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anthro final
Undergraduate 1

Additional Anthropology Flashcards




ongka's big moka
      • Kawelka tribe of Papua, New Guinea, moka are gifts that the tribes give each other, by giving you can earn statehood by  outdoing other neighboring tribes, if someone gives you a “moka” you have to give a bigger one back; Ongka was the main character and he was the “big man” meaning he was in charge of the tribe and in charge of the moka, but he could not tell people what to do he had to persuade to get people to do what he wanted of them.
    • Broad spectrum revolution
period beginning around 15,000 BP in the Middle East and 12,000 B.P. in Europe, during which a wider range, or broader spectrum, of plant and animal life was hunted, gathered, collected, caught, and fished; revolutionary because it led to food production.
    • Led to food production and human control over reproduction of plants and animals
  • Ate less large animals and more small fast reproducing animals
  • Mesolithic- solitary stalking and trapping for random small prey
  • Neolithic Revolution
transition from food foraging to farming; people relied on domesticated animals and plants;  new tools technologies and the upbringing of new economies.
    • Neolithic: New Stone Age, coined to describe techniques of grinding and polishing stone tools; the first cultural period in a region in which the first signs of domestication are present.
    • Describes impact and origin of food production
  • Neolithic - new techniques of grinding and polishing stone tools, new economy
  • Broad to more specific, domesticated animals, grew own food, ceramics   
  • Farmers and herders   
  • Trade-offs in foraging and agriculture
    • Foraging: taller stature, less linear enamel hypoplasia, osteoarthritis was rare/mild, few bone lesions, few dental caries, rare/mild osteoporosis, worked 20-40hours/week, and economic  value was immediate reward and there was low risk.
    • Agriculture: domestication can change genetic makeup of a population, species become more useful, plant domestication- more seeds per plant, reduced toxins, produces non shattering varieties; were shorter stature, had many linear enamel hypoplasia, common/severe workload osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, many bone lesions and dental caries, 30-70hrs/week, and economic value was delayed reward and contained high risk.
    • Benefits of agriculture (compared to a foraging society)
      • New discoveries and inventions
      • New social, political, scientific forms
      • Architecture, masonry, sculpture
      • Writing, math, weight measurement systems
      • Trade, markets, urban living
      • More economic production
      • More reliable crop yields
    • Costs of agriculture
      • Harder work
      • Less nutritious diets
      • Child labor / child care
      • Taxes, military draft
      • More disease, more protein deficiencies
      • More stress, inequality, and poverty
      • Slavery, crime, war
      • Environmental degradation and pollution
medical implications of agriculture
      • Public health declines
      • Diets based on crops and dairy products are less varied and less nutritious
      • Forager’s diets are higher in proteins and lower in fats and carbs
      • Disease transmits quicker because of sedentary populations
      • Protein deficiencies, more cavities
ecological implications of agriculture
      • Environments are degraded
      • Air, water pollution
      • Deforestation
      • Population increases-->need more living space-->cut down trees


social implications of agriculture


      • Social inequality and poverty increase
      • Social stratification systems emerged
      • Resources are no longer common goods, instead property distinctions exist
      • Slavery and other forms of human bondage (ie civil rights / apartheid) emerged
      • Crime, war, human sacrifice
  • Differences between wild and domesticated plants and animals
    • Plants
      • Wild: brittle axes so the grain can fall off, edible portion is contained within a tough husk, lower yield
      • Domesticated: larger seeds, higher yield, seeds have a tougher connection to the stem, more brittle / less tough husk, lose their natural seed dispersal mechanisms
    • Animals
      • Wild: don’t have certain features (ie sheep aren’t wooly), larger in the wild
      • Domesticated: people select desirable characteristics they want the animals to have, they are smaller when domesticated
  • Diamond’s summary of “worst mistakes” of agriculture
    • Hunters/gatherers enjoyed a variety of food, while early farmers only reaped food from a few crops. Dependence on a small amount of crops ran the risk of starvation. Agriculture encouraged people to clump together in crowded societies which led to the spread of diseases. Brought about deep class divisions.
      • Human health rapidly declined, as evidenced by skeletal remains.
      • life expectancy decreased
  • Diamond’s summary of “worst mistakes” of agriculture
    • “With agriculture came the gross social and sexual inequality, the disease and despotism, that curse our existence.”
    • “Agriculture is an efficient way to get more food for less work” (This is a theory, not a fact)
    • Progressivist view: the abundance of food allowed for a flourishing of art.
      • Claim: the lives of primitive people improved when they switched from gathering to farming
    • Revisionist view: modern foragers work less hard and have plenty of leisure time in comparison to modern day farmers. Modern hunter-gatherer diets:
      • Have more protein and a better balance of other nutrients. Varied.
      • Are not reliant on a singular crop (monoculture), instead nearly 75. Prevents catastrophic famines - ex: potatoes. Risk of starvation.


