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applied ecology test 3
evpp 377
94
Environmental Studies
Undergraduate 3
12/02/2012

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Term
define invasive species
Definition
It is a non-indigenous, non-native introduced species. It is an organism that spreads and takes over the habitat of a native species
Term
You are a home owner and a new invasive species has taken up root in your garden. Describe how you would go about dealing with this invasion.
Definition
I would find the root of that invasive species and apply different types of chemicals such as round up to try and kill of the root
Term
The IUCN defines an invasive species as
Definition
d. a non-native species.
Term
 What do most of the invasive species covered in lecture have in common?
Definition
b. They are all from outside the U.S.
Term
According to the Ballast Water Treatment Act of 2008 HR 2423
Definition
c. All ships must treat ballast water before dumping it in US waters.
Term
 The purpose of the Refuge Ecology Protection, Assistance, and Immediate Response Act HR 767 is
Definition
a. to protect, enhance, restore, and manage a diversity of habitats for native fish and wildlife resources within the National Wildlife Refuge System through control of harmful nonnative species.
Term
What strategies do plants use to maintain water balance in their tissues?
Definition
→ the lose it through transpiration, evaporation, and photosynthetic reaction
→ they gain it by diffusion from soil to roots (+ precipitation), and absorption from the atmosphere
Term
Describe the Intertropical Convergence Zone and explain why it is important to rainfall distribution.
Definition
A belt of low pressure around the earth at the equator, it is formed by the vertical ascent of warm, moist air from the latitudes above and below the equator. Long term changes in rainfall can cause a severe drought.
Term
Describe three ways in which plants adapt to drought.
Definition
→ dormancy during the dry season: plants drop leaves, shut down leaf function or spend the dry season as seeds.
→ Reducing water losses: example such as thorns, thick bark, small leaves
→ accessing additional water sources: such as deep roots, rainwater tanks
Term
Describe four ways in which water can be used more efficiently by farmers when they plant crops.
Definition
by using → plastic sheeting, drip irrigation, rapid plant growth, less chaff and more grain.
Term
Describe two negative effects of reservoir construction. Are there any positive effects of building reservoirs beyond the capture of water for human use?
Definition
negative effects: reduces loss of freshwater to the sea, loss of bottomland farmland.
a positive effect could be that it increases flood control capacity.
Term
It has been proposed that moving icebergs from the poles to arid areas of the world could provide a great deal of fresh water. Describe why this fact is true and how you would engineer such a feat if you were hired by the government of Mauritania to do so.
Definition
Icebergs are masses of frozen fresh water, much larger beneath the surface than above.. Obviously moving them away from the poles would cause them to melt. If you had a system to capture that fresh water, this might be feasible
Term
Describe two remedies for areas where the soil has increased in salinity that could allow farmers living there to grow crops.
Definition
you could add calcium to the irrigation of the water which would increase salt tolerance, and
grow salt tolerant varieties of normal crops by using interbreeding procedures such as grafting.
Term
Could cutting down tropical forests really result in less rainfall? How much less? Why would the amount of rainfall decrease?
Definition
yes. by 10-40%. it would decrease because there is less evaporation surface, shallower roots, less wind turbulence, and lower productivity.
Term
Discuss the current changes found in the Sahel region of Africa. Be complete.
Definition
there has been vegetation removal/ water from the atmosphere which in return can cause reductions in rainfall by 34%
Term
  Do you think that it is feasible to make clean water available to 100% of the populations on the Earth? Explain why or why not. COMPLETELY.
Definition
This is feasible, but it would be an extremely difficult task to complete because there is a problem with infrastructure in many countries. They do not even have ways to treat their water, and often times it is polluted with waste and therefore no longer potable. Also, developed countries use a lot of water and do not actively conserve it so there would have to be a change in this behavior.
Term
Deforestation of temperate deciduous forest and replacement with grass and shrubs reduces evapotranspiration by 10-40%. This is not a consequence of
Definition
    e. more wind turbulence.
Term
Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are known as
Definition
a. aquifers.
Term
Overuse of groundwater can lead to
Definition
a. salt water intrusion into aquifers.
b. subsidence of overlaying rock layers.
c. depletion of aquifers before they can recharge.
d. All of the above are correct.
Term
Which of the following is an accurate description of water?
Definition
b. water is an important solvent
Term
From 1980 to 1994 many more people on the planet had safe drinking water. How many?
Definition
    a. 700 million
Term
 It is most economically and environmentally best to focus water resource management on
Definition
c. increasing the efficiency of the way we use water on a daily basis.
Term
Animals can adapt to drought quickly by
Definition

    a. migrating to wetter areas.
b. reducing their water requirements.

