# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Applied Science 151-Geology
Queens Engineering Undergraduate Midterm Review: Prof. Heynes
115
Geology
10/22/2013

Term
 In trying to reach a design solution, what don't you have?
Definition
 Unlimited time, knowledge, and resources.
Term
 What is the process of optimization? (Hint think of Modelling).
Definition
 Problem -> Model the Present System -> Model the Design Solution -> Implement the Design Solution
Term
 Which moves more resources annually, human consumption or total mass of sediment transported into the sea each year?
Definition
 Humans: 60 x 10^9 tonnes per yearSediment: 16 x 10^4 tonnes per year
Term
 Define Sustainable Development:
Definition
 development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Term
 A is proportional to M*E*S*I / P What do these variables stand for?
Definition
 A=Level of affluence/Standard of LivingM=MaterialsE=EnergyS=SinksP=Space/PopulationI=Ingenuity
Term
 What is the formula for the time until population doubles, for a growth rate x?
Definition
 70/x
Term
 What is the exponential growth formula used to determine future populations?
Definition
 Population=(Present Population)(e^(growth rate)(time))
Term
 What must the long term growth rate of the human population be for a sustainable future?
Definition
 0%
Term
 What is the Coasting effect in terms of populations and growth?
Definition
 If we reach 0% population growth, it will still take many years for the population to level off or decrease
Term
 What is the definition of abundant and scarce metals?
Definition
 Abundant: more than 0.1% of the earths crustScarce: less than 0.1% of the earths crust
Term
 Define a Mineral Deposit:
Definition
 A local accumulation of a specific "mineral"(A mineral can be anything)
Term
 Define Ore Deposit:
Definition
 A deposit of minerals that can be 'mined' profitably.
Term
 Define Reserve, in terms of resources:
Definition
 economic amount discovered but not yet extractedorsum of all known ore deposits
Term
 Define Resource:
Definition
 estimated total economic amount availableorestimated sum of all possible 'ore' deposits
Term
 What are 3 things that can be done to manage resource crisis?
Definition
 1. Conservation2. Switch to a renewable resource3. Better recycling4. Reduce population or need5. Ingenuity
Term
 What are the 'Five Reservoirs?' (In terms of earth systems engineering).
Definition
 1. Atmosphere2. Hydrosphere3. Solid Earth4. Life5. Stars and Planets
Term
 What is the cause of the 'sawtooth pattern' of the CO_2 levels in the atmosphere?
Definition
 Winter, trees dormant and not extracting CO_2Summer, trees activeThis effect is dominated by the northern hemisphere
Term
 How do we measure the CO_2 levels from thousands/millions of years ago?
Definition
 Analyze air bubbles trapped in ice.
Term
 What natural earth cycle has historically had the most dramatic effect on CO_2 levels in the atmosphere?
Definition
 The cycle of glacial and interglacial periods.
Term
 What three things cause the glacial periods?
Definition
 Eccentricity: Variations in the earth's orbit (100,000 year cycle)Obliquity: Earth's til varies (41,000 year cycle)Precession: Earths 'wobble' (20,000 year cycle)
Term
 What were the times of peak coal formation?
Definition
 300 million years ago, (first major land plants)80 million years ago, (first flowering plants)
Term
 What is the average density of the earth?
Definition
 5.5grams/cm^3
Term
 What is the importance of Earth's magnetic field?
Definition
 Blocks harmful radiation from reaching most places on earth
Term
 What is synergy, in terms of hazards?
Definition
 One or more hazards combined can be come many times more deadly.
Term
 What three things determine the intensity of a hazard?
Definition
 Absolute amount: how far outside the damage threshold it isDuration: How long outside damage thresholdRate of Change: How quickly the intensity rises.
Term
 Risk is proportional to:
Definition
 The probability of the Hazard occurring, multiplied by the severity of the consequences of the hazard.
Term
 What are the 5 steps of Risk analysis?
Definition
 Understanding the HazardDetermining the risk from the hazard to regions of interestDetermine ways to reduce severity or probabilityDo a cost/benefit analysisImplement mitigation techniques
Term
 What is the Elastic rebound theory in terms of earthquakes?
Definition
 The rigid portion of the earth can store elastic potential energy
Term
 Fault:
Definition
 a break or crack in the rock where there has been appropriate displacement.
Term
 Earthquakes happen when either:
Definition
 a fault formsor there is movement on a pre-existing fault
Term
 Strike Slip Fault
Definition
 Horizontal Motion
Term
 Dipslip Fault:
Definition
 Vertical motion
Term
 Focus:
Definition
 the point source of energy release from a fault
Term
 Epicentre:
Definition
 the point on the earths surface that is closest to the focus
Term
 Define Surface waves, and the two types of surface wave.
Definition
 Formed when seismic body waves reach the earths surfaceRayleigh: Circular wave motionLove: horizontal/side-to-side motion
Term
 Body Waves:
Definition
 Energy that radiates from an earthquakes focus
Term
 Velocity of P and S waves is proportional to:
Definition
 Elasticity/Density
Term
 What is the compressibility modulus?
