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Aircrew NAWS General Flight Fundamentals
General Flight Fundamentals

Additional Aviation Flashcards






Land immediately

Land as soon as possible

Land as soon as practicable


Self explanatory.


Land at the first site at which a safe landing can be made.

Extended flight is not recommended. The landing site and duration of flight is at the discretion of the pilot in command.

Define Operational Necessity

A mission associated with war or peacetime operations in which the consequences of an action justify accepting the risk of loss of aircraft and crew.

Define the following Acronyms

         ADIZ - Air defense identification zone. 

                  AGL - Above ground level.

         MSL - Mean sea level.

         KIAS - Knots indicated airspeed.

         NOTAM(s) - Notice(s) to airmen.

                 OAT - Outside air temperature.

Discuss fuel planning
  • In no case shall the planned fuel reserve after final landing at destination or alternate airfield, if one is required, be less than that needed for 20 minutes of flight.
  • The fuel onboard at final landing shall not be less than 600 pounds

Minimum altitudes for the following:

  1. Charted, Uncontrolled Airports
  2. Noise Sensitive and Wilderness Areas
  3. Overland Populated Area
  4. Overland Unpopulated Area  
  5. Overwater Day  
  6. Overwater Night  
  7. NVG
  8. Practice Coupled/Doppler Approaches
  9. MIO/VBSS/CNT/VID Operations
  10. MAD Operations
  11. Surface to Air Counter Tactics (SACT) Training
  1. 3 nm or 1,500 feet
  2. 3,000 feet AGL
  3. 1000 ft AGL
  4. 500 ft AGL
  5. 50 ft AGL
  6. 200 ft AGL
  7. 100 ft AGL
  8. 80 ft AGL
  9. 100 ft AGL - 60 ft AGL minimum altitude for coupled approaches
  10. 300 ft AGL - 200 feet AGL minimum
  11. 100 ft AGL (Day only)
State the required firefighting equipment during an aircraft engine start

Personnel with adequate fire extinguishing equipment, if available, shall be stationed in the immediate vicinity of the engine but safely clear of intakes or propellers.

State when it is necessary to have a taxi director
When taxiing in the close vicinity of obstructions or other aircraft.
Discuss procedures when sighting emergency vehicles displaying flashing red lights while taxiing
Stop and hold their positions until authorized to proceed by radio or light signals from the tower.
Discuss the contents of a passenger manifest and when exempt from passenger manifest responsibility
  • Manifest shall include an accurate list of personnel aboard the aircraft, showing names, serial numbers, grade and service if military, duty station, and status aboard the aircraft (passenger or crew).
  • SAR missions, lifting reconnaissance parties, patrols, and outposts during field problems.
State the passenger briefing requirements and when exempt from passenger briefing responsibility
  • Personal safety and survival equipment and procedures required for the particular aircraft in which they embark.
  • SAR missions, lifting reconnaissance parties, patrols, outposts during field problems, shipboard operations when landings are precluded.
Explain where passenger briefing shall take place
Prior to moving to the flight deck area where ear protection devices and engine noise may make detailed instruction impracticable.
State the restriction to personnel being transferred by hoist and caring personal baggage

They shall be instructed not to carry personal baggage during the hoisting operation.

List passenger PPE requirements
Inflatable flotation and cranial protection with goggles.
Explain the restriction on using Auto-inflating personal protective equipment and/or inherently buoyant clothing in the aircraft
Shall not be worn in the aircraft.
Discuss the life raft requirements for overwater flights and how life rafts should be stowed in an aircraft

On overwater flights the number of persons in an aircraft shall not exceed capacity of the life rafts carried except as dictated by operational necessity.


Discuss restrictions with passengers on board in regards to the following:

  1. Night overwater
  2. Simulated emergencies that may affect aircraft controllability
  3. Hot refueling
  4. FCFs
  1. Helicopter passenger flights to/from ships are prohibited except in cases of operational necessity.
  2. Shall not be conducted anytime passengers are aboard the aircraft.
  3. Passengers shall not occupy the aircraft during hot refueling.
  4. Passengers are prohibited on FCFs.
State which crew served guns may be installed with passengers onboard and how they and the ammo shall be stowed
  • Passengers shall not be embarked when the GAU-16/GAU 21 crew-served gun is installed. If a crew-served weapon is required during passenger transfer, the M-60D/M240 shall be utilized.
  • Ammo cans shall be secured to prevent missile hazards in the event of an emergency.
Explain the purpose of securing cargo, equipment, and other heavy items
Sudden shifting of cargo, equipment, and other heavy items may cause injury or loss of life.
Explain when inertia reels shall be locked

Inertia reels, where provided, shall be manually locked for all takeoffs and landings and at all other times when high g forces may be encountered except where the procedure is detrimental to safe operation.

Discuss seats and safety belt requirements for naval aircraft
  • Equal number of seats and safety belts.
  • Seating requirements may be eliminated when: SPECOPS training and missions, SAR, seats are removed.
Discuss the policy for walk around (gunners) belts use

Shall be restricted to only those occurrences when mission accomplishment requires persons to be out of their seat.