both a and b

Term
Which of the following is a negative consequence of pumping groundwater?
Definition
b. Estuaries can have major changes in salinity.
Term
Sustainable water use involves
Definition
    a. making good decisions on how water is used.
b. preserving the ecological integrity of water supply systems.
c. efficient use of water.
d. All of these answers are correct.
Term
Which of the following correctly labels this diagram of the water cycle?
Definition
    a. A = evaporation B = condensation C = precipitation D = transpiration
Term
An adequate supply of water is about __________________ per person per day.
Definition
    b. 13 gallons
Term
Which of the following is an important way to increase efficiency of water use by crops?
Definition
d. Use drip irrigation and plastic sheeting to conserve water.
Term
The basis of the CWA was enacted in _________ and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in _________.
Definition
    b. 1948, 1972
Term
 The Clean Water Act was actually called by this name in
Definition
b. 1972 
Term
The CWA made it unlawful to
Definition
c. discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained.
Term
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 was the first major U.S. law to
Definition
    d. address water pollution.
Term
State the location of the most productive areas of the ocean and explain why those areas are so productive.
Definition
Areas where new nutrients are added to the photic zone: estuaries, shallow areas, upwelling
Term
 Explain why the number of trophic levels in a food web is important in fisheries. How are marine food webs different from those found in terrestrial systems? 
Definition
Fish have the highest trophic level which means they have less energy. Because of this small amount of energy, they have less energy available than terrestrial systems.
Term
What is the compensation depth and where is it found in the ocean?
Definition
the water column above the compensation depth (200m) is called the PHOTIC ZONE
Term
Explain MSY and draw a graph of this idea. Be complete.
Definition

→ Maximum sustainable yield
----> applied separately to each stock....harvest level chosen to keep stock growing at the fastest rate possible...usually assumes stock size is known at beginning of each year.

 