Definition
 stress needed to compress a material
Term
 What is the shear modulus?
Definition
 stress needed to change the shape of a material
Term
 S-waves cannot pass through:
Definition
 Liquids
Term
 At what depths do earthquakes occur?
Definition
 all occur at less than 700km in depth
Term
 Material Amplification Effect:
Definition
 Soft Soils shake more than Stiff Soils shake more than RockLow Velocity Medium High VelocityLarge amplitude Medium Low amplitude
Term
 What are the 5 causes of Tsunamis:
Definition
 Seafloor Earthquakes'underwater' landslidesCollapse of the flank of a volcano into the seaSubmarine volcanic explosionMeteorite impact
Term
 How does dam construction contribute to seismic risk?
Definition
 Loading of the earth with excess water changes the 'stress regime' causing quakes
Term
 Which travels faster, P-waves or S-waves?
Definition
 P waves P=Primary S=Secondary
Term
 How do we assess the seismic risk in an area?
Definition
 Locate and determine the nature of the faults in the area Decide if they are Inactive, Active or Potentially Active Study history of earthquakes in the area Determine Recurrance Interval Set up Seismometers
Term
 How do we manage the risk of Earthquakes? (4 things)
Definition
 Land use planning and zoning Building Codes Resistant Building Designs Set up warning systems and emergency response plans
Term
 How do we manage the risk of Tsunamis?
Definition
 Early warning systems Natural shorelines, (vegetation takes most of force) Limit popolations along shorelines Provide Tsunami Education
Term
 Seismic Gaps
Definition
 Place in seismic record where earthquakes have not occured for  a period of time greater than the recurrance interval
Term
 Define Dilitancy
Definition
 Formation of microcracks in rocks preceding an earthquake
Term
 Dilitancy can lead to: (4 things)
Definition
 Ground Bulges Foreshocks Increase in Radon Levels in Wells Drop in water levels in wells
Term
 Define Occam's Razor:
Definition
 Choose the simplest solution that fits the data
Term
 How do waves behave when refracting between different mediums?
Definition
 Dense -> Light: Away from normal Light -> Dense: Towards normal
Term
 Why do some seismic waves arrive sooner than expected?
Definition
 They spend more time at depth at a higher speed.
Term
 What does the S-wave shadow zone indicate?
Definition
 The centre of the earth is liquid.
Term
 What is the Mohorivic Discontinuity?
Definition
 The MOHO layer, the boudary between the crust and the mantle.
Term
 Define the Lithosphere:
Definition
 The outer rigid part of the earth, 100km thick including the crust and the upper part of the mantle
Term
 Define the Asthenosphere:
Definition
 From the lithosphere down to approximately 500 feet, plastic material
Term
 What does the prescence of Earths magenetic field tell us about the nature of Earths core?
Definition
 Must be made of liquid iron, as it acts as a self esciting dynamo.
Term
 What are the two types of meteorites?
Definition
 Chondrites (Iron meteorites): Mainly elemental Iron Achondrites (Stony meteorites): less iron
Term
 What are the two defining characteristics of chondrite meteorites?
Definition
 Spherical Chondrules, (Olivine and Proxene) Bits of elemental iron
Term
 What do chondritic meteorites tell us about the history of the earth?
Definition
 Originally the earth was chondritic, but over time it experiences differentiation.
Term
 What are the top three elements in the earth by weight?
Definition
 Fe: 33% O: 31% Si: 16%
Term
 What are earths current sources of heat energy?
Definition
 Heat left over from the beginning of earths formation Continual gravitational sinking of iron Decay of radioactive elements
Term
 How does earth get rid of its heat?
Definition
 A combination of conduction and Convection
Term
 In plate techtonics, the ______ (rigid) slides around on the _________ (plastic).
Definition
 Lithosphere Asthenosphere
Term
 What are the characteristics of a contructive plate margin?
Definition
 Upwelling part of the convection cycle new lithospheric plates are produced and move apart new ocean crust produced.
Term
 What are the characteristics of destructive plate margins?
Definition
 Sinking in the convection cycle Lithospheric plates are destroyed Ocean lithospheric plates subduct
Term
 Define Mass wasting:
Definition
 The downslope movement of solid Earth materials under the influence of gravity
Term
 What determines whether landlides occur:
Definition
 Slope Steepness Nature of the Material Triggering Effects
Term
 Define Permafrost:
Definition
 permanently frozen ground
Term
 Define Solifluction:
Definition
 Melting of the permafrost in the active soil layer causes landlsides
Term
 Define Safety Factor and its basic formula in terms of lanslides:
Definition
 A measure of the stability of a slope (Resisting Force)/(Driving Force)
Term
 Define Porosity:
Definition
 The amount of empty space between soil particles
Term
 Define Permeability:
Definition
 The ability of water to penetrate a soil
Term
 What factors affect slope stability in rock? (4 things)
Definition
 Sedimentary bedding planes Metamorphic bedding planes Faults Joints
Term
 How do joints form in rocks?