study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites.
      • Height decreased due to agriculture, which some areas have not recovered.
      • Increase in enamel defects indicative of malnutrition
      • Increase in iron deficiency anemia
      • Increase in bone lesions reflecting infectious disease in general
      • Increase in degenerative conditions of the spine, probably reflecting a lot of hard physical labor, to provide for their growing numbers.
    • 3 reasons agriculture was bad for health:
      • Constricted what was a very varied diet, to an inefficient limited one which also risked starvation.
      • Required people to live together - encouraging the spread of disease.
      • Created class (as well as gender) divisions and inequality not present in hunter-gatherer societies.
  • Natufians
    • Natufians:  widespread Middle Eastern foraging culture (12,500-10,500 B.P.); subsisted on intensive wild cereal collecting and gazelle hunting; had year-round villages
    • Able to stay in the same place year round because they could harvest nearby wild cereal for six months
    • Earliest signs of domestication; domesticated dogs
  • Archaeological evidence and techniques for domestication
    • Remains were found outside of a natural range for a certain species, morphological changes in animals (smaller horns), abrupt population increase, and age/gender composition. Also, change in skeletal structure; smaller skeleton of animals indicates domestication.
    • Evidence of Early Plant Domestication
      • Increased size
      • Reduction or loss of natural seed dispersal
      • Reduction or loss of protective devices
      • Loss of delayed seed germination
      • Development of simultaneous ripening of the seed or fruit
    • Evidence of Early Animal Domestication
      • Change in skeletal structure (smaller)
      • Size of the animal or its parts
      • Age/sex ratios of butchered animals at an archaeological site
Differences between food yielding systems
      • Foraging (simply searching and gathering for food) little social stratification;
      • Wild plant production- transplanting, weeding, sowing, no tillage;
      • Cultivation-land clearance, systematic soil tillage, changing chemistry of the soil and spreading seeds. Typically done by mechanical techniques
      • Agriculture (domestication of plants and animals, propagation of crop variants ex- Monsato -sells seeds and copyrights them; also use of land and labor continuously and intensively).
      • horticulture-nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing (slash and burn technologies); use of the fallow period; swidden and shifting cultivation.
      • pastoralism-herding; raising livestock ( Ex: ranches/farms )
      • Industrialism-industrial production; Focused on the capitalism gained from food transport, storage, and retailing.
  • Domestication
an evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals
  • The Goal of archaeology
  • primary goal of social archaeology is to explain past human behavior
      • Material traces, pottery, tools, structural remains, etc. are used to reconstruct activities
      • The goal is to establish a broad picture of human cultures and societies, including subsistence systems, to understand economics and trade, political systems and social organization
  • Methods of social analysis
    • 1.) Settlement analysis: social organization; identifying settlement patterns and their distribution across the landscape and mapping
        • intra-settlement analysis (within settlement) - analysis of individual settlements in societies. household level analysis
    • 2.) Burial analysis
      • The study of human skeletal remains can tell us about age, sex, and health
      • Achieved status - earned during a person’s lifetime ex. Herschel Walker
      • Ascribed status - inherited at birth, hereditary
      • Cannot rely on grave goods alone, have to know how they were buried not just what they were buried with
      • Status can be determined by looking at:
        • How an individual was buried
        • What they were buried with

3.) Monuments and Public Works - The scale of monuments and public works, as well

as their distribution, can be a good indicator of social organization.

