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Ancient Greece and Rome Midterm part 2
plan identification
Art History
Undergraduate 2

Additional Art History Flashcards




The Fresco Technique

Artisans mixed colored mineral and metal pigments directly onto wet plaster.

This allowed the colors to bind permanently and quickly to the wall, requiring quick execution

allows for a high degree of improvisation and spontaneity.

The element of chance, the non-canonical, emerges into art formally—a break from the art of Egypt and The Ancient Near East

The Wall Paintings of Thera (Minoan)

Minoan stylistic conventions emphasized elasticity, spontaneity, and dynamic motion.
Love of polychrome, use of colors and high-contrast patterns that instill an elegant freshness to characters and nature scenes alike.

Chronology of Minoan Crete

2600-1150 B.C


Pre-palatial (2600-1900 BC)
Proto-palatial (1900-1700 BC)
Neo-palatial (1700-1400 BC)
Post-palatial (1400-1150 BC).


Horns of Consecration

reproduced in almost all art

stylized bull horns/upraised arms hybrid

In architecture: synthesis of bull horns as power and upright arms as worship

poppey goddess Minoan III

opiates were used in religious practices at the palace of knossos


standard central recieving room(the great hall of the Mycenaean palace complexes.)

lov for interior decoration, columns similar to minoan (taper downward) use of timber...Art as propaganda:stiff/stylized

The Palace at Tiryns, Late Helladic III, on hte alluvial plain of Argos

Heroon at Lefkandi

Dark Ages

to the East of Athens,  Island of Euboea (Large)

1000-900 B.C.

where a legendary hero would have been buried with in the evidence of architecture, cult, international trade building which would be ritually destroyed to become a burial moud.  Grave of a king or Queen along with horses made of stone foundations, mudbrick and timber supports. certain gold and other goods.  Earliest monumental building, apsidal= curved at the back

Pteron = covered porch surrounds the inner sections of the building

The Heraion of Samos

Temples during the Geometric Period 800-700 B.C. : The FIRST Heraion at Samos


OLDEST PERIPTERAL TEMPLE-(one surrounded  by an external colonnade, or PTERON).
Earliest example is the first Heraion (temple to Hera) on the East Greek island of Samos.
Row of wooden posts inside to support roof.
Altar at back, slightly off center.
Pteron added about 50 years later.


Heinrich Schliemann
In 1874 Heinrich Schliemann arrived a  the site at Mycenae (Lion Gate) and undertook a complete excavation. Schliemann believed in the historical truth of the Homeric stories and interpreted the site accordingly. He found the ancient shaft graves with their royal skeletons and spectacular grave goods. Upon discovering a human skull beneath a gold death mask in one of the tombs, he declared: "I have gazed upon the face of Agamemnon".
Cyclopean Masonry

is a type of stonework found in Mycenaean architecture, built with huge limestone boulders, roughly fitted together with minimal clearance between adjacent stones and no use of mortar. The boulders are typically unworked, but are sometimes roughly worked with a hammer, and the gaps between boulders are often filled in with smaller hunks of limestone

for example Tiryn's

The Lion Gate:
Monumental Sculpture

two lions, back legs on the ground front legs on podium

next to the column (all that is mycenaean?)

relieving triangle made of lighter rock, tuffa?

The end of the Phrygian kingdom is a fixed date, about 675 B.C.


The Invention of the Greek Alphabet

Adapated from the East, from the Phoenician alphabet.
Important addition of vowels, A, E, I, O U.
Probably as early as 900 B.C. but in ‘final’ form by 800 B.C. or so.
Earliest Greek Authors are Hesiod and Homer, writing in the 8th century B.C. Who came first? Unsure.


Phoenicia  has its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, extending to parts of Israel, Syria and the Palestinian territories.
Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the period 1550 BC to 300 BC. Important throughout the Greek & Roman periods.
The Phoenicians were society to make extensive use of the alphabet. Alphabet was adopted by the Greeks.


The Lion Gate

The Lion Gate:
Monumental Sculpture

two lions, back legs on the ground front legs on podium

next to the column (all that is mycenaean?)

relieving triangle made of lighter rock, tuffa?

The end of the Phrygian kingdom is a fixed date, about 675 B.C.

The Treasury of Siphnos @ Delphi

530-525 BC.

