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ANTH 2020 EXAM 2
Undergraduate 2

Additional Anthropology Flashcards




Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish Botanist whom formally classified life using nomenclature (naming with two names)

Systema Naturae (1758) by carolus linneaus
Classifies, describes and documents 4400 animals and 7700 plants
Classifies humans into 4 races based on geography and skin color temperament and posture
Temperament based on the balance of four fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile
Johann Blumenbach
Develops the modern racial classification system based on skin color
Mongolian- (yellow)
Malaysian- (brown)
American (red)
Negro (black)
Caucasian (white)

Blumenbachs racial classification system was based on the concept of degeneration.

This does not imply a de-evolution or deterioration but literal departure from the initial form of humanity.
Blumenbach’s view of degeneration upheld the notion that humans were one species and argues against special creation

Blumenbach asserted that humanity’s origins were rooted in the Caucus Mountains
The perople of these mountains were white. With time the other races “degenerated” from their white ancetestry
Blumenbach supported his suggestions with a large craniometrical data set
Ota Benga
Ota Benga (circa 1883[1] – March 20, 1916) was a Congolese Mbuti pygmy known for being featured with other Africans in an anthropology exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri in 1904, and later in a controversial human zoo exhibit at New York City's Bronx Zoo in 1906. Benga had been freed from slave traders in the Congo by the missionary Samuel Phillips Verner, who had taken him to Missouri. At the Bronx Zoo, Benga had free run of the grounds before and after he was "exhibited" in the zoo's Monkey House. The display was intended to promote the contemporary concepts of human evolution and scientific racism.
Saartjie Baartman
Sarah "Saartjie" Baartman (before 1790 – 29 December 1815)[1] (also spelled Bartman, Bartmann, Baartmen) was the most famous of at least two Khoikhoi women who were exhibited as freak show attractions in 19th-century Europe under the name Hottentot Venus—"Hottentot" as the then-current name for the Khoi people, now considered an offensive term,[2] and "Venus" in reference to the Roman goddess of love.
Josiah Clark Nott
Nott was influenced by the racial theories of Samuel George Morton (1799–1851), one of the inspirators of physical anthropology. Morton collected hundreds of human skulls from around the world and tried to classify them. Morton had been among the first to claim that he could judge the intellectual capacity of a race by the cranial capacity (the measure of the volume of the interior of the skull). A large skull meant a large brain and high intellectual capacity, and a small skull indicated a small brain and decreased intellectual capacity. By studying these skulls he came to the conclusion of polygenism, that each race had a separate origin.

Nott, the owner of nine slaves, "used his influence and his science to defend the subjugation of blacks through slavery". He claimed that "the negro achieves his greatest perfection, physical and moral, and also greatest longevity, in a state of slavery".[3]
George Robins Gliddon
George Robins Gliddon (1809–1857) was an English-born American Egyptologist. He was born in Devonshire, England. His father, a merchant, was United States consul at Alexandria where Gliddon was taken at an early age.
Francis Galton
· Statistician who attempted to quantify attributes of the natural world (including prayer)
· Inventor
· Utilized questionnaires
· Sought to quantify heritable human traits from height to intelligence
· Charles Darwin’s cousin
Race supported by Science:
· Iridology
· Craniometrics
· Phrenology
· Racial Geometry
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002)
Harvard professor and paleontologist/evolutionary biologist
Punctuated equilibrium
Argued strongly against biological determinism
In The Mismeasure of Man (1981) Gould discusses the history of scientific racism and The Bell Curve.
Herrnstein and Murray-
Herrnstein and Murray- Harvard psychology professors
Their book suggests IQ is single number
IQ is heritable and immutable
IQ is predictable among the races and socio-economic classes
Concluded that social programs such as welfare and affirmative action should be terminated.
Alfred Binet
Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
Began his career “testing’ intelligence following Broca’s methodology of measuring heads:
· The relationship between intelligence of subjects and the volume of their head…must be considered incontestable” (1898)
In 1904 Binet recants:
· “…the discouraging conclusion that there was often not a millimeter of difference between the cephalic measure of intelligent and less intelligent students. The idea of measuring intelligence by measuring heads seemed ridiculous”
In 1904, Binet is hired by France’s Minister of Public Education.
The goal was to develop techniques to improve the scores of poorly performing children.
Binet’s personal intention was to help struggling students.