4.) Written Records - early written records on clay tablets
        • Records of commercial transactions
Ethnoarchaeology - study of living societies in order to help interpret the past, with specific emphasis on use and significance of artifacts, buildings and structures and how materials become incorporated into archaeological record
  • Scales of human societies
    1. Bands -  egalitarian (choose to live together, have same core values) groups of hunter gatherers
    2. Tribes/segmentary societies - kinship- based groups; usually farming peoples, no formal political institutions
    3. Chiefdoms - larger, stratified populations, class system, political and religious leaders
    4. States - Secular leaders, social classes, armies, taxation, laws, expansive economy (most “modern” human society)
  • Ethnography - field work in a particular culture.
  • Ethnographic analogies
  • Ethnographic analogies
comparing modern and ancient societies.
      • similar size, similar social structure, comparing “like with like”
  • Settlement hierarchy
a ranked series of communities differing in size, function, and type of building; a 3-level settlement hierarchy indicates state organization.
    • → communities with varying size, function, and building types
    • smallest to largest (increase in size of settlement and population)
        • hamlets: small village or group of houses
        • villages
        • local centers
        • regional centers
      • top → political and religious centers
      • bottom → rural villages
        • Kinship → in a hierarchically organized society, makes sense to study closely the functions of the center; blood relations/family
        • Gender
          • Anthropology of the past has been very male-centered, not so much anymore
          • Sex (biological) vs. Gender (cultural)
  • The four adaptive strategies
    • Adaptive Strategies-systems of economic production
    • Cohen’s Adaptive Strategies are foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, and industrialism

the following 4 bullets (starting with institutions and ending with economic production) are the economic systems found in the notes from 11-3

