easy to comprehend based upon printed instructions3. No opportunity to probe for additional information4. No assurance if person filling out questionnaire is intended person5. Cannot assume independent responses/ respondent may read whole questionnaire first6. Nonresponse bias
Term
Definition
 1. Motivate respondents to give more accurate and complete info2. Opportunity to explain questions to respondents3. Control over factors which are uncontrollable with mailed questionnaires4. More flexible, opportunity for probing5. Observational information (e.g. attitude, body language)
Term
Definition
 1. Cost2. Time3. Interviewer Bias4. Variations in wording
Term
 Closed-ended question
Definition
 Fixed set of response alternatives from which respondents choose
Term
 Open-ended Question
Definition
 No response alternatives, leaving respondents open to freedom of expression
Term
 Observer Reliability
Definition
 Agreement between observers on the results of measurement
Term
 Sampling
Definition
 How we go about getting the participants for our study
Term
 Population
Definition
 Consists of all possible cases of whatever a researcher is interested in studying
Term
 Sampling Frame
Definition
 A list of the population elements that are used to draw some types of probability samples
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