# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

API AERO I
Chapter 1-6
115
Aviation
Not Applicable
06/15/2011

Term
 Vector v Scalar
Definition
 Vector: magnitude and direction scalar: only magnitude
Term
 Mass
Definition
 quantity of molecular material that comprise an object
Term
 weight
Definition
 force at which is attracted toward the center of the earth by gravity
Term
 air density
Definition
 mass of air per unit of volume
Term
 How are a force and a moment related?
Definition
 force is push or pull exerted on a body.  Produce motion along a line.  A moment is a tendency to produce motion about a point or axis. It is created by applying force to a lever arm to induce rotational motion about an axis
Term
 define work. How calc?
Definition
 force acts on a body and moves it. w=F*s
Term
 Define Power
Definition
 rate of doing work
Term
 Define energy. Equate TE
Definition
 ability to do work TE=PE+KE
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 ability of a body to do work because of its position or state of being
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 ability of a body to do work because of motion KE=1/2 mV^2
Term
 Newtons First Law of Motion
Definition
 Law of Equilibrium: body at rest....motion in a straight line at a constant velocity
Term
 Conditions of equilibrium
Definition
Term
 Newtons Second Law of Motion
Definition
 Law of Acceleration:  unbalance force produces an acceleration in the direction of the force that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.
Term
 Newtons Third Law of Motion
Definition
 Law of Interaction: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Term
 Define Static Pressure. Change in Ps with altitude?
Definition
 weight of a column of air over a given area.  decreases with an increase in altitude.
Term
 Change in air density with increase in altitude?
Definition
 density decrease with increase in altitude
Term
 Air Temperature
Definition
 measure of the average kinetic energy of air particles
Term
 change in air temperature in standard atmosphere from S.L. to 66,000 feet?
Definition
 air temp decrease 2*C per 1000 feet until 36000 feet. Isothermal layer with a constant temp of about -56.5*C exists from 36000 to 66000 ft
Term
 difference Trimmed and Equilibrium flight
Definition
 trimmed flight: exists when sum of the moments acting about CG equals zero Equilibrium exist sum of the forces and moments about the CG equals zero
Term
 air density with an increase in humidity
Definition
 air density decrease with increase humidity
Term
 air viscosity. Increase in temperature?
Definition
 measure of air's resistance to flow or shearing.  increases with an increase in temperature
Term
 Primary Factor: speed of sound in air
Definition
 temperature
Term
 sea level conditions in standard atmosphere
Definition
 Static Pressure: 29.92 inHG (1013.25 mbar) Temp: 59*F (15*C) Avg Lapse Rate: 3.5* F (2.0*C) density: .0024slugs/ft3 (1.225 g/l) LSOS: 661.7 kts (340.4 m/s)
Term
 General Gas Law. Relationship between temperature, pressure, and density
Definition
 pressure=density*constant R*temperature Given constant pressure, density will decrease with an increase in temperature P=pRT
Term
 airplane
Definition
 -heavier than air -fixed wing -engine driven prop or gas turbin jet -dynamic reaction of airflow over its wings
Term
 fuselage contruction of T-34C
Definition
 semi monocoque fuselage consisting of stringers, transverse frame member, and the skin
Term
 variety of wing has no external bracing
Definition
 full cantilever
Term
 control surfaces
Definition
 ailerons on the wing rudder and elevator on the empennage
Term
 primary source of directional control
Definition
 rudder
Term
 airplane center of gravity
Definition
 point at which all weight is considered to be concentrated
Term
 Airplane axes
Definition
 longitudinal-roll lateral-pitch directional-yaw
Term
 wingspan
Definition
 length of a wing from tip to tip
Term
 difference between chordline, chord, tip chord, root chord, and average chord
Definition
 chordline: imaginary straight line drawn through the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil chord: is the length of the chordline from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the airfoil Avg chord: geometric average of every chord from the root to tip Tip Chord: length of chord at wing tip Root chord: length of chord at wing root
Term
 define wing area and formula
Definition
 surface area of wing, wingtip to wingtim including area within the fuselage and nacelles S=bc
Term
 define taper, taper ratio, and sweep angle
Definition
 taper is reducting in the chord from wing root to tip. Taper ratio is ratio of tip chord to  root chord /\= Ct/Cr Sweep angle is angle between a line drawn 25% aft of the leading edge and line parallel to lateral axis
Term
 aspect ratio? B-52 bomber aspect ration? High performance fighter?
Definition
 aspect ratio is ratio of wing span to the average chord -B-52 has aspect ratio, fighter have low aspect ratio
Term
 Angle of incidence. Can the angle of incidence ordinarily be changed?
Definition
 angle formed between the chordline of an airfoil and the longitudinal axis of the airplane. It is fixed
Term
Definition
 ratio of airplane's weight to the surface area of its wings WL=W/S
Term
 dihedral angle
Definition
 angle between the spanwise inclination of the wing and the lateral axis
Term
 Continuity Equation. Variables? When may the density variable be cancelled?