        • Institutions
          • Rules, principles, laws, norms of behaviors- We live under laws, but we also live under a larger set of rules and expected behaviors
          • Historical and contingent- environment doesn’t determine cultural outcome
          • Economic institutions
        • Organizations
          • Formal institutions and bodies
            • Economic
            • Religious
            • Political
            • Social
        • Technologies
          • Ability to make and use tools
          • A mechanism for adaptation and also for cultural evolution
            • To what do we adapt?
        • Economic production
          • Means of production
            • Inputs available for use in production
              • Land
              • Labor
              • Technology
          • Mode of production
            • the way that labor is controlled and is socially organized
              • purchasing labor power
              • social obligations
              • individuals, groups
    • Horticulture
nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time.
      • A type of cultivation (horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism are all types of cultivation)
      • nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing
      • Fields lie fallow for varying lengths of times to replenish nutrients
      • Slash and Burn
        • Set fire to the plot of land
        • This breaks down vegetation, kills pests, the ashes fertilize the soil
      • Shifting cultivation-- alternating between abandoning and using plots of lands
      • horticulturalists canNOT coexist with agriculturalists, but can have interactions with foragers and pastoralists (trade)
      • balanced redistribution and reciprocity
    • Agriculture
nonindustrial systems of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor.
      • Cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does
      • Uses land and labor continuously and intensively
      • Domesticated animals
        • Used as a means of transport or machines
        • Manure is used to fertilize plots of land
        • Attach to plows to dig up fields, trample fields to mix soil and water
      • Irrigation
        • Controlling water
        • Irrigate fields with canals from rivers, streams, ponds
        • Enriches the soil and makes the land more profitable
      • Terracing
        • Problem: steep hillsides with crops planted on them would normally just wash away in the presence of rainfall
        • Solution: cut into the hillside to make system of “steps” with walls that prevent each level sliding down
        • Plant on each flat level
      • Costs/benefits
        • Cost: requires human labor to build and maintain irrigation systems and terraces
        • Cost: Must feed, water, and care for animals
        • Benefit: higher and more dependable long term yield
        • Benefit: works for densely populated societies
    • Foraging
the act of looking or searching for food or provisions
      • 10,000 years ago-- people everywhere were foragers (also called hunter-gatherers)
      • Environmental differences lead to foraging contrasts (ex. Native Americans near the coast will rely more on fish and sea animals while those inland will have a wide variety of plants and animals to choose from)
      • People rely on available natural resources of plants/animals for subsistence, rather than controlling the reproduction of plants/animals
      • Disappearing as a way of life
        • modern examples do exist (Bushmen, Pygmies, Aborigines, Eskimos)
  • Pastoralism
(pastoralists are people who use a food-producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals)
      • Herders of cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak, etc
      • Symbiotic relationship
        • Humans provide protection and ensure reproduction
        • Animals provide dairy products, food, blood, meat, clothing
      • Make direct use of the herd for dairy (butter, milk, yogurt) and food (meat)
      • Usually also must hunt, fish, or trade in addition to herding the animals
  • Nomadic and transhumant pastoralism
    • Pastoralists:  people who use a food-producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals
    • Nomadic pastoralism:  movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, and children) with their animals; more generally, such constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources.  Rely heavily on trade
      • ex. Middle eastern groups following long nomadic routes; Taureg-Mali
    • Transhumance pastoralism: part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages with crops.
      • ex. European alps, shepherds, not entire village, accompany the animals; Basque-S. France
  • Types of reciprocity
Type Between? Characteristics/Goals
Generalized: Family, close friends No immediate expectations, perhaps none
Balanced: More distant relatives or neighbors Expect future equal exchange
Negative: Outsiders Expect immediate return; to maximize profit
  • Modes of production
    • Mode of production:  way of organizing production.
      • A set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge.
      • Purchasing labor power
      • Social obligations
      • Individual, groups
  • Subsistence strategies → how do people feed themselves?
    • Agriculture, horticulture, foraging, pastoralism,
      • Not one is any more correct than other
      • Common to use variety
      • People have to work to eat, to replace the calories they use in their daily activity
    • Band:  basic social unit among foragers; fewer than 100 people; often splits up seasonally, egalitarian
    • Tribe:  food producing society with rudimentary political structure. Form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism. Socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in tribes, and there is no means of enforcing political decisions.
        • kinship-based, farming peoples, no formal government
    • Chiefdom:a ranked society in which relation among villages as well as among individuals are unequal, with smaller villages; has a 2-level settlement hierarchy.
        • larger, stratified, political/religious leaders
    • State: sociopolitical organization based on central government and socioeconomic stratification - a division of society into classes.
        • secular leaders, stratified, armies, taxes laws
  • Big man
  • Big man
    • Generous tribal entrepreneur with multi-village support. Status was achieved through hard work and reliant on his persuasive abilities, but still has no authority. Relies on his influence power to make things happen. Wife played huge role in his status.
      • Book definition: Regional figure found among tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists. The big man occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither his wealth nor his position passes to his heirs.
    • Sodality, pantribal:
A nonkin-based group that exists throughout a tribe, spanning several villages.
  • Caste system

