Shared Flashcard Set


Air Traffic Control
Undergraduate 1

Additional Aviation Flashcards





ATC Services Available to Pilots


Types of ATC facilities?




4-1-1 ARTCC - Air Route Traffic Control Centers -  estab’d for IFR flt - en route


4-1-2 CT - Control Towers- estab’d vicinity of airport. / sep’n IFR arcft in terminal areas.

> approach control (TRACON-Terminal radar approach control)

> Departure control

> Tower

> Ground Control


4-1-3 FSSs - Flight Service Station- 

prov pilot briefings,

flight plan processing,

en route flight advisories,

search and rescue services, ,

assist lost arcrft /

emergency sit’ns.

Relay ATC clearances, proc.


brdcst weather /

aeronautical info.




4-1-8 Approach Control Service for VFR Arriving Aircraft


contacting approach control to an airport



4-1-8 Approach Control Service for VFR Arriving Aircraft


> Arriving VFR Pilots encouraged to contact approach control to get landing information: wind, runway, and altimeter setting


> often provided by ATIS (Automatic Terminal Information Service)

pilot states the appropriate ATIS code.


> controller provides traffic advisories on a workload permitting basis.


> pilot requested to change to the tower frequency to receive further landing information.




4-1-9 Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers


How does a pilot exchange info at airports w/o  a Control Tower?




4-1-9 Traffic Advisory at Airports w/o Operating Control Towers


CTAF – common traffic advisory frequency


> UNICOM,  FSS, OR self announce on MULTICOM, or tower freq.  Airport name, communicate position, intentions, and/or exch’g traffic info.


>UNICOM automated system -  automated weather, radio check capability and airport advisory info

- selectable by microphone clicks (pub’d in Chart Sup’m’t U.S. and approach charts.)


? UNICOM only? -> use published CTAF frequency







> If unable to contact UNICOM / FSS ? -> self‐announce on CTAF.


? No Tower, FSS, or UNICOM? ->  Self‐announce on MULTICOM freq 122.9.





4-1-9 Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers


At Airports w/o control towers;

where, when to communicate?



4-1-9 Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers


Inbound - 10 miles out. Check ATIS

Estab two-way comm before transmitting intentions or info.


report aircraft ID and type, altitude, location relative to the airport, intentions (landing or over flight), possession of the ATIS and request airport advisory or airport information service.


Announce also; entering downwind, base, and final. Leaving the runway.


If you must change frequencies for other service after initial report to FSS, return to FSS frequency for traffic update.


EX w/ Unicom









Outbound - Before taxiing and before taxiing on the runway for departure.


contact before taxiing, reporting aircraft ID and type, VFR or IFR, location at airport, intentions, direction of take-off, possession of the automated weather, and request airport advisory or information service.



Vero Beach radio,

Centurion Six Niner Delta Delta,

ready to taxi to runway 22,


departing to the southwest.

I have the automated weather, request airport advisory


Transitioning- if at alt used by in/outbound traffic:

w/in 10 miles of the airport, montr/comm on CTAF.

ops include parachute jumping/dropping, en route, practicing maneuvers, etc.


EX Multicom: 

Strawn traffic,

Apache Two Two Five Zulu,

is (position),

at (altitude),  

runway one seven 







4-1-11 Designated UNICOM/MULTICOM Frequencies


What are common frequencies for

UNICOM / FSS / MultiCom?


4-1-11 Designated UNICOM/MULTICOM Frequencies / Frequency use


Use /  Frequency


> Airports without an operating control tower.


121.975 - Flight Service Stations

122.000 - Flight Advisory Service

?122.025-122.675 - Flight Service Stations

122.700 - Unicom - Uncontrolled airports
122.725 - Unicom - Private airports

122.750 Air to Air


122.800 - Unicom - Uncontrolled airports

?122.850 - Multicom

122.900 - Multicom Temp seasonal

122.925- MultiCOM Forestry/Envt'l


122.950 - Unicom - Controlled airports/FSS at airport


122.975 Unicom

123.000 - Unicom - (Uncontrolled airports)

123.050 Unicom

123.075 Unicom







4-1-13/14 ATIS/AFIS



4-1-13 Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)


> Cont auto brdcst control info in high activity terminal areas.


updated hourly, special weather or other change such as runway change, instrument approach in use, etc.


> Pilots notify controllers on initial contact they have rec'v'd by repeating the alphabetical code word appended to the broadcast.


> absence of a sky cond or ceiling and/or vis on ATIS indicates ceiling >5,000 ft / vis of > 5 miles  (“the weather is better than 5000 and 5,”)


Controllers will issue pertinent information to pilots who do not acknowledge receipt of a broadcast or who acknowledge receipt of a broadcast which is not current.


Some pilots use the phrase “have numbers”. Use of this phrase means that the pilot has received wind, runway, and altimeter information ONLY. not receipt of the ATIS broadcast.


Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS) - Alaska FSSs Only 4-1-14




4−1−15. Radar Traffic Information Service


 Radar Traffic Info Service?




4−1−15 (4−4−17) Radar Traffic Information Service.

