Shared Flashcard Set


Animal Science
Reproduction in Poultry
Undergraduate 1

Additional Agriculture Flashcards






Most birds lack _____

Therefore use of cloacas

Sperm live how long? where are they placed? strength begins to decline after how many days?

Mating - Mating with the female is a matter of joining cloacas long enough for semen injection.  Because most birds lack external genitalia, mating normally involves only brief cloacal contact (with little to no penetration) described as a "cloacal kiss".  The male has papillae in its cloacal wall which spray the sperm onto the cloacal wall of the female.
Sperm then move up the oviduct and "wait" in the "funnel" around the ovary and wait for an egg (actually the yolk) to pass by and be fertilized - usually one ova per day.  Sperm can live and remain viable in the oviduct for 2-3 weeks, although their "strength" begins to decline after 6 days.


What is added? - Two things

egg takes on ___, shell is ____

Ovulation to oviposition takes _____

Fertilization - After fertilization the yolk continues to move through the oviduct where a variety of activities take place - albumen (egg white) is added, shell membranes are added, the egg takes on water, then the shell is calcified.  From the time of ovulation to oviposition (laying the egg) takes approx 24 hours. 


Commercially Chickens are incubated _____

Temperature is between __ and ___ F

at __% humidity

Eggs are turned ____ a day for the first __ days to ________


Incubation for:

Chickens, Turkeys and ducks, geese, and muscovy ducks

Incubation - Commercially, chickens are incubated artificially.  In chickens, the temperature is between 102 and 103 degrees F, at 60% humidity.  Air is cycled into and out of the incubator to bring in fresh oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.  Eggs are turned twice a day for the first 15 days, to prevent embryos from sticking to the shell.
Time of incubation:    21 days in chickens; 28 days for turkeys and ducks; 29-31 days for geese; 33-35 days for Muscovy ducks

Parts of the Chicken

Head? 4 parts

Neck and body? 3 parts

Wings & Legs? 4 parts

Standard Classification ____, ____, and ____

Head: Comb, Beak, Wattles, Ear Lobes
b) Neck & Body: Hackles (neck feathers), Saddle, Sickles (feathers over the tail)
c) Wings & Legs: Primaries, Secondaries, Shank, Spur
3) Standard Classification: Class (geographic origin); Breed (similarity of body type); Variety (within breed variability based on color pattern, comb type)

Classes (6 + all other classes)


Location?  Examples?

American Class (Canada & US): Plymouth Rock (Buff, White, Barred varieties); Rhode Island Red (mahogany, not red)
b) Asiatic Class (popular for their 'fancy' appearance): Cochin (feathers on shank, no tail-cushion); Brahma; Langshan (long legs, feathers on shank)
c) English Class (Great Britain & Commonwealth): Cornish Chicken (meat bird, large breast, white cornish cross to white plymouth rock = Foster Farms); Australorp (high egg production)
d) Mediterranean Class (egg laying birds): Leghorn (Italian, most popular, productive egg laying bird in world, small, light); White-Faced Black Spanish (show bird)
e) Continental Class (European): Hamburg (Dutch every day layer, rose comb); Polish (crest feathers, covering a comb looking like devil's horns)
f) All Other Breeds Class: Old English (England, Cock-fighting & show); Araucana (Rumpless, peacomb, tuft ear feathers, green egg shell)
g) Bantams (small birds): Sebright (18 oz bird, showy); Japanese (tail feathers touch the head); Silkie (black skin, black bones, fluffy black feathers, Asian meat markets in CA)

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