Castes are stratified groups in which membership is ascribed at birth and is lifelong.
social stratification
    • Social strata: unrelated groups that differ in access to wealth
    • Weber’s 3 dimensions of stratification
      • Economic Status: wealth, material assets
      • Political Status: power, ability to exercise ones will over others
      • Social Status: prestige, esteem/respect/approval from acts
    • Superordinate--upper, privileged group in stratified society
    • Subordinate--lower, underprivileged group
  • Power and authority
    • Power:  ability to control others; basis of political status.
    • Authority: socially approved use of power based on status
  • Types of status
achieved vs. ascribed; superordinate vs. subordinate
  • Types of evidence for social complexity
    • Differences arise from power; political differential; people can build large structure when someone has the authority or power. If someone has more of something than another, their neighbor, there is evidence for a difference.
  • Explanations for the rise of states
    • With food production came larger, denser populations and more complex economies. These features posed new regulatory problems which gave rise to more complex relations and linkages.
  • Achieved and ascribed status
    • Achieved status - earned ex. Herschel Walker
    • Ascribed status - inherited ex. Paris Hilton
  • What is a family?
    • A family is a group of people who are considered to be related in some way by blood or marriage.
      • A group of people related through kinship (kinship is a classification system)
      • Culturally determined
        • Biology does not always equate with kinship
        • E.g. grouping of mother and mother’s sister (sometimes father’s sister too)
  • Marriage
agreement between families
    • Creates kin relationships
    • Transforms status of participants
    • Stipulates sexual access between partners
    • Having and caring for children
    • Symbolically marked
  • Purposes of marriage
    • The purpose of marriage can vary depending on culture. Marriage is basically an agreement between families. Marriage: creates kin relationships, transforms status of participants, stipulates sexual access between partners, might involve having and caring for children, and symbolically marked. The creation of kinship ties and creating a new family. This is important in society because it changes the status of the people getting married. There are different types of marriage too like polyandry which can involve more than one man for one woman.
  • Changing roles of marriage
    • Women used to always stay in the home in our culture and produce for their husbands, children, etc. The men would go to work and provide the income. Nowadays, that can be completely different based on the family. Women are starting to enter the workforce and provide for themselves. Example: In the Nuer in Sudan, when women can’t have kids (also known as barrenness) they will take on the role of a husband.
  • Patriarchy
political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights.
  • Endogamy and exogamy (selecting a spouse)
    • Endogamy = marriage within a social group (who’s acceptable)
    • Exogamy = marriage outside of a social group (who you can’t marry)
  • Incest Taboo
    • Universal
    • culturally defined (varies between cultures)
    • 30% cultures prefer 1st cousins as mates
  • How many spouses?
    • Monogamy - one spouse
    • Polygamy - more than one spouse
      • Polygyny - 1 man, multiple women
      • Polyandry - 1 woman, multiple men
      • Accepted vs. practiced
  • Explanations for fraternal polyandry
    • Ex: Northern India and Tibet
      • brothers bound together to keep their land. Adaptation to an area with limited resources. Responsive.
      • Economy: land-intensive agriculture, small fields. Mountainous, steep land, high demand for land.
      • Traditionally patrilineal
      • Land equally divided among son's households
      • Marriage: monogamy; fraternal polyandry.
      • Practicality: scarce arable land. Form of birth control, to prevent overpopulation.Timing for sex for brothers.
      • Education may make polyandry vanish. Economic drivers to these marriages, structures change as they have access to the outside world.
    • Explanation:
      • Etic - outsiders - false
        • Shortage of women (no selected infanticide however)
        • Prevent starvation due to low quality of land (though the wealthiest segment of the population practice this)
      • Emic - insiders - true
        • Prevent division of household farm and animals
        • Leads to economic security and affluence
        • Difficulty in starting an agricultural enterprise
  • Ghost marriage
a marriage where a deceased groom is replaced by his brother. The brother serves as a stand to the bride, and any resulting children are considered children of the deceased spouse.
  • Bridewealth (progeny price)
gift from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin before, at, or after marriage; legitimizes children born to the woman as members of the husband’s descent group.
    • Shows respect to bride’s family
    • Compensates bride’s descent group for loss of economic services
    • Validates grooms right to the offspring
    • Social fund - way to see bonds of obligations between different parts of society. More than just cash. Identifying relationships they can call upon.
  • Dowry
a marital exchange in which the wife’s group provides substantial gifts to the husband’s family.
    • Bride’s inheritance - starting a new household
    • Compensate husband for privilege of inter-familial relationship
    • dowry death- when the gifts are perceived as insufficient and the bride is abused, or sometimes killed
        • Only way to have power is to have held a gran marriage, in order to be elected, must have money.
  • Comoros-Gran marriage
    • Occurs in Madagascar; a massive public feast in which the bridewealth payment is paid for by the groom and his family. This big social event provides you with achieved status. If you do not hold this ritual, you are considered a part of the large social status. You give the wife a house.
      • Public feast and bridewealth payment
      •  Huge festivities (3 days to 2 weeks):
        • Social - achieved status
        • Economic - wealth redistribution
  • Post-marriage residence patterns:
    • Patrilocal - lives with husband’s family
    • Matrilocal - lives with wife’s family
    • Neolocal – (neutral living place) by themselves (US common) related to other social structures and systems.
  • What is medical anthropology?
    • The application of anthropological theories to questions of health, illness, medicine, and healing. Basic and applied research.
  • Four premises of medical anthropology
    • 1.) Healing and illness are understood through human biology and culture
    • 2.) Disease is influenced by behaviors and sociopolitical circumstances
    • 3.) Symptoms are interpreted through cultural systems
    • 4.) Cultural aspects of healing systems have pragmatic consequences
  • Sickness
    • "unwanted conditions of self, or substantial threats of unwanted conditions of self”
    • Unwanted variations in physical, social, and psychological dimensions of health.
  • Disease vs. illness
    • Disease = clinical manifestation of altered physical function, a pathological condition of the body, it can be objectively measured
    • Illness = the condition of poor health perceived by person, not feeling normal, may or may not be the result of a disease
  • Explanations of Illness/Sickness
    • Naturalistic - Illnesses due to impersonal mechanistic causes.