>provided by radar ATC.


>Pilots advised of target observed on the radar display which may be in proximity to the position of their aircraft  that it warrants their attention.


>does not include vectors away fr cnflct traffic unless reqstd by pilot.

> advisory service is no longer desired,--> advise  cntrlr b/f chn'g freqs / then chng to 1200. 

> inform the cntrlr when changing VFR cruising alt. cntrlr will advise when radar terminated.

>Traffic information will include the following:

Radar identified

Azimuth in 12 hour clock,  direction N, NE, E, etc.

Distance from the aircraft in nautical miles;

Direction in which the target is proceeding; and

Type of aircraft and altitude (if known)


EXAMPLE− Traffic 10 o’clock, 3 miles, west-bound (type aircraft and altitude, if known, of the observed traffic). 


>The pilot may upon receipt of traffic information, request a vector (heading) to avoid such traffic.


4−4−17. Traffic Information Service (TIS)


> proximity warning only /assist vis acqstn of acft.


> No recc’d avdnce mnvrs prov’d fr TIS alert.


> for use by acft w/o TCAS.


> TIS d/nt rspnd to acft not transponding


> “traffic−in−sight” reply to ATC based on seeing acft (NOT cockpit display)


 Apparent error due to wind:


EXAMPLE− In FIG 4−1−1 info issued to pilot of “A” as 12 o’clock. actual position as seen by  “A” would be 2 o’clock. info issued to  “B” would  as 12 o’clock, but  “B” would see traffic at 10 o’clock





4−1−16. Safety Alert


 Safety Alert?

(What /when /how)








4−1−16. Safety Alert


> issued if the controller is aware aircraft at altitude  places aircraft in unsafe prox to terrain, obstr'ns or other aircraft.


Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW)


Low Altitude Alert System (LAAS)


> VFR Pilots may request MSAW or LAAS monitoring if their aircraft are equipped with Mode C transponders.


Aircraft Conflict Alert - Immed alert to the pilot of another aircraft, at an altitude places both aircraft in unsafe proximity to each other. / offer an alternate course(s) of action.


EXAMPLE− American Three, traffic alert, (position of traffic, if time permits), advise you turn right/left heading (degrees) and/or climb/descend to (altitude) immediately.



4−1−17/18 Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft



How does ATC provide radar assistance to VFR aircraft?





4−1−17/18 Basic Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft


Vectors, info may be provided /

workload permitting /  controller’s discretion.


Not authorization to violate CFRs / info advisory in nature


Controllers unable to determine if flight into IMC / keep ATC advised of weather along the course ahead.


Basic Terminal Radar Service for VFR:

> Contact AC (approach control) 25 miles from the airport

> give position, alt, arcrft call sign, type arcrft, rdr beacon code (if transp equip'd), destination / request traffic info.


> AC issues wind / runway, (except pilot states “have numbers” or states current ATIS info received.


> AC specifies time / place to contact the tower for further land’g info.


> Some sequencing for VFR available / Pilot participation is urged but is not mandatory  / workload permitting


> Standard radar separation not provided.


> Terminated once landed, or instructed to change to tower or advisory frequency. 


Departing VFR aircraft encouraged to request radar traffic info by notifying ground control on initial contact with their request and proposed direction of flight.



Aircraft transiting -contact AC


>  give their position, alt, call sign, aircraft type, radar beacon code (if equip’d), destination, and/or route of flight.




TRSA Service (Radar Sequencing and Separation Service for VFR Aircraft in a TRSA).


> prov seprtn b/n all participating VFR / IFR ops w/n Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA).


> participation is urged but is not mandatory.


> Participating aircraft must maintain an altitude when assigned by ATC / Or coordinate with ATC any altitude change.



Departing aircraft should inform ATC of their intended destination and/or route of flight and proposed cruising altitude.


ATC will advise aircraft when leaving the the TRSA / not auto terminated unless stated by controller.


Class C Service / Class B Service  Includes approved aircraft separation/ sequencing to the primary airport.









4−1−19. Tower En Route Control (TEC)





4−1−19. Tower En Route Control (TEC)


> service to IFR to travel between airports using approach control (not using ARTCC – en route ATC)


> network of id’d routes b/n airports in a particular region


> provide an overflow resource in the low altitude system which would enhance ATC services.


> nonturbojet aircraft ops < 10,000 ft / < 2 hrs duration




4−1−20. Transponder Operation



4−1−20. Transponder (and ADS-B) Operation


On the ground

> op in alt reporting mode (C or S) & ADS-B Out when on airport movement area. - taxiways and runways.



During pushback or taxi-out from parking spot. TA or TA/RA (traffic advisory/resolution advisory) - TCAS (Traffic collision avoid syst) equip’d taking active runway.


Arrivals. Maint. alt rpting (or TA or TA/RA), and ADS-B Out aft clearing active runway.


STBY or OFF upon arrivg at parking spot.


In the Air.




> IFR cancels the IFR flight plan - adjust to VFR ops.

> coverage is “line of sight” imprvd by clmb'g higher alt.


