# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

ANG 107: Midterm 1_Miller
UC Davis
16
Biology
10/25/2019

Term
 Categorization of traits
Definition
 based on...PHENO MANIFESTATION*categorical- phenos in categories*quantitative- phenos described on quant scale w/ cont distrib GENETIC NATURE*sit- affected by sm # genes*polygenic- affected by many genes
Term
 Questions
Definition
 1) AVG?* use mean 2) IS MORE/LESS UNIFORM?* use variance, SD3) WHAT DOES ONE PREDICT ABOUT THE OTHER* use covariance, correlation/regression coeff4) PREDICT Y FROM X (OR THE REGRESSION OF Y ON X)* use b(y,x)
Term
 statistic
Definition
 *using mathematical data to answer questions*something calc from data
Term
 value
Definition
 *for animal breeding, any measure of an ind (as opposed to a pop) *describes the attributes of an ind
Term
 population measure
Definition
 *any measure of a pop (as opposed to an ind) *describe attributes of pop *EX: mean, co/variance, SD, correlation/regression coeff
Term
 mean
Definition
 *NOTATION: (p-bar, or mu)*average of a pop
Term
 variance
Definition
 *NOTATION: σ^2*mean of the deviation squared *deviation from the mean ***variance α variation in pop - the more variation a pop has, the more variance (0
Term
 standard deviation
Definition
 *NOTATION: σ* √σ^2*amount of variation that exists in a pop -more intuitive than variance
Term
 covariance
Definition
 *NOTATION: cov *the mean of the product of deviations *describe the direction of the relationship (+/-/no)*foundation statistic, but not intuitive
Term
 correlation coefficient
Definition
 *NOTATION: r(x,y)*describes the strength and direction of relationship*how well the pts fall on the line *doesn't tell how to make a prediction (need a slope)
Term
 regression coefficient
Definition
 *NOTATION: b(y,x) *tells us the exact value for the slope*tells us the slope of a relationship
Term
 Determining the relationship of a data set
Definition
 BEST FIT LINE -strength represented by how many dots touch the line SLOPE + relation: x data set and y have + covarience (if x is above the mean, y will be too) - relation: covariance is - (if x is above the mean =, y is below the mean) no relation: covariance can be - and/or +
Term
 relations of different covariance, correlation, and regression
Definition
 COV (x,y) = COV (y,x)r x,y = r y,x b y,x ≠ b x,y *b/c denominator changes
Term
 Prediction eq
Definition
 Yi = My + by,x (xi - Mx)Yi: y value of indMy: y intercept b: slopexi: x value for indMx: mean pop x
Term
 Normal Distribution properties
Definition
 *symmetric and bell shape - σ = 68% - 2σ = 95% - 3σ = 99%*ind w/ extreme phneo occurs less often than mod phenoimportant in genetics b/c mendelian sampling @ many loci ==> seg and ind assortment
Term
 population parameter vs sample statistic
Definition
 PARAMETER- true as opposed to estimated pop measureSTATISTICS- an estimate of a parameter made using a sample of total pop
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