Only western greek ionic building known in it's entirety

First Marble Building

only Ionic building

front porch and cella imitating temple, brightly painted. Frieze= scenes from trojan war.  Pediment sows sculpted figure=Herakles stealing Apollo's tripod

Karyatids @ Delphi= imitate Kore figures, substitute Ionic columns.



Sculpture in the round of naked male youths (Kouros, pl. kouroi) is key type. Found in Greek islands and Attica (Athens) locations.
Greek colony on Egyptian coast at Naukratis put Greeks in direct contact with Egyptian art & architecture.
Set, symmetrical stance, hands clenched at sides, one foot advanced remains unchanged throughout the period.
However, advances in technique and treatment of the human form and anatomy can be clearly traced.
Can be of colossal size, represent ‘attendants’ to the gods, set up at temple sites.
Sunium Kouros, 590 B.C
Dedicated to Apollo at Temple to Apollo at Sunium. Height nearly 10 ft tall.
This was colossal ( ft high) and made from a single piece of marble
Now in National Museum, Athens.




The François Vase, a milestone in the development of Greek pottery.
Large volute krater (made for mixing wine and water at a great feast or wedding. decorated in the black-figure style which stands at 66cm in height.
Found in 1844 in an Etruscan tomb and named after its discoverer Alessandro François; it is now in the Museo Archeologico at Florence.
It bears the inscription “Ergotimos epoiesen; Kleitias egraphsen” "Ergotimos made [me]; Kleitias painted [me]” - the first evidence that the roles of potter and painter had become separate at this early date.
It depicts over 200 figures, many with identifying inscriptions, representing a number of mythological themes.
Principal subject is the marriage of Peleus and Thetis.
In 1900 a museum guard threw a stool at the case that contained the vase and smashed it into 638 pieces! Restored but fragments now missing.



During the ______, relatives and friends came to mourn and pay their respects. Lamentation of the dead is featured in early Greek art at least as early as the Geometric period, when vases were decorated with scenes portraying the deceased surrounded by mourners. 

Geometric Dipylon Amphora (with Prothesis)
Date: 8th century BCE Made of terracotta, from Athens
The Dipylon cemetery in Athens provides important advance in pottery. We find huge vases used as burial markers in 2 shapes Krater (top) for men, Ampora (bottom) for women.
Holes in the bases of the large vases (over
Magna Graecia

Latin for "Great Greece"

Greece colonizes Southern Italy


Only site in Italy with Doric temples standing above the platform and both are in fairly good condition.
Two Doric temples there that date to the mid 6th century B.C. (600-550 B.C.)
The oldest was called the ‘Basilica’, recently identified as Temple to Hera 600-550 B.C., the other is the Temple to Athena, previously called the Temple to ‘Ceres’. Built a is a few generations later that Temple to Hera, c. 500 B.C..


The Erechthion


421-405 B.C
Ionic Temple. Built to replace the old Temple of Athena and to house the old cult image. Also of marble.
Half the size of the Parthenon and set away from Parthenon so not to compete.
Plan and elevation are UNIQUE too Greek architecture.
Porch projects from either side of the temple. All porches at different elevations, built around a ‘normal’ temple layout. Three doors lead into the central area. Windows in the temple covered with bronze lattices
Front of the temple stood 6 Ionic columns
South porch has statues of maidens (like we saw at the Treasury of Siphnos at Delphi) called KARYATIDS.
Besides representing the old temple to Athena and housing her cult image.
Also housed the altars of Erechtheus/Poseidon, Hephaistos and Boutes.
Erechtheus= in Greek mythology was the name of an archaic king of Athens, the re-founder of the polis (city-state) and in Athens he doubles for Poseidon, known as "Poseidon Erechtheus".
Boutes=the twin Brother of Erechtheus. He became the priest of the cult of Athena and Poseidion while his brother ruled Athens.
It also incorporated the tokens of the contest for the patronage of Athens, namely the salt-sea of Poseidon and the olive tree of Athena.


Key Periods in Ancient Greek Art & Architecture

Geometric Period, 800-600 B.C.
The Orientalizing Period, 700-600 B.C.
The Archaic Period, 600-480 B.C.
The Classical Period, 480-330 B.C.
The Hellenistic Period, 330-110 B.C.

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