Automatic Altitude Reporting (Mode C) 

reports altitude to nearest 100 ft to radar facility.


Adj transpr to code spec by ATC & Mode C w/ alt rprtg cap


Instruction “STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK, ALTITUDE DIFFERS (number of feet) FEET,” ind transpr is transmtg incorrect alt info or setting.  (transp  preset at 29.92 / corr locally),


if ATC says alt invalid, initiate check of altimeter setting


Report exact altitude to nearest hundred ft on initial contact with an ATC (to reduce alt verification requests.)


 “IDENT” feature only upon request of the ATC.


Code Changes

> avoid selection of Codes 7500, 7600 or 7700 (or 7777 - military interceptor)


ex, 2700 to 7200, switch first to 2200 then to 7200,

NOT to 7700 and then 7200.


Mode C req’d for ops:

> abv 10,000 ft MSL (ex < 2,500 feet AGL)


> W/n 30 mi of Cls B arprt, < 10,000 ft MSL.

arcrft nt equip w/ electric excepted for ops outside of B & blw ceiling Cls B (or 10,000 ft MSL, whichever is lower);


> W/n & abv Cls C, to 10,000 ft MSL;


> W/n 10 mi of certain airports, excl airspace which is both outside the Class D & <1,200 ft AGL.


> across U.S. ADIZ (X aircraft not equip w/ electric)



Requests for “immediate” deviation approved only when IFR or weather prevents VFR descent in non-restricted airspace


gen reqst for dev - contacting FSS or nearest ARTCC in person or phone.


VFR Ops - Code 1200 / mode C regardless of alt.


Radar Beacon Phraseology


1. SQUAWK (number). Op on designated code


2. IDENT. Engage the “IDENT”


3. SQUAWK (number) and IDENT. Op on specified code / engage the “IDENT”


4. SQUAWK STANDBY. Switch to standby position.


5. SQUAWK LOW/NORMAL. low or normal sensitivity as specified.


“NORMAL” unless ATC specifies “LOW” (“ON” instead of “NORMAL” on some types)


6. SQUAWK ALTITUDE. Activate Mode C with automatic altitude reporting.


7. STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK. Turn off alt reporting /  turn off Mode C.


9. STOP SQUAWK. Switch off transponder.




4−1−21. Airport Reservation Operations and Special Traffic Management Programs






4−1−21. Airport Reservation Operations and Special Traffic Management Programs


Special Traffic Management Programs (STMP).


Accommodate above normal traffic demand (for example, the Indianapolis 500, Super Bowl, etc.)


or reduced airport capacity (for example, airport runway/taxiway closures for airport construction).

Makes access to limited IFR ops more accessible to general aviation flights


4−2−2. General Radio Technique

4−2−3. Contact Procedures /Phraseology

4−2−4. Aircraft Call Signs



4−2−2. General Radio Technique


Listen before you transmit.


Think before keying the mic. Know what you want to say / if lengthy, write it down.


Then wait a few seconds before calling again.




4−2−3. Contact Procedures /Phraseology


Initial contact


(a) Name of facility called;


(b) full aircraft ID


(c) state your position, for surface ops


(d) type of message to follow or request (if short)


(e) “Over” if required.


EX “New York Radio, Mooney Three One One Echo.”




If reception is assured, incl; position or alt; and “(ATIS) Information Charlie received” in initial contact to decr freq congestion. EX− “Atlanta Center, Duke Four One Romeo, request V−F−R traffic advisories, Twenty Northwest Rome, seven thousand five hundred, over.”




RCOs (Remote Comm Outlets) advise location and freq on which you expect a reply.


EX “Saint Louis radio, Piper Six Niner Six Yankee, receiving Decatur [on] One Two Two Point Three.”




When Transmitting and Receiving Frequencies are Different.


In estab contact (ground station) receiving on diff freq than transmitting, indicate the VOR name or freq on which you expect a reply. (FSS/ control facilities transmit on several VOR’s. Use call sign indicated on charts.


EX− NY FSS transmits on Kennedy, Hampton, Calverton VORTACs. In Calverton area: “New York radio, Cessna Three One Six Zero Foxtrot, receiving Calverton V−O−R, over.”


(if chart indicates FSS freq in comm boxes, t/r on freq’s near your location.)




When unable to estab contact , to call any ground station: “ANY RADIO (tower) (station), GIVE CESSNA THREE ONE SIX ZERO FOXTROT A CALL ON (frequency) OR (V−O−R).” State emergency if one exists or you need assistance.




Subsequent Contacts and Responses to Callup from a Ground Facility.


Use the same format as used for the initial contact except you should state your message or request with the callup in one transmission. The ground station name and the word “Over” may be omitted if the message requires an obvious reply and there is no possibility for misunderstandings.




Acknowledge all callups or clearances unless the controller or FSS specialist advises otherwise.


Acknowledge with your aircraft id, either at the beginning or at the end of your transmission, and “Wilco,” “Roger,” “Affirmative,” “Negative,” e.g., “PIPER TWO ONE FOUR LIMA, ROGER.”