State the policy for hanging feet out of cabin the door

Gunners belts have been known to fail. Aircrew and/or passengers shall not hang feet out of cabin door except when necessitated by mission requirements. Determination if a mission requirement exists shall be the responsibility of the aircraft commander.


Discuss the requirements for wear of the following flight gear/equipment:

  1. Helmet reflective tape
  2. Identification (dog) tags
  3. Antiexposure suits
  4. Aramid undergarments
  5. Supplemental oxygen
  1. 100 percent covered with white reflective tape, 30 square inches of light-colored reflective tape.
  2. Two tags on a chain worn around the neck; alternately, one tag may be laced into the boot, and the other carried elsewhere on the person.
  3. OIC or CO's discression.
  4. When OAT corrected for wind chill is at or below 50°F (Recommended)
  5. Flights in which the cabin altitude exceeds 10,000 feet.
Explain the authorization requirements to exceed the maximum recommended accumulated individual flight time for multi-piloted non-pressurized aircraft
Flight personnel shall be closely monitored and specifically cleared by the commanding officer on the advice of the Flight Surgeon.

Discuss flight restrictions with the following:

  1. Nutritional Supplements
  2. Alcohol/Hangover
  3. Caffeine
  1. Use of nutritional/dietary and other Over-the-counter supplements/products by flight personnel except those approved by BUMED is prohibited.
  2. 12 hours prior to mission brief or flight planning, flight crews shall ensure that they are free of hangover effects prior to flight.
  3. 450 mg per day (3 to 4 cups of drip coffee)
State who should arm chaff/flare dispensers and remove missile covers
Pilot signals to arm chaff/flare dispensers and remove missile covers. Ordnancemen or aircrew to perform action.

Describe the following troubleshooter hand signals call:

  1. One Finger
  2. Two Fingers
  3. Three Fingers
  4. Four Fingers
  5. Five Fingers



  1. AD (mechanical)
  2. AE (electrical)
  3. AM (airframe)
  4. AO (ordnance)
  5. AT (avionics)
State what hand signals are Mandatory and shall be executed immediately
Waveoff and hold or stop signals.
State the Personnel restriction of passing under the turning tail rotor of a single main rotor helicopter
Personnel shall not pass under the turning tail rotor of a single main rotor helicopter.
Discuss the PPE required if recovering the MAD towed body and cable by hand
Shall wear heavy duty gloves to prevent skin contact. The cable is made of beryllium alloy.

Discuss how following influences lift capability of a helicopter:

  1. Ambient temperature
  2. Relative humidity
  3. Pressure altitude
  4. Relative wind
  5. Ground effect
  1. Lift capability decreases as temperature increases.
  2. Lift capability decreases as relative humidity increases.
  3. Lift capability decreases as pressure altitude increases.
  4. Lift capability decreases as relative wind decreases.
  5. Lift capability varies with surface stability and decreases as height above deck is increased. The effect is lost when the aircraft passes over the deck edge.
Discuss cargo hoisting weight limitations
600 pounds, 200 pounds because of crewman limitations.
Discuss how material weighing less than 30 pounds will be transferred by the helicopter
Shall be transferred in a weighted bag. The bag will be furnished by the helicopter and be returned immediately after each pickup to be used for the transfer of additional material. Significant amounts of material weighing less than 30 pounds should be combined into one bag or tied together to reduce helicopter hover time.

Discuss minimum weather criteria (ceiling/visibility) for the following operations:

  1. Practice Coupled Approaches
  2. Deck/RAST Landing Qualification
  3. Shipboard Operations
  4. Practice SAR Jumps
  5. General Familiarization
  6. Formation Flights
  7. Functional Check Flight
  8. Night DLQs
  9. Low level Routes
  1. 500/1
  2. 500/1
  3. 500/1
  4. 500/1
  5. 500/1
  6. 500/1
  7. 1000/3
  8. 700/3
  9. 500/1
Discuss when the Rescue Hoist Operational check should be done to ensure SAR capability
Should be completed on the first flight of the day to ensure SAR capability.
Discuss the topics covered in the “In-Flight Mission Change” checklist
  1. Configure aircraft for new mission.
  2. Environmental considerations.
  3. Aircraft considerations.
  4. Crew limitations.
  5. OPORD/NATOPS/SOP Guidance/Restrictions
  6. SAR/Special Mission: Conduct SAR/Mission briefing checklist

Explain the requirements for the following when hot refueling:

  1. Sonobuoy launcher
  2. Passengers
  3. Aircrewmen
  1. LOCK position prior to refueling with sonobuoys loaded and system pressurized.
  2. Passengers shall not occupy the aircraft during hot refueling.
  3. Aircrewmen shall assist in monitoring refueling operations.
State what ordnance may be loaded on the aircraft when hot refueling
  • Prohibited ashore.
  • Hellfire CATM, MK46 REXTORP, MK50 REXTORP, sonobuoys, smokes, SUS, chaff and door guns are authorized to be carried during hot refueling ashore.
  • Hot and cold refueling aircraft with ordnance loaded is permitted afloat, with the ship’s CO approval.
State the limitations when deploying smoke markers
  • Shall not be dropped closer than 10 nautical miles from the coastline or in inland waterways, unless on a designated range or dip area.
  • 0 to 60 KIAS from the Cabin Door, 0 to 150 KIAS from the Cargo Hook Opening.