Definition
 p1A1V1=p2A2V2.  A is cross sectional area, and V is velocity. p may be cancelled if altitude remains constant and airflow is subsonic
Term
 Continuity equation, if velocity of incompressible fluid is to double, what must happen to the cross sectional area of the flow?
Definition
 reduced by one-half
Term
 Bernoulli's equation.  Condition does total pressure remain constant? If Pt is constant, how do q and Ps relate?
Definition
 Pt=Ps+q. Total pressure remains constant in a closed system. Ps is inversely related to q, if Pt is constant
Term
 Pitot static system (bernoulli)
Definition
Term
 given altitude, true about pressure in the static pressure port of the airspeed indicator.
Definition
Term
 IAS and TAS? Equation relating the two?
Definition
Term
 Will IAS equal TAS?  vary with increase in altitude?
Definition
Term
 maintaining constant true airspeed during climb?
Definition
Term
 TAS of airplane at a 6 NM/min with a 100 kt tailwind= TAS?
Definition
Term
 8 NM/min G.S. =TAS 600kts, head or tailwind?
Definition
Term
 Mach number and critical Mach Number (Mcrit)
Definition
Term
 Mach number with increase in altitude
Definition
Term
 pitch attitude
Definition
Term
 flight path
Definition
Term
 relative wind
Definition
Term
 AOA
Definition
Term
 Mean camber line. type of airfoil with MCL
Definition
Term
 aerodynamic center
Definition
Term
 static pressure with increasing AOA on symmetric airfoil
Definition
Term
 aerodynamic force and equation
Definition
Term
 two component forces that make up AF
Definition
Term
 lift equation and 3 factors pilot can control
Definition
Term
 level flight with decreasing airspeed
Definition
Term
 CL curves for symmetric and positive camber airfoils and difference
Definition
Term
 AOA is max lift produced
Definition
Term
 orientation of the lift vector to the relative wind
Definition
Term
 constant airspeed and increased AOA to below CLmax. what happens?
Definition
Term
 decrease airspeed and constant AOA.
Definition
Term
 increase airspeed and decrease AOA
Definition
Term
 increase airspeed and increase AOA greater than CLmax
Definition
Term
 constant airspeed and decreased AOA
Definition
Term
 laminar and turbulent flow
Definition
Term
 feature of airflow separation? Boundary layer separation and how the separation point move along the airfoil?
Definition
Term
 Define stall and cause
Definition
Term
 increase speed affect stalling AOA
Definition
Term
 In a stall, result of AOA?
Definition
Term
 Stall speed and normall stall speed equation
Definition
Term
 relationship of stall speed to gross weight and altitude?
Definition
Term
 vertical component of thrust supports a portion of gross weight during a ___ stall, reducing stall speed by approximately ___ knots in the T-34C.
Definition
Term
 purpose of high lift devices?  affects on stalling AOA
Definition
Term
 two boundary layer control devices and how slots work?
Definition
Term
 effects of flaps on lift and drag
Definition
Term
 high lift devices that increase the camber of an airfoil.  Which are found on T-34C? Which produces the greatest increase in CLmax
Definition
Term
 Benefits of wing root to stall first?
Definition
Term
 Geometric and aerodynamic twist?
Definition
Term
 General steps in a stall recovery?
Definition
Term
 drag and effecting factors
Definition
Term
 Coefficient of drag with an increase in AOA? When will the coefficient of drag equal zero?
Definition
Term
 Parasite drag and types
Definition
Term
 equation of parasite drag and variables
Definition
Term
 reducing parasite drag
Definition
Term
 parasite drag and velocity
Definition
Term
 results of upwash and downwash around an infinite airfoil
Definition
Term
 airflow about a finite wing and results of upwash and downwash
Definition
Term
 induced drag
Definition
Term
 equation of induced drag and variables
Definition
Term
 reduce induced drag
Definition
Term
 induced drage and velocity relationship
Definition
Term
 equations for total drag
Definition
Term
 increased airspeed vs induced and parasite drag
Definition
Term
 L/D ratio=calculation/represent/determine
Definition
Term
 Define L/Dmax and location on total drag curve
Definition
Term
 Thrust Required (Tr)
Definition
Term
 how power computed from thrust?
Definition
Term
 how is power computed from thrust?
Definition
Term
 Min Tr occurs_____ L/Dmax and min Pr occurs L/Dmax
Definition
Term
 Define thrust available and power available
Definition
Term
 T-34C Engine, Type, SHP
Definition
Term
 AOA for max Te will be____ for a turbojet and ____ for turboprop
Definition
Term
 airspeed for max Pe will be ____ for a turbojet and ____ for a turboprop.
Definition
Term
 How Tr and Pr curves affected by increased weight and altitude
Definition
Term
 how Ta and Pa affected by throttle/PCL setting? Altitude? Weight?
Definition
Term
 how altitude and weight affect Pe and Te
Definition
Term
 longitudinal control
Definition
 elevator
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