If you are leaving the area (and have been receiving services e.g., VFR traffic advisories and or changing frequencies) advise the ATC and terminate contact.




Acknowledgement of Frequency Changes.


1. When advised by ATC to change frequencies, acknowledge the instruction.


2. At times, a controller/specialist may be working a sector with multiple frequency assignments. In order to eliminate unnecessary verbiage and to free the controller/specialist for higher priority transmissions, the controller/specialist may request the pilot “(Identification), change to my frequency 123.4.” - controller/specialist is only changing frequencies, - initial callup phraseology may be abbreviated. EX− “United Two Twenty−Two on one two three point four” or “one two three point four, United Two Twenty−Two.”




4−2−4. Aircraft Call Signs


Call signs should never be abbreviated on an initial contact or when other aircraft similar numbers/sounds e.g., Cessna


abbreviated call signs - prefix / last three digits after comm estab




pilot use abbreviated ID in subsequent contacts




 “VERIFY CLEARANCE FOR (your complete call sign)” if doubt exists




>  Civil aircraft - state type, model or manuf’r; reg #. (“N” is dropped)


EX− Bonanza Six Five Five Golf.




> Air Taxi - “Tango.”


EX− Tango Aztec Two Four Six Four Alpha.




Air carriers and commuter -“super” or “heavy”


EX− 1. United Twenty−Five Heavy. 2. Midwest Commuter Seven Eleven.




Air Ambulance Flights. “MEDEVAC.”






Student Pilot


Student pilots ID during initial call.


EX− “Dayton tower, Fleetwing One Two Three Four, student pilot. “



4−2−8. (spoken) Figures

500    4,500    10,000


airway - V12

jet route - J533





4−2−8. (spoken) Figures

500 . . . . . . . . five hundred

4,500 . . . . . . four thousand five hundred

10,000 . . . . . one zero thousand

13,500 . . . . . one three thousand five hundred

airway - V12 . . . . . . . Victor Twelve

jet route - J533. . . . . . .J Five Thirty−Three


10 . . . . . . . . . . . one zero

122.1 . . . . . . . . . one two two point one


4−2−9. Altitudes and Flight Levels (spoken)


12,000 ft

12,500 ft


flight levels





4−2−9. Altitudes and Flight Levels


Up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL,


12,000 . . . . . one two thousand


12,500 . . . . . one two thousand five hundred


At and above 18,000 feet MSL (FL 180),


190 . . . . . . . . Flight Level One Niner Zero


275 . . . . . . . . Flight Level Two Seven Five




4−2−10. Directions




(Magnetic course) 005

(True course) 050

(Magnetic bearing) 360

(Magnetic heading) 100

(Wind direction) 220



4−2−10. Directions


The three digits of bearing, course, heading, or wind direction / always magnetic.


The word “true” must be added when it applies.


(Magnetic course) 005 . . . . . . zero zero five


(True course) 050 . . . . . . . . . . zero five zero true


(Magnetic bearing) 360 . . . . . three six zero


(Magnetic heading) 100 . . . . . heading one zero zero


(Wind direction) 220 . . . . . . . . wind two two zero



4−2−11. Speeds


(Speed) 250

(Speed) 190

(Mach number) 1.5

(Mach number) 0.64

(Mach number) 0.7


4−2−11. Speeds

separate digits of the speed followed by “KNOTS.”

Exc controllers may omit the word “KNOTS”




(Speed) 250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two five zero knots

(Speed) 190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one niner zero knots


separate digits of the Mach Number preceded by “Mach.”

(Mach number) 1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . Mach one point five

(Mach number) 0.64 . . . . . . . . . . . Mach point six four

(Mach number) 0.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . Mach point seven

4−2−13. Communications with Tower when Aircraft Transmitter or Receiver or Both are Inoperative


4−2−13. Communications with Tower when Aircraft Transmitter or Receiver or Both are Inoperative


Arriving Aircraft.


Receiver inoperative.

> Stay outside / above Class D and determine direction/ flow of traffic

>  Advise tower of your type aircraft, position, altitude, intention to land, request light signals.

>  3 to 5 mi out, advise tower of position and join the pattern.

> watch the tower for light signals.

> transmit position downwind and/or turning base leg.

> As above / Monitor local control freq as depicted on sctl chts for lndg or trfc info / look fr a lt sgnl

> daylight, acknwlg tower by rocking wings.

>  night, ackn blink lndg or nav lts.


Transmitter and receiver inoperative.

>  Rmn outside / abv Cls D surf,

> dtrmn trfc flow, join the aprt trfc pattern / mntn vis contact w/twr rcv lt signals.

> Ackn lt signals as above.




> Malfunction while still parked - call the tower by telephone and request authorization to depart w/o radio


> acknowledge tower transmissions or light signals by moving the ailerons or rudder.


> night, acknowledge by blinking the landing or navigation lights.


> Malf while taxiing - watch for light signals or mon tower freq



4−2−14. Communications for VFR Flights

(FSS for enroute and approach?)



4−2−14. Communications for VFR Flights


FSS and SWSL(Supplmntl Weather Serv Locations) var functions; Freq listed in Chart Supplement U.S.