Definition
 Release of pressure when buried rocks are brought to earths surface Squeezing of rocks Shrinking of igneous rocks as the cool at earths surface
Term
 How do we mitigate the effects of mass wasting?
Definition
 Land Use planning Stabalize the Slope Slope Monitoring
Term
 How can we stabalize slopes with risks of landslides?
Definition
 Drainage Rock Bolts Mesh Screens Retainign Walls Cut Benches Vegetation
Term
 How can we monitor slopes with risk of landslides?
Definition
 Tiltmeter GPS Geophones Study Water Content
Term
 What two things determine the behaviour of rocks and aggregates?
Definition
 The properties of the minerals that they consist of The bulk propertis of the rock
Term
 A mineral is defined by two things:
Definition
 Structure Composition
Term
 What are the four bond types?
Definition
 Ionic Covalent Metallic Intermolecular
Term
 Define Polymorphs:
Definition
 minerals with the same chemical composition but different structure
Term
 What are the five silicate structures?
Definition
 Single (Isolated) Tetrahedral Single Chain Double Chain Sheet Structure Framework
Term
 What are the characteristics of Sand Soil?
Definition
 mostly Quartz strong framework structure spherical particles provide good drainage
Term
 What are the characteristics of Clay soil
Definition
 mostly clay tiny particles with surface charges packed tightly together weak sheet structure poor drainage shrink and swell
Term
 Where are abundant metals found?
Definition
 Essential components of silicate and non-silicate minerals
Term
 Where are scarce minerals found?
Definition
 mainly atomic substitutes in silicate minerals
Term
 What three things control grain size in igneous rocks?
Definition
 Rate of cooling of magma Viscosity of Magma Percentage of Volatiles
Term
 What affects the melting temperature of a mineral?
Definition
 PressureNature of neighbouring minerals
Term
 When partial melting occurs, the rock that is released from the original rock is more ______ than the other components.
Definition
 Felsic
Term
 What are the layers, from top to bottom, of an igneous intrusion?
Definition
 FelsicIntermediateMaficUltramafic
Term
 What are the two methods of Magmatic Differentiation?
Definition
 Squeezing out the liquid, leaving the solids behindHardened crystals sink to the bottom
Term
 Where do deposits of chromite occur?
Definition
 In ultramafic rock
Term
 Where do deposits of copper occur?
Definition
 In granite porphyry intrusions
Term
 What are the relative viscosities of felsic and mafic magma?
Definition
 Mafic -> Low viscosity, low water contentFelsic -> Hight viscosity, high water content
Term
 What is the two forms magma can reach the surface as?
Definition
 Lava, or pyroclastic material
Term
 What are the two ways magma can reach the surface of the earth?
Definition
 Fractures (Fissures)Volcanic Cones
Term
 What are the dangers of fissure eruptions?
Definition
 Release of CO_2 and SO_2 gasIf extremely large can cause mass extinctions
Term
 What are the three types of Volcanic Cones?
Definition
 Cinder ConeStrato VolcanoShield Volcano
Term
 What is the most dangerous type of volcano? Why is it so dangerous?
Definition
 Stratovolcanoes. This is because the material it releases is felsic or intermediate and has a high water content. This water expands and explodes out the top of the volcano.
Term
 What are the dangers of Air-fall ash, and Ash clouds?
Definition
 can cause major economic damage and bury citiescan block suns rays and lower global temperatures
Term
 What are the dangers of ash-flow?
Definition
 Nuee Ardente: Eruption pillar collapses and travels down the side of the mountainPyroclastic surge: travel more than 300km/h for up to 10km
Term
 What is a lahar?
Definition
 Ash on flanks of volcanoes mix with melted snow and create a mudflow
Term
 What are the methods of mechanical weathering?
Definition
 Joint formationFrost WedgingBiological ActivityAbrasion
Term
 What are the methods of chemical weathering?
Definition
 Action of Water (Hydrolysis)Water can also be acidified
Term
 What is useful about laterite soil, and where does it form?
Definition
 Main source of bauxite (aluminum) and iron oxidesForms in humid tropical climate
Term
 What are the two types of sedimentary rocks?
Definition
 Clastic: particlesChemical: Ions in solution
Term
 What does particle size in sedimentary rocks tell us about the environment of deposition?
Definition
 Large size, high energy. Small size, low energy.
Term
 What does the degree of sorting in sedimentary rocks tell us about the environment of deposition?
Definition
 Well sorted, long period of depositionPoorly sorted, short period of deposition
Term
 What were the two main types of sedimentary rocks discussed?
Definition
 Limestone: Deposits of shell fragmentsChert: shells of microfossils
Term
 What are some Evaporites?
Definition
 GypsumPotashRock Salt
Term
 Where is banded iron formation most commonly found?
Definition
 alternating with layers of chert
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