nedd a graph

Term
State what you think is the most important reason why the success of fishery management has been so poor and present arguments in defense of your choice.
Definition
It is difficult to enforce rules of the ocean because it is a commons, not owned by any country and therefore cannot be put under any particular country’s laws. The world demand is too high and unsustainable.
Term
. Why is the catch per unit effort (CPUE) so important for fisheries managers to know?
Definition
because it helps to control the harvest by setting a biomass quote of fish stock.
Term
7. List and explain four actions that have been used by fisheries managers to control fish harvests.
Definition
→ shorten the length of the harvest period
→ restrict the type of gear that is legal
→ restrict the size of the area that can be fished
→ set a biomass quota that can be harvested (CPU effort)
Term
 Distinguish between recruitment over fishing and growth over fishing.
Definition
◦Recruitment over fishing: The rate of fishing above which the recruitment to the exploitable stock becomes significantly reduced;
–Recruitment is not keeping up with mortality.
–Uncommon in past but becoming more common.
–
◦Growth over fishing: when fish are harvested at an average size that is smaller than the size that would produce the maximum yield per recruit; –Reduction in mean size of individuals.
–Common in past and common today.
Term
The oceans cover about ________ of the Earth’s surface.
Definition
c. 70%   
Term
Describe the Basque whaling tradition.
Definition
The first modern whaling was done by the Basques as early as 1059. Although the Atlantic Grey whale may also have been hunted. The right whale was hunted first. These were considered to be the right whales to hunt. This was due to the fact that the right whale floats when it is killed. Other whales do not. Whale was consumed on meatless holidays. Oil was used for lighting; manufacture of soap, wool, leather, paint.
Term
Describe the New England whaling era. Be sure to state the years it operated, how many ships were used, what whales were caught and what do YOU think caused it to decline?
Definition
1650-1850. By 1851 there were 638 ships. Catching sperm whales, then Blue whales by the 1850’s because they wanted to catch the biggest
Term
Describe what a factory ship is and why it is useful in a whaling operation. Be sure to state the numbers of different whales killed after the advent of factory ships. Why was it so much easier to kill the whales then?
Definition
 In 1925, factory ships came around. It was easier because they could drag the whales right up onto the stern of the ship and clean it then instead of waiting and bringing it back onto shore.
Term
What happens in a whale sanctuary? Does whaling still happen there? Why were those sanctuaries created?
Definition
In a whale sanctuary the whales are prohibited to be hunted by the commercial fishermen so that they can be protected. yes whaling does still hapen, scientific whaling loophole (they kill whales for research and it’s accepted.
Term
Are whales still being caught? If so, by which nation(s)?
Definition
Norway, Iceland, Russia, Japan, the United States and Denmark
Term
Describe 4 research controversies associated with whaling in general.
Definition
→ should small cetaceans be hunted:
→ how toxic is whale meat anyway
→ should humans really be hunting whales
→ do whales eat commercially important fish
Term
Define and describe 3 types of MPAs.
Definition
→ 1. “no take” no fishing is allowed. you make the most critical area a no take zone, and surrounding it with areas of lesser protections.
-->2. multiple use: areas which enable flexibility for the most important sections get the highest protection
Term
True or False: It is important to remove invasive species from invaded habitats in order to protect the habitat from other invasive species.
Definition
false
Term
Define the following terms and explain how each one reduces the size of fish stocks or damages the ecosystem: ghost nets, by-catch, high grading practice, IUU.
Definition
Ghost nets: Drift nets that are either lost accidentally or intentionally discarded by fishing boats. Once detached from boats, they may spend years entangling and killing fish, turtles, seabirds and whales
by-catch: unwanted marine creatures that are caught in the nets while fishing for another species; "thousands of dolphins and porpoises and whales are killed as part of the by-catch each year"
high grading practice: discarding smaller fish of the species to make room for larger fish.
IUU: Illegal fishing takes place where vessels operate in violation of the laws of a fishery.
Term
List five things that threaten marine fisheries, explain why they are damaging and explain which one you think does the most damage.
Definition
climate change,
◦improvements in fishing gear technology,
◦demand exceeding current supply,
◦strong social pressure to maintain fishermen,
◦possible extinction of some local gene pools and
◦lowering of expectations of what is good practice over time.
Term
Aquaculture is the trend of the future. Explain at least two good points of aquaculture and two negative point
Definition
AKA farming fish
-less damaging to the global environment
-more damaging to the local environment, waste handling
-leads to a high demand for forage fish to feed carnivorous fish
-reliability containing the cultured animals and excluding predators
Term
Why does fish production vary so much in different parts of the ocean? Locate the most productive areas in the ocean and state why they are high in productivity.
Definition
All energy comes from the sun: Sunlight of sufficient intensity for photosynthesis is all absorbed before the depth of 200 meters in the clearest of seawater and at much shallower depths in productive coastal areas.
Term
Describe the findings and purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.
Definition
FINDINGS: 1. fish available for harvest in United States coasts, seas, rivers or estuaries, constitute valuable and renewable natural resources. These fishery resources contribute to the food supply, economy, and health of the Nation and provide recreational opportunities. 2. Certain stocks of fish have declined to the point where their survival is threatened, and other stocks of fish could become similarly threatened as a consequence of (A) increased fishing pressure, (B) the inadequacy of fishery resource conservation and management practices and controls, or (C) direct and indirect habitat losses which have resulted in a diminished capacity to support existing fishing levels. 3.) Commercial and recreational fishing constitutes a major source of employment and contributes significantly to the econom; economies have been badly damaged by the overfishing 4. International fishery agreements have not been effective in preventing or terminating the overfishing (5) Fishery resources are finite but renewable.
6. A national program for the conservation & management of the fishery resources of the US
PURPOSES: 1. take immediate actionto conserve and manage the fishery resources by exercising (A) sovereign rights for managing fish (B) exclusive fishery management authority beyond the exclusive economic zone
Term
Ecosystems with the world’s highest net primary productivity per unit area are found in the
Definition
a. coastal zone
Term
Compensation depth is the depth to which