In doubt? - mntr 122.2 MHz en route freq.


> state freq being used & your location during init callup.


EX− Dayton radio, November One Two Three Four Five on one two two point two, over Springfield V−O−R, over.


> VFR Monitor VOR voice channels for broadcasts; i.e., ATIS, HIWAS, etc. listed in  Chart Suppl U.S.


> when contact w/ ATC notify if you plan to leave the freq to monitor these broadcasts.




Visual Indicators at Airports W/O  Op Control Tower


Describe how wind direction and rnwy in use are indicated at airports w/o CT in operation?



4−3−4 Visual Indicators at Airports W/O Op Control Tower


segmented circle provide traffic pattern info.


wind direction indicator.


> wind cone  or wind sock  & wind tee 

> wind tee may be manually aligned w/ the rwy in use

(in lieu of tetrahedron to indicate in use)


landing direction indicator.


> A tetrahedron if used indicates direction of land/TO's.


(in light or calm wind conditions tetrahedron may not be aligned with the designated calm−wind runway)


> Arpts w/ CT, tetrahedron should be referenced when the CT is not in operation. (Tower instr over tetrahedron ind)


Landing strip indicators (show alignment of rwys)

and Traffic pattern indicators. w/ landing strip ind

> show direction of turns when there is a variation from the normal left traffic pattern. (no segmented circle installed? traffic pattern indicators may be installed near the end of the rwy.)





> Prep to landing at airport w/o CT in op, , ID approach end of the runway to be used. 


> all turns to the left (unless a TPI indicates turns to the right)


> two aircraft approaching for landing, aircraft at the lower altitude has the right−of−way.



4−3−5. Unexpected Maneuvers in the Traffic Pattern


What can pilot do to adjust spacing in the traffic pattern once landing sequence has been set by a controller?



4−3−5. Unexpected Maneuvers in the Traffic Pattern


> ATC adjust flight as necessary to achieve proper spacing.


> The controller can anticipate minor maneuvering such as shallow “S” turns.


> The controller cannot, however, anticipate a major maneuver such as a 360 degree turn.


> advise the controller if a maneuvering turns nec to maintain spacing.


> Except emergency situations, a 360 degree turn should never be executed w/o  first advising controller.


4−3−7. Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Detection Systems


4−3−7 Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Detection Systems



Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS), provides wind shear alert and gust front information but does not provide microburst alerts. EXAMPLE− Wind shear alert, airport wind 230 at 8, south boundary wind 170 at 20.


Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), provide the capability of detecting microburst alerts and wind shear alerts EXAMPLE− Runway 17 arrival microburst alert, 40 knot loss 3 mile final.


Weather System Processor (WSP), provides Air Traffic with detection and alerting of hazardous weather such as wind shear, microbursts, and significant thunderstorm activity / storm cell locations and movement


Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) detecting low level wind shear associated with microbursts as well as forecasting the position of shear boundaries such as gust fronts. 


4−3−8. Braking Action Reports and Advisories


4−3−8. Braking Action Reports and Advisories


> ATC furnishes pilots the quality of braking action received from pilots.


> The quality of braking action is described by the terms “good,” “good to medium,” “medium,” “medium to poor,” “poor,” and “nil.”


FICON (field condition) NOTAMs will provide contaminant measurements for paved runways;


> These NOTAMs are classified according to the most critical term (“good to medium,” “medium,” “medium to poor,” and “poor”).

4−3−9. Runway Condition Reports


4−3−9. Runway Condition Reports


Runway condition code (RwyCC) values range from 1 (poor) to 6 (dry).


4−3−10. Intersection Takeoffs



4−3−10. Intersection Takeoffs


> controllers may initiate intersection takeoffs as well as approve them when the pilot requests.


to use different intersection or the full length, THE PILOT IS EXPECTED TO INFORM ATC


Pilots are expected to assess the suitability of an intersection for use at takeoff during preflight planning.


> An aircraft is expected to taxi to (but not onto) the end of the assigned runway unless prior approval for an intersection departure is received from ground control.


> Pilots should state their position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff from a runway intersection. EXAMPLE− Cleveland Tower, Apache Three Seven Two Two Papa, at the intersection of taxiway Oscar and runway two three right, ready for departure.


> 3−4 minute separation requirement applied to small aircraft departing behind larger aircraft due to wake turbulence.


Controller: “Hold for wake turbulence.”


> Pilot may request a waiver to the 3−minute interval.


“Request waiver to 3−minute interval”


> small aircraft may be permitted to alter course after takeoff to avoid.


4−3−12. Low Approach


4−3−12. Low Approach


> low approach (low pass) is the go−around maneuver following an approach.


> pilot may wish to go around (low approach) to expedite a particular op


(example - practice instrument approaches).


> ops w/in B, C, D surface area, should contact the tower for approval.


(request should be made prior to starting the final approach)



4−3−13. Traffic Control Light Signals


Ground - vehicles/planes:

steady red ?

Flashing red ?

Steady green ?

Flashing green ?

flashing white ?