-organic breakdown, injury, obstruction, malnutrition.

-Naturalistic explanations do not equal western medicine

Ex: humoral pathology and acupuncture.

    • Personalistic- Illness is due to acts or wishes of other people or supernatural forces.

-Intrusion of foreign objects, spirit possession, bewitching.

  • Health care systems
beliefs, customs, and specialists concerned with ensuring health and preventing, diagnosing and curing illness; a cultural universal.
  • Health impact of immigration into the United States
    • Immigrants are more likely to have higher blood pressure and be obese after settling into the country. 1 in 7 Latino girls attempt suicide. 1 in 4 students are likely to drop out of high school. This shows that the children of immigrants are losing the hope that protects their parents’ health. For the most part, people who are at the bottom of the income ladder are unable to move up in income.
    • Culture–specific syndromes
a collection of signs and symptoms that is restricted to a particular culture or a limited number of cultures
    • the point is: the diseases listed below are really only considered diseases in those cultures (mexico, latinos). like in America, we don’t consider “sufriendo del agua” to be a disease
      • Sufriendo del agua (“suffering from water”)
        • Low-income people (especially women) in Mexico
        • Attributed causes: lack of access to secure and clean water
        • Symptom: anxiety
      • Susto (“shock” or “fright”)
        • Spain, Portugal, and South America; Latino immigrants in US and Canada
        • Attributed causes: shock or fright
        • Symptoms: lethargy, poor appetite, problems sleeping, anxiety