Discuss the safety precautions to be taken with the following static display of the aircraft.

  • Battery disconnected, CB's pulled.
  • Sono launcher vented.
  • Plugs/Covers installed.
  • Rotor Brake lock ON.
  • Doors/Panels closed unless crewman present.
  • All visitors escorted.
  • Extremely thorough pre-flight.
  • Inert external stores at CO's discression.

Explain the flight line requirements with regards to the following:

  1. Single Hearing Protection
  2. Double Hearing Protection
  3. Rings
  4. Helmet/Cranial
  1. 200 ft of aircraft with rotors turning or within 50 ft of aircraft with only APU turning.
  2. 30 ft of aircraft with rotors turning or APU running for extended periods of time.
  3. Shall not be worn while working/operation/moving aircraft.
  4. Shall wear a cranial or helmet with strap fastened whenever climbing on any part of the aircraft. This requirement may be relaxed only as long as required to perform maintenance or an inspection in which headgear restricts the proper accomplishment of the task.
Explain the restrictions and procedures for climbing on top of the aircraft with the APU and/or engines operating
No one shall climb on top of aircraft unless both engines are secured. If only the APU is operating, personnel may climb on top of an aircraft only with the permission of the PIC. Then FOD search.
Explain the procedures to enter and exit the rotor arc
  • Passengers shall be escorted to and from an aircraft by a member of the flight crew or by other designated personnel.
  • Three and nine o'clock positions to the maximum extent possible, and only on the direction of a PC/LSE and only after the plane captain has received clearance from the PAC.
  • No PC, PAC gives permission.
  • Personnel shall not enter or exit the rotor arc when pilots are either entering or exiting the cockpit.

State the fasteners requirements for the following:

  1. Tail gearbox cowling
  2. Intermediate gearbox cowling
  3. Vertical tail driveshaft cover
  4. Other tail driveshaft covers
  5. Corner fasteners
  6. Sonobuoy launcher cover

MAXIMUM IN A ROW                       MAX TOTAL

  1.                          2                                              3
  2.                          2                                              3
  3.                          2                                              2
  4.                          1                                              1
  5. Unfastened, broken or missing corner fasteners of any panel, is not allowed.

  6. No less than 11 total.

Demonstrate what to look for when verifying the rotor blade pitch locks are fully retracted and blade fold lock pin pullers are fully seated
  • Proper head check is performed.
Discuss limitations when using NVG’s
  • Field of view.
  • Visual acuity.
  • Distance estimation (not depth perception).
  • Visual cues such as contrast and shadowing.
Explain how crewmembers can counter NVG limited Field of View
Aggressive overlapping scans.
Discuss NVG preflight inspection procedures
MAWTS-1 Helicopter Night Vision Device (NVD) Manual.
Discuss NVG brief requirements

All aircrews shall brief the NVG Brief items as per NATOPS.

a. Comfort level/safety.

b. Area/route.

c. Light level/weather effects.

d. Minimum altitude.

e. Lighting (internal/external/LZ).

f.  Maneuvers.

g. Emergency procedures.

(1) Aircraft emergencies.

(2) NVD Failures.

(3) Inadvertent IMC.

Discuss NVG safety factors
  • Overconfidence
  • Crew Rest

State the minimum crew complement for:

  1. NVG Syllabus Training Flights
  2. NVG Non-Syllabus Training Flights overwater
  3. NVG Non-Syllabus Training Flights overland
  4. During PEQ-3 operations
  1. Shall be conducted with an NVG Instructor, an NVG aircrewman, and a non-qualified pilot.
  2. Both pilots and sensor operator(s) shall be qualified. Both pilots should be simultaneously either on or off NVG’s. NVG's optional for Aircrewman.
  3. 1000 ft AGL both pilots should be simultaneously on or off NVG’s. NVG's optional for Aircrewman.
  4. Both pilots and sensors operators shall be on NVG’s.
State the reference all NVG pilots and aircrewmen shall familiarize themselves with during the NVG Ground Training syllabus
MAWTS-1 Helicopter Night Vision Device (NVD) Manual.
Discuss the weather minimums for NVG flights
  • General Familiarization (FAM)/NVD Flights 500/1.
  • All NVG training flights shall be conducted in VMC with a natural horizon visible through NVG’s.
State what spare/extra equipment shall be carried on NVG flights
Spare set of NVG’s and a spare helmet adapter should be carried in the aircraft as a replacement set for any that become inoperable. Sufficient extra batteries should always be carried by each crewmember.
State what shall used to document all operational and maintenance LASER firings

A log of all operational and maintenance LASER firings utilized the LASER Firing Log form shall be documented and turned into the Squadron Administrative LASER Safety Officer (ALSO).

Discuss topics covered in the LASER “LASER Mission Briefing Guide”
  •  Laser Range Operation
  •  Target Identification Procedures
  • LASER Tactics

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