In the pattern:

steady red ?

Flashing red ?

Steady green ?

Flashing green ?

flashing white ?

Alt Green/Red ?



4−3−13. Traffic Control Light Signals


> turn on landing light / taxi into a position, clear of active rwy, so light is vis to tower.

> landing light on until approp signals received from tower.

> Day - Acknowledge signals by moving the ailerons or rudder.

> Night acknowledge by blinking the landing or navigation lights.

> radio malfunction: watch tower for light signals or monitor tower freq.


Airport Traffic Control Tower Light Gun Signals.

> Signal / Vehicles /Aircraft on Ground /Aircraft in Flight


> Stdy green / Clrd to cross / Clrd for takeoff / Clrd to land


> Flshg green / NA for vehicles / Clrd for taxi / Return for landing (followed by steady green at the proper time)


> Stdy red / STOP /  STOP / Give way  , cont circling


> Flshg red / Clr the txwy or rwy / Taxi clr of rwy in use / Apt unsafe, do not land


> Flshg white / Rtrn to start pt / Rtrn to start pt  / Not appl


> Alt red, green / Exercise extreme caution


4−3−14. Communications


4−3−14. Communications


> departing aircraft comm with the CT on the appr ground control/clearance delivery freq prior to starting engines to receive engine start time, taxi and/or clearance information.


> remain on that freq during taxiing and runup, then change to local control freq to request takeoff clearance.


> ground control freq 121.6−121.9 MHz



> Just landed do not change to ground control freq until directed to do so by the controller.


> controller may omit the numbers preceding the decimal point; e.g., 121.7, “CONTACT GROUND POINT SEVEN.”


(if doubt exists pilot should request the controller to provide that info.)



4−3−18. Taxiing



4−3−18. Taxiing


Obt Appr prior to moving onto the movement area


Obt clearance prior to taxi on a rwy, t.o., or lndg




When assigned a takeoff runway, ATC will specify the runway, issue taxi instructions, and state any hold short instructions or runway crossing clearances if the taxi route will cross a runway. This is not clearance to “enter” or “cross” the assigned departure runway at any point.


Obtain clearance prior to crossing any runway.




ATC will not use the word “cleared” in conjunction with authorization for aircraft to taxi.




NOTE− ATC is required to obtain a readback from the pilot of all runway hold short instructions.




If a pilot is expected to hold short of a runway approach (“APPCH”) area or ILS holding position, ATC will issue instructions. Controllers are required to request a readback of runway hold short assignment when it is not received from the pilot/vehicle.




When taxi instructions are received from the controller, pilots should always read back:


(a) The runway assignment.


(b) Any clearance to enter a specific runway.


(c) Any instruction to hold short of a specific runway or “line up and wait. “




obtain clarification of any clearance or instruction which is not understood.




monitor only assigned ATC comms after being cleared onto the active runway for departure. Do not monitor other than ATC comms until flight from B, C, or D sfc area is completed. Or after receipt of clearance for landing until the landing and taxi activities are complete.




Unfamiliar? request progressive taxi incl step−by−step routing directions.




phraseology and procedures for comm with ground



Request for taxi instructions prior to departure.


State aircraft id, location, type of operation planned (VFR or IFR), and the point of first intended landing.




Aircraft: “Washington ground, Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, at hangar eight, ready to taxi, I−F−R to Chicago.”


Tower: “Beechcraft one three one five niner, Washington ground, runway two seven, taxi via taxiways Charlie and Delta, hold short of runway three three left.”


Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, hold short of runway three three left.”




Receipt of ATC clearance. ARTCC clearances are relayed to pilots by airport traffic controllers in the following manner. EXAMPLE


Tower: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared to the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain eight thousand.”


Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared to the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain eight thousand.”




Request for taxi instructions after landing.


State aircraft id, location, and that you request taxi instructions.




Aircraft: “Dulles ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, clearing runway one right on taxiway echo three, request clearance to Page.”


Tower: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Dulles ground, taxi to Page via taxiways echo three, echo one, and echo niner.”




Aircraft: “Orlando ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six One clearing runway one eight, left at taxiway bravo three, request clearance to Page.”


Tower: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Orlando ground, hold short of runway one eight right.”


Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, hold short of runway one eight right.”


4−3−20. Exiting the Runway After Landing


4−3−20. Exiting the Runway After Landing


> Exit the runway without delay at the first available taxiway or as instructed by ATC.



> aircraft considered clear - all parts of aircraft are past runway edge and beyond the runway holding position markings.


> taxiing beyond the runway holding position markings associated with the landing runway,


> Once all parts of the aircraft have crossed the runway holding position markings, the pilot must hold unless further instructions have been issued by ATC.


> tower will issue instructions which will permit the aircraft to enter another taxiway, runway, or ramp area when required.


> change to ground control frequency when advised by the tower and obtain a taxi clearance.






> tower will issue instructions to resolve conflictions with other ground traffic prior to advising to contact ground control.


> Ground control will issue taxi clearance to parking. That does not authorize the aircraft to “enter” or “cross” any runways.


