Shared Flashcard Set


AP art History- Europe and America 1750 -1850
Rococo, Neoclassicism, Romanticism
Art History
12th Grade

Additional Art History Flashcards





Hall of Mirrors

Early 18th century

French architect: Francois De Cuvilliés (1695-1768)
In park of Nymphenburg Palace in Munich
Circular hall
Silver and blue ensemble of architecture, stucco Relief, silvered bronze mirrors, and crystals.
Scintillating motifs, forms, figurations
Light multiplied by mirrors
Seems organic, growing, and in motion
Varied medias


Return from Cythera


Antoine Watteau

Lovers preparing to depart from an island
Island = youth + love, sacred to Aphrodite
Luxuriously costumed
Amorous cupids and voluptuous statuary
Grassy slope 





Antoine Watteau


  • Flemish painter associated with French Rococo
  • Died when he was 37 years old
  • Responsible for creating Fete Galante paintings
    • Paintings that depict the outdoor amusment of upper class society
  • Went to the Royal Academy of painting and sculpting
    • Entered the school with Return from Cythera



The Swing


 Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732 – 1806)

Typical “intrigue” picture
Bishop pushing girl while lover,  patrons, watches in admiration.
Young lady flirtatiously kicks off shoe towards cupid
Cupid holds holds finger to lips
Landscape like Watteau
Glowing pastel colors and soft light = sensuality



the Royal Academy of painting and sculpting

School split into two doctrines
  • Poussinistes”: followed Nicolas Poussin ( ideas of Le Brun) From over color
  • Rubénistes”: followed Peter Paul Rubens. Believed color over form
    • Watteau was part of Rubens doctrine


A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery

(in which a lamp is put in place of the sun)

1763 -1765


Joseph Wright of Derby (1712-1778)

Artist specialized in drama of candlelit and  moonlit scenes
Celebrates the inventions of the industrial revolution
In tune with doctrine of progress
In painting scholar uses orrery to demonstrate how universe like gigantic clockwork
Single light source (lamp) =  represents sun
Light pours in front of the boy, helps create drama
Arch band symbolizes orbits
Every one in painting in awe of scientific knowledge






Élisabeth Louise Vigée-Lembrun (1712- 1778)

One of the few woman admitted to the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture
light hearted moon and costume echoes Rococo
Pose and her mood nothing like Rococo
Portrait similar from one done of Marie Antoinette
Confident in her work that won her independence in society
Personal and economical independence
Worked for nobility of Europe
Famous for her force and grace of her portraits (especially ladies and royalty)




Grand Manner Portraiture


Grand Manner Portraiture, was pioneer by Thomas Gainsborough
Mix b/w Rococo and “naturalistic”
Depicts individualized people, conveying elegance and refinement
Communicated through standardized conventions
Large scale of subject to canvas[image]
Controlled poses
Landscape (often Arcadian)



Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan





Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788)

English painter
Began as a landscape painter but gained fame from portraits
Contrast b/w “naturalistic” representation and Rococo setting
Woman dressed informally seated in rustic landscape
Match nature of subject with landscape
Rustic setting, soft-hued light, feathery brushwork recalls Watteau
Didn’t live long enough to complete it completely



Breakfast scene from Marrige à la Mode


William Hogarth (1697-1764)

Satirized contemporary life with comic zest
True English style after years of importation of painters
Campaigned against English dependence and inferiority to continental artists.
Favorite device = series of narratives, which follows a group of people in encounters with social evil  
One in a sequence of 6 paintings
Satirized immoralities within an upper class marriage that is beginning
Husband and wife tired after a night apart
Wife = night of cards and music
Husband = night of suspicious business 


The Death of General Wolfe


Benjamin West (1738-1820)

Born in Pennsylvania, moved to England after studying art in Europe
Cofounder of the British Royal Academy of Art and official painter of King George
Depicts mortally wounded English commander after defecting France in Quebec battle of 1759
Blends realism of subject and costume with grad tradition of history painting
The arrangement of figures in a complex and theatrically ordered composition
So effective that influenced history painters into the 19th century 


Portrait of Paul Revere


John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)

Started painting career in the Massachusetts Bay Colony later emigrated to England
Absorbed English portrait style
Unlike grand manner, conveys sense of directness and faithfulness
Differentiates between British
Painted before Revere became a hero
Setting plain lighting clear and revealing


  • Renewed interest in classical antiquity, which is manifested in painting, sculpture, and architecture, as well as in fashion and home décor.
  • The excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii also stirred public interest in the classical past.
  • Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the first modern art historian, characterized Greek sculpture as manifesting a "noble simplicity and quiet grandeur" and who drew attention to distinctions between Greek and Roman art.


Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures or

Mother Of the Gacchi


Angela Kauffmann (1741-1807)

Born on Switzerland trained in Italy produced in England
Cofounder of British Royal Academy of Art
Exemplifies Neoclassical Art
Subject exemplum virtutis drawn from Roman history and literature
Cornelia mother of Tiberius and Gaius Gacchus shows her children off after lady asks her to show her jewelry
Only Rococo elements are charm and grace in the arrangement of figures, soft lighting and tranquil manner




Oath to the Horatii


Jacqes-Louis David (1748-1825)

Painter-ideologist of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire
Studied in Roman, embraced classical art traditions. Rebelled against artificial Rococo
Subject matter should have a moral
Depicts story from pre-Republican Rome, shown as a play, shows the Horatii swearing to win or die for Rome.
Shallow space, statuesque figures and classical architecture




The Death of Marat


Jacqes-Louis David (1748-1825)

Painter-ideologist of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire
Studied in Roman, embraced classical art traditions. Rebelled against artificial Rococo
Subject matter should have a moral
Depicts story from pre-Republican Rome, shown as a play, shows the Horatii swearing to win or die for Rome.
Shallow space, statuesque figures and classical architecture




Pauline Borghese as Venus


Antonio Canova (1757-1822)

Napoleon’s Favorite Sculpture, went to Paris to work for emperor after a career in Italy
Became napoleon’s admirer and made numerous portraits of him and his family
This Paulina his sister, at her own request as Venus
Canova to depict her as Diana, goddess of hunting
Reflected her behavior during marriage
Holding golden apple = triumph in the eyes of Paris
Greek: sensuous pose and draping
Hidden in villa Borghese by Patron and husband, Prince Camillo Borghese. 






Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Scholar, economist, educational theorist, statesman, and gifted amateur architect
After coming back from serving as minister to France and seeing Neoclassicism at its best
Tried to make it national architect
Admired Palladio therefore made his house look like the Villa Rotonda
Studied Italian architecture from Four Books of Architecture





Grande Odalisque


Jean-Auguste-Domunuque Ingres (1780-1867)

Shortly studied with David in 1790 b/c of differences on what thought by each to be true Greek style
Made figures flat and linear, placed figure in foreground to look like a low relied sculpture.
Nude figure similar to Titian’s Giorgione and to classical antiquity. Shows admiration for Raphael (head)
Figure an odalisque or Turkish Harem
Consistent with new Romantic taste for the exotic (precise classic form with Romantic Theme  





Jean Jacques Rousseau’s summarized the premise of Romanticism when he said “Man is born free, but everywhere in chains!”. From that desire of freedom, as a right and property, did it emerge. Individual freedom was the first principle of Romanticism. It was believed that freedom came from imagination rather than reason

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