Latino Paradox: recent idea that people expected new Hispanic immigrants to have a worse health condition and outcome than immigrants who have been here for more than one generation, but in reality, their culture helps block out the negative influences from American culture. healthier than expected/believed
  • Mental health of immigrants
    • The risk of psychiatric disorders from immigrant children depends on the age at which they come to America. The longer children stay in their home country, the lower their risk of mental illness.
  • Types of Medical Anthropologies
    • Biological
    • Ecological
    • Ethnomedical
    • Critical
    • Applied
  • What is a flat world?
    • Level playing field for everyone to receive resources as the world globalizes. Assumes a level playing field for people to have equal access to materials and resources. Forces unequal that is limiting “mobals” from reaching these resources (barriers to achieving certain statuses).
  • Globalization
the accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
  • Locals, Mobals, Globals - De Blij
      • locals- those who are poorest, least mobile and most susceptible to impression of place; born, grow up, marry, have children 25 miles from where they were born.
      • globals- world seems limitless, they “flatten” the world, the ones who lower already low wages, build security/migration barriers; interconnection between everything. stay based on opportunities they have.
      • mobals- “risk takers”. transnational migrants willing to leave the familiar to better their lives- more security, better jobs, etc (does not include war refugees fleeing a country). Born in periphery but recognize economic opportunities in the core.
core, semiperiphery, periphery
      • Core:  dominant position in the world system; consists of the strongest and most powerful states with advanced and central governments.
      • Semiperiphery:  structural position in the world system intermediate between core and periphery.
      • Periphery:  weakest structural position in the world system.
  • Bracero program
    • A series of laws and agreements for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States (seasonally). The program continued until 1964; they wanted to end it due to civil unrest.
  • Operation Gatekeeper
    • Legislation during Clinton's presidency, operations to control the border, build more walls, didn't stop migration just changed routes. Pushed all immigration to the desert. Lock down on urban areas and push immigrants to an area they could control.
  • NAFTA and implications for migration
    • In 1994, NAFTA was passed creating a free trade zone within the United States, creates 2 types of visas. It all adds up to one huge incentive: active ports of entry and unfavorable economic condition in Latin American countries. They need more labor, so they come here.
  • Imperialism and colonialism
    • Imperialism:  A policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations or of taking and holding foreign colonies.
    • Colonialism:  The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time. (long-term foreign control of a territory and its people)
    • These lead to a loss of diversity
  • Two phases of colonialism:
    • Phase One: 1500’s -1825; goal was to enrich royalty (precapitalism) and expand state.
      • Permanent links to old and new worlds- most colonial systems were extractive and tried to get resources from the colony to bring home.
      • Plantation economies- common. Land grants were given to individuals by the government to put land into production.
  • Phase Two: until after WWII; Goal was to obtain land, resources, labor, consumers.
    • This was based on capitalism
  • White man’s burden
    • Described as helping those who don’t know what is good for them become more civilized. The belief was that this burden of civilizing fell on the shoulders of the white men.
  • Scramble for Africa
    • Late 1800s, colonization for African resources. Left “European stamp.”
  • Four types of colonial rule
    • Direct rule: Centralized administrations which stressed policies of assimilation (set up a new government and stay to make people follow). Divide and rule was used to undermine and weaken local power networks and institutions. The government wanted to keep people from uniting to rebel.
    • Indirect rule: Colonists rule the area by drawing agreeable indigenous local leaders from the population. The colonial power would come in and set up governments by modifying existing social structure.  Indirect rule led to changes in classifications of ethnic groups and created new power classes. However, these local rules were not permanent and could be removed whenever they clashed with the colonial power.
    • Settlers rule: Settlers imposed direct rule on themselves. Settlers moves to the colonies permanently; (settle, don’t leave and set up rule)
    • Economic companies: private companies that could set up and own systems of taxation and labor recruitment over large territories
  • Legacies of colonialism:
Identity - colonialism invented countries and social groups. Who belongs, who doesn’t?
    • 1. Post-colonial interactions
    • 2. Differentiates between nations
    • 3. Based on economics
    • 4. Development industry
  • Failed states
    • Failed at basic responsibilities of a government
      • Loss of physical control of territory
      • Erosion of legitimate authority
      • Inability to provide public services
      • Inability to protect citizens from violence
  • American Indian Boarding Schools
    • Far from reservations
    • English only
    • Forced religion
    • 1880’s-1930’s 100,000 children
  • What is applied anthropology?