> Pilots not familiar with the taxi route should request specific taxi instructions from ATC


4−3−22. Option Approach


4−3−22. Option Approach




 “Cleared for the Option”


pilot should make a request for this procedure entering downwind for a VFR traffic pattern.


After ATC approval of the option, the pilot should inform ATC as soon as possible of any delay on the runway during their stop-and-go or full stop landing.




This procedure will only be used at those locations with an operational control tower and will be subject to ATC approval.



4−3−23. Use of Aircraft Lights


4−3−23. Use of Aircraft Lights


Position lights - surface and in flight - sunset to sunrise.




Anti−collision lts - all ops (dy/nt). PIC off if hazard.


rotating beacons (Red): engines running (unless creates hazard)[Leave switched on to check master switch is still on after parking?]


Strobe lights (wht): intense; On for take off, in flight


turn off after clear of rnwy after landing OR PIC cloud reflection creates hazard.

 [can be blinding to other pilots while taxiing]



Landing lights – Lnd/T.O.– on after clrnce rec'd

   “Operation Lights On” (voluntary) ops < 10,000 ft, w/in 10 mi of aprt, OR areas where birds flock.


Taxi lights [on nosewheel?] moving or intending to move on the ground  (To signal intent - off when stopped or yielding to other ground traffic)



Taxi – nav lts, position lts, anti-collision [beacons], and logo lights (if equip’d).


Taxi on /across rwys - all exterior lights on (PIC discretion), exc strobe lights or landing lts if other acft in vicinity.


Entering depart. Rwy for takeoff or “line up and wait,” all lights, except for landing lights,


Landing lights on for takeoff roll  



4−3−24. Flight Inspection/‘Flight Check’



4−3−24. Flight Inspection/‘Flight Check’


Calls sign “flight check”

- FAA acft inspection of NAVAIDs / flight procedures.


preplanned high/low altitude flight patterns inc low passes along rwy.


4−3−26. Ops at Uncontrolled Airports W/ Auto Surface Observing System (ASOS)/Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS)


4−3−26. Ops at Uncontrolled Airports W/ Auto Surface Observing System (ASOS)/Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS)




(Airports w/ CT or human obsvr / weather available METAR (hourly) OR ATIS (Auto Term Info Serv)  OR fr controller/observer. Also, PT towered apts may brdcst auto weather on ATIS freq when closed.)




Uncontrolled apts  w/ ASOS/AWOS - one−min updated apt weather avail w/in 25 NM of aprt, blw 10,000 ft.


Freq on sect chts / Cht Suppl U.S.




Controllers issue SVFR or IFR clearances based on pilot request, known traffic and reported weather,


i.e., METAR/Nonroutine (Special) Aviation Weather Report (SPECI) obs, when available.




More current weather at uncontrolled on ASOS/AWOS airports than controllers who located miles away.



4−4−1. Clearance (ATC)



4−4−1. Clearance




> An ATC clearance is authorization by ATC, for an aircraft to proceed under specified conditions within controlled airspace. NOT AUTHORIZed TO DEV FR RULEs, REGs, OR MIN ALT / NOR UNSAFE OP.




FAR 91.3(a): PIC respbl for, final authority ops of acft


> If clearance deviate fr rule / reg , or place the acft in danger: PILOT’S RESPBLTY REQUEST AMENDED CLEARANCE –




> if diff course of action is desired, PILOT EXPECTED TO INFORM ATC ACCORDINGLY (must cooperate to min disrupt of traffic flow or conflicting patterns)




> Use the appropriate acft call sign to ackn ATC clearances, freq changes, or adv info.




> Pilot who deviates from an ATC clearance in response to a TCAS (Traf Alrt Colln Avoid Syst) advisory must notify ATC of that deviation as soon as possible.




> IFR ops, responsibility of PIC to avoid VFR ops in the same area w/out ATC knowledge.




> Traffic clearances provide standard separation only between IFR flights.




> arriv/dprtg ASOS/AWOS equi’d uncontrolled apt - monitor freq to get airspace status.




> If ATC service is required for IFR/SVFR approach/departure or requested for VFR service, advise controller one−minute weather received and state intentions. EX− “I have the (airport) one−minute weather, request an ILS Runway 14 approach.”


4−4−2. Clearance Prefix


4−4−2. Clearance Prefix


A clearance, control info, or a resp to request for info originated by an ATC facility , relayed to the pilot through an air−to−ground comm station will be prefixed


“ATC clears,”


“ATC advises,” or


“ATC requests.”



4−4−6. Special VFR Clearances



4−4−6. Special VFR Clearances




> SVFR clearance rqrd for VFR prior to ops w/n  B/C/D/E surf areas when weather blw VFR min. Given traffic permitting,


> remain clear of clouds.


> visibility rq’d fr SVFR:


1 sm flt vis ops w/in Cls BCDE surf areas.


1 sm grnd vis TO/Lndg


> When cntrl twr is loc w/in Cls B/ C/D surf/ area, reqsts for clrnce to twr.  


E surf area, clrnce obtained fr nearest twr, FSS, or cntr.