Binet developed a test with a series of tasks.
Each task was assigned an age level that a child of normal intelligence could solve.
The child began the test with tasks of the youngest age, advancing until he/she could no longer complete the more difficult tasks.
The age of the last task was the child’s “mental age”

The general intelligence of a child was his/her mental age subtracted by their chronological age.
Binet was an anti-hereditarian and was afraid his tests would be applied improperly. (they were)

Binet Insists on 3 Principles of His Test Results:
1. The scores are a practical device and do not support any theory of intelligence. The scores do not measure true “intelligence”
2. The scale is a rough guide to identify mildly retarded children and children with learning disabilities who need special help. The tests are not a device for ranking normal children.
3. Emphasis should be placed on improvement through special training. Low scores should not be used to mark children as innately incapable.

1912- German psychologist William Stern divides Binet’s mental age by chronological age.
Modern IQ testing is invented.
HH Goddard
Henry H. Goddard 1866-1957
Hereditarian, eugenicist, and psychologist
Blatantly ignores Binet’s principles for intelligence testing
Believes that intelligence is single Mendelian trait
Develops the terms: idiot, imbecile, and moron
Suggests that mental retards should be institutionalized (colonized) and/or sterilized

Vineland Training School for Backward and Feeble-minded Children
Idiot- unable to take care of him/herself (cannot clothe and bathe)
Imbecile- capable of feeding and clothing themselves but could not read or write
Moron- capable of a 3rd (grade) level of reading and writing.

Idiot IQ Score 0-25 (Binet Scale 3 yrs old)
Imbecile IQ Score 26-50 (Binet Scale 3-7 yrs old)
Moron IQ Score 51-70 (Binet Scale 8-12 yrs old)

The Kallikak Family
Goddard traces the descendants of two different family lines of Martin Kallikak, a Revolutionary War soldier. Martin marries a virtuous Quaker, and their subsequent children are all highly intelligent and “wholesome”
Martin has an affair outside his marriage. The illegitimate affair leads to criminals, invalids, and mental retards.
• Καλοσ− γοοδ
• Κακο− βαδ

Results of Goddard’s Studies
33 States adopt sterilization programs
60,000 people sterilized
1913 US deportation rates rises 350%
1914 US deportation rates rises 570%
1924 US adopts more stringent immigration programs aimed at keeping out the mentally inferior
1914 Die Familie Kallikak printed in Germany and reprinted in 1933…

Goddard Recants
In 1928 Goddard recants his statements and suggestions regarding mentally challenged persons:
“Some will object that this plan neglects the eugenic aspect of the problem. In the community, these morons will marry and have children. And why not?...”
Deborah Kallikak
On the "feeble-minded" side of the Kallikak family, descended from the barmaid, the children wound up poor, insane, delinquent, and mentally retarded. Deborah was, in Goddard's assessment, "feeble-minded": a catch-all early 20th century term to describe various forms of mental retardation or learning deficiencies. Goddard was interested in the heritability of "feeble-mindedness" — and often wrote of the invisible threat of recessive "feeble-minded" genes carried by otherwise healthy and intelligent looking members of the population (Mendel's laws had only been rediscovered a decade before; Goddard's genetic shorthand was, in its day, considered to be on par with cutting edge science). It was in tracing the family history of Deborah that Goddard and his assistants -- usually upper-class girls from nearby colleges -- discovered that Deborah's family of drunks and criminals was related -- through Martin Kallikak -- to another family tree of economy and prosperity.
Carrie Buck
Buck vs. Bell 1927
In 1927 the US Supreme Court upheld a statute instituting compulsory sterilization
The case surrounded the sterilization of Carrie Buck age 17 (mental age of 9). Carrie Buck and her mother (mental age 8) were both considered “feeble-minded”, “immoral”, and threat to American’s “genetic stock.”
Mother and daughter were housed in Virginia Colony for Epileptics and The Feeble-minded in Lynchburg, VA

Carrie buck was raped and impregnated by her nephew, yet se was painted as a “sexual deviant”
Her daughter was labeled an imbecile before she acquired abilities to read and write. She dies young but exhibited the intelligence of normal person.
Vivian buck
By all accounts Vivian was of average intelligence, far from feeblemindedness. She died a month later at age eight of "enteric colitis", an intestinal disease.[2]
Lewis Terman
Lewis Terman 1877-1956
Modifies Binet’s test and develops the Stanford-Binet Test, the modern day IQ test for adults
Standardized tests given to thousands, Terman’s vision was to test every child and place each in their appropriate class and type of employment.
IQ tests culturally biased.
Test results provided scientific “proof” that whites were more “gifted”
Terman’s IQ = 180
Galton’s IQ= >200
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