    • Using data, perspective, theory, and methods to identify, assess and solve contemporary problems.
  • Development
the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in - and the cultural dimension of - economic development.
    • A process definition:
      • Process of directed and managed change
        • Improvement
        • Empowerment
        • Participation
  • Why do development?
    • After colonialism ends, these states don’t know how to function (role of colonialism is to create a dependence on mother country)
      • Want to allow colonized states to be able to function independently
      • Modernization and economic growth
    • Colonialism:
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time. (long-term foreign control of a territory and its people)
    • poverty increases; also have that there exist water access issues (w/out access and sanitation).
  • Past Framing concepts
    • 1. Economic-make poor countries rich, stimulate rapid and sustained economic growth.
    • 2. Technological approach based on western theories, goals, capital, and technology
  • Types of knowledge
    • 1.) Content = details of process, operations, procedures, etc.
      • i.e. someone who knows and understands Arabic vocab and grammar
    • 2.) Context = understanding of the specific environment
      • i.e. someone who not only knows Arabic, but knows the appropriate thing to say to a particular person, and at particular times
    • *Content and context knowledge are often separated in practice
      • Local context ignored
      • Cookie cutter solutions
      • Failures are due to lack of fit between change and cultural contexts
  • Old → new paradigms
    • Idea that development agencies will work to affect local change, new paradigms working directly with communities into the cultural process, what we conceive of good development, are shaken up when we go. Local implementation is the guiding principle. Shift from top down (supply driven) to bottom up (demand driven). Shifting is moral but development projects are constantly failing, ex: Argentinians coming to Athens with a plan.
    • Technical → people and places
    • Growth → sustainability
    • Projects → learning
    • Outcomes → process
Becoming America
  • hispanic immigration health status between recent immigrants and immigrants that have been here a while.
  • Latino paradox: recent immigrants expected to have worse health outcomes than older immigrants, but actually have better health
  • immigrants who have lower income, higher stress, and more social marginalization than other groups, have been found to have lower rates of mental illness, cancer, and heart diseases
  •                            --known as the ‘latino paradox’= the health of latinos could be positively impacted by their strong family ties
  • -wealth correlates to health
  • Ongka’s Big Moka
      • Kawelka tribe of Papua, New Guinea, moka are gifts that the tribes give each other, by giving you can earn statehood by outdoing other neighboring tribes, if someone gives you a “moka” you have to give a bigger one back
      • Hosted pig feasts and gave out meahado
      • Onka was the main character, the “Big Man,” meaning he was in charge of the tribe and in charge of the moka, but he could not tell people what to do. Instead he has to persuade to get people to do what he wants.
      • Ongka’s wife played a huge role in helping him prepare the moka. Without her, there wouldn’t have been a moka to give.
Which of these are terms for Horticulture?                                                
a. shifting cultivation
b. slash and Burn
c. swidden
d. all of the above
Which statement is false:
a. horticulture is extensive, while agriculture is intensive
b. agriculture is labor and land intensive, but has high potential yield
c. horticulture has low relative productivity, but requires little labor input, is low risk, and results in little ecological degradation.
d. In some modes of subsistence, there really is a “free lunch.”
What is meant by “Neolithic Revolution” among most anthropologists?
a. the domestication of plants and animals and the beginnings of agriculture
b. the beginning of the ‘new stone age’
c. an uprising in southern Mexico that occurred to address social inequality
d. the spread of western science to the ‘third world’ to increase agricultural production
40.  __________________ refers to the process by which humans gain control over the production of certain plants and animals and involves modifying the genetic makeup of those species by selective breeding and ordering the environment in such a way as to favor those species.
a. The Neolithic Revolution
b. Artificial selection
c. Domestication
d. Agriculture
Artificial selection:
a process in the breeding of animals and in the cultivation of plants by which the breeder chooses to perpetuate only those forms having certain desirable inheritable characteristics.
an evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants/animals.
ll in the appropriate subsistence (economic) strategy (Answer A for industrialism, B for horticulture, C for agriculture).
44. ___________ Non- mechanized plant cultivation using a hoe or digging stick. The oldest form of agriculture.

45.______________Highly capitalized and high tech food production.

46.____________Intensive use of land and labor with continuous cultivation. Generally low tech.




A primary drawback to industrial agriculture is…
a. massive use of fossil fuels
b. massive use of fertilizers & pesticides
c. it requires high level of capital
d. all are true
Compared to foragers, agriculturalists work more hours per week, have lower quality nutrition, and are exposed to greater risk of starvation?
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