Definition
b. sunlight can penetrate clear ocean waters.
Term
. Most photosynthesis in the ocean system happens in the
Definition
a. photic zone
Term
Only about one-percent of the food for humans comes from the sea due to the fact that
Definition
d. fish from the sea are top carnivores and they have less trophic energy to give
Term
 Over half of the area of estuaries and coastal wetlands in the U.S. has been destroyed or damaged b
Definition
a. sewage runoff.
b. filling in the area to build human habitation.
c. pesticides and heavy metal pollution.
d. All of these answers are correct
Term
The ocean is an extremely variable environment. Some differences in ocean productivity can be due to
Definition
    a. lack of mineral nutrients.
b. instability of light environment.
Term
Areas of the ocean where new nutrients are constantly being added are
Definition
a. estuaries, shallow areas and upwelling zones
Term
What is a population or stock of fish?
Definition
a. A population or stock, a geographic subset of a species, is the unit that is regulated.
Term
what graph has an s shaped curve
Definition
a. Logistic growth follows an S-shaped curve that levels out at carrying capacity
Term
what kind of graph has a j shaped curve
Definition
b. Exponential growth follows a J-shaped curve that does not level out
Term
 Some of the traditional assumptions of fisheries management have always been
Definition

a. that the size of the stock next year can be modeled by a simple additive and subtractive equation, based on this year’s stock size.

b. that in the absence of fishing harvest, the stock size will remain constant.

c. fishing effort remains constant each year.

d. All of these are traditional assumptions

Term
Maximum sustainable yield is the theory tha
Definition
c. there is a maximum amount of fish that can be removed from a stock that allow for the
best fishing returns.
Term
Regulation of fishing is best done using
Definition
b. quotas that regulate the amount of fish caught.
Term
 Aquaculture is the production of fish in a farm situation. Which of the following is a benefit associated with aquaculture?
Definition
a. Production of fish is more economical.
Term
 “The fish off the coasts of the United States, the highly migratory species of the high seas, the species which dwell on or in the Continental Shelf appertaining to the United States, and the anadromous species which spawn in United States rivers or estuaries, constitute valuable and renewable natural resources.”
Definition
b. This is part of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.
Term
Certain stocks of fish have declined to the point where their survival is threatened, and other stocks of fish have been so substantially reduced in number that they could become similarly threatened as a consequence of
Definition

a. increased fishing pressure.

b. the inadequacy of fishery resource conservation and management practices and controls.

c. direct and indirect habitat losses which have resulted in a diminished capacity to support existing fishing levels.

d. All of these are correct.

Term
One important aspect of the Magnuson-Stevens Act is that it recognized that
Definition
b. commercial and recreational fishing constitutes a major source of employment and contributes significantly to the economy of the Nation.
Term

T/F

International fisheries acts are effective at preventing or terminating overfishing

Definition
false
Term

t/f

Fishery resources are finite but renewable.

Definition
true
Term
One of the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act was t
Definition
a. take immediate action to preserve stocks.
Term

t/f

The Japanese were the first nation to begin commercial whalin

Definition
true
Term
Which of the following nations are still whaling?
Definition
a. Norway, Iceland, Russia, Japan, the United States and Denmark.
Term
Why does Japan fund fisheries in other countries?
Definition
c. To garner more votes at the IWC.
Term

t/f

 

The Basques were the first nation to begin commercial whaling.

Definition
true
Term
The article that allows for scientific whaling in the IWC convention i
Definition
 VIII
Term
Which of the following countries was NOT an original signatory of the IWCR?
Definition
japan
Term
 Where was the first convention on the regulation of whaling signed?
Definition
b. Washington, DC.
Term
When was the first Blue whale killed with a bomb gun?
Definition
d. 1855
Term
When did the sperm whale fishery open?
Definition
a. 1791
Term
Why did the Basques hunt the Right whales
Definition
d. They were the “right” whale to hunt because they floated when they were killed
Term
oday there are still drive fisheries for whales. Which TWO of the following countries practices this type of whalin
Definition
c. Japan, The Faeroe Islands
Term
What is a marine protected area?
Definition
d. A variety of conservation and management methods in the United States.
Term
The US has more than ___________ MPAs that occupy ___________ of US waters.
Definition
d. 1600, 40%
Term
What does multiple-use mean?
Definition
c. An MPA that has specific areas for specific purposes and fishing is allowed there
Term
A no-take MPA is one where
Definition
c. no fishing is allowed, but extraction of other natural resources is permitted.
Term
Most US MPAs are located in
Definition
 the Virginian Atlantic marine ecosystem
Term
Most MPAs are managed by the
Definition
c. Federal Government.
Term
One of the best things about MPAs is that they hav
Definition
b. an ongoing biological monitoring program
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