> pilots state intentions in suff detail so ATC can fit into trfc flow.


> No spec alt / pilot remains clr of clouds.


> flights may be vectored for cntrl purposes or pilot request.


> pilot resp obstacle/terrain clearance.


> SVFR eff w/in B/ C /D/ E. surf areas only. No sep after lvng area


> SVFR ops prohb in busy B/C/D areas. See list Pt 91, Apx D, Sct 3. On Sect.chts too.


> ATC prvds sep b/n SVFR and other IFR flts.


>  prohibited b/n sunset and sunrise unless instr rated IFR equipped


>  uncontrolled airport w/ auto wtr brdcst cap (ASOS/AWSS/AWOS) mon freq /adv controller “have the ‘one−minute weather’” / state intent prior to op w/in the Cls B, C, D, or E surf areas.


4−4−7. Pilot Responsibility upon Clearance Issuance


4−4−7. Pilot Responsib upon Clearance Issuance


airborne arcft read back alt assignments, vectors, or rwy assign'ts

> same sequence as given in instr (for mutual verification)


>  Incl arcft ID in rdbks and ackn.


EX− “Climbing to Flight Level three three zero, United Twelve”



> Initial rdbk of taxi, depart or landing clrnce:  incl rwy assign.


> responsibility of pilot to accept or refuse the clearance issued.



4−4−10. Adherence to Clearance



4−4−10. Adherence to Clearance


> PIC execute provisions of any instruction upon receipt.

> May include the word “IMMEDIATELY” in a clearance or instruction to impress urgency of situation


> PIC must not deviate fr provisions of air traffic clearance unless amended clearance is obtained.



> The addition of a other restriction does not authorize deviate any other provision of the ATC clearance.


> In emergency to dev fr ATC clearance, the PIC notify ATC asap / obtain an amended clearance.


> emergency sit not result in a dev fr CFR regs but ATC gives priority to arcft, pilot when requested make a report within 48 hrs to mngr of that ATC facility.


4−4−13. Runway Separation


4−4−13. Runway Separation


Tower controllers estab the seq of arriv/departing arcft by req’g adj flt or grnd ops as nec to achieve prop spacing.


> “HOLD” arcft short of the runway


> “EXTEND DOWNWIND” estab spac fr arriv/deptg arcft.


> “CLEARED FOR IMMEDIATE TAKEOFF.” for traffic separtn.


> Resp of PIC to refuse clrnce if, would adv affect the op.



4−4−14. Visual Separation



4−4−14. Visual Separation


CFR 91.113 (ROW rules)– pilot is responsible to see and avoid other aircraft


ATC prov visual sep acft - term areas & en route.


> pilot or cntrlr sees arcft, issues instructions, prov sep by maneuv’g arft for avoidance.


> Once sep estab, maint visual / don’t pass until no longer a factor: approach - other acft landing / missed apch; depart / en route - other acft turns away / diverging.


> notify controller if visual is lost / cannot be maint’d or is unable to maint sep.


> ops behd heav acft, pilot resp for wake turb sep. Vis sep prohib bhnd super acft.


> Pilots (& rt st psngr) resp to vis scan for other arft.


> Scanning: short, regularly spaced eye movements bring succ areas of sky into vis field. movement should not exceed ten degrees, area obs for at least one second.


> many prefer horizontal back−and−forth scanning


4−4−16. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I & II)


4−4−16. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I & II)



> prov proximity warning only, assist in vis acqtn of acft.

> No avoid maneuvers provided

> smaller comtr acft / GA acft.



> provides TA (traffic advisory) and RAs (resolution advisories) - Vertical (climb or descend) to avoid traffic.

> larger comtr / business acft > 30 psngrs


>deviatns fr ATC clrnce - ntfy ATC of dev ASAP

> return to current clrnce when conflict is resolved.


ATC not rspbl to prov apprd std sep until acft returned to assigned alt/ crse Or Alt ATC instr issued.



4−4−17. Traffic Information Service (TIS)


4−4−17. Traffic Information Service (TIS)


> proximity warning only /assist vis acqstn of acft.


> No rec’d avoid mnvrs prov’d fr TIS alert.


> for use by acft w/o TCAS.


> TIS does not respond to aircraft which are not transponding


> “traffic−in−sight” reply to ATC based on seeing acft (NOT cockpit display)


4−4−15. Use of Visual Clearing Procedures


4−4−15. Use of Visual Clearing Procedures


> Before Takeoff - Prior to taxi onto rnwy scan the approach areas / clrg mnvrs


> Climbs and Descents - gentle banks, lft/ rt - freq fr cont vis scan of airspace.


> Straight and Level. Sustained periods broken at intrvls by appropr clrg mnvrs


> Traffic Pattern – avoid descending into trfc pattern


> Traffic at VOR Sites - vigilance in vicinity of VORs / airway intersections.


> Training Ops -  


verbalize clearing procedures (call out “clear” left, right, above, or below)


High−wing airplane. raise the wing and look / Low−wing airplane. lower the wing and look.


> clearing precede all maneuvers.