Shared Flashcard Set


Air Navigation
Undergraduate 1

Additional Aviation Flashcards





AIM 1−1−3




(description, ID-ing, chart symbol

Limitations? Types/Range? )



1−1−3. Very High Freq Omni−directional Range (VOR)

[phased antenna array to send a highly directional signal that rotates clockwise 30 times a second. It also sends a 30 Hz reference signal on a subcarrier timed to be in phase with the directional antenna as the latter passes magnetic north. This reference signal is the same in all directions. The phase difference between the reference signal and the signal amplitude is the bearing from the VOR station to the receiver relative to magnetic north. This line of position is called the VOR "radial". The intersection of radials from two different VOR stations can be used to fix the position of the aircraft, as in earlier radio direction finding (RDF) systems.]


a. 108.0 to 117.95 MHz

subject to line−of−sight restrictions,

range varies proportionally to the altitude of the receiver.

high VOR - 230 NM range?

Low VOR - airport 30 NM range?


b. Most equipped for voice transmission,  VORs without voice capability are indicated by the letter “W”


c. ID a VOR is by its Morse Code identification or by the recorded automatic voice identification indicated by “VOR” following the range’s name.


Reliance on determining the identification of an omnirange should never be placed on listening to voice transmissions by the Flight Service Station (FSS) (or approach control facility) involved.


Many FSSs remotely operate several omniranges with different names. In some cases, none of the VORs have the name of the “parent” FSS.


During periods of maintenance, the facility may radiate a T−E−S−T code (- _ ___ -) or the code may be removed.



AIM 1−1−3




1-1-3 The VOR Minimum Operational Network


limited network of VORs, --> VOR MON, 

provide a basic conventional navigation service for operators GNSS (global navigation satellite system) disruption,


provide nearly continuous VOR signal coverage at 5,000 feet AGL across the NAS, outside of the Western U.S.Mountainous Area (WUSMA).



The VOR MON has been retained principally for IFR aircraft that are not equipped with DME/DME avionics.


VFR aircraft may use the MON as desired.


regardless of  position in the US, a MON airport w/in 100 NM. w/ VORs to support these approaches


MON charted on low−altitude en route charts and chart Supplement U.S.






AIM 1−1−4.




1−1−4. VOR Receiver Check


a. The FAA VOR test facility (VOT) transmits a test signal to determine the operational status and accuracy of a VOR receiver while on the ground


The airborne use is limited to areas/altitudes authorized in Chart supplement.


b. To use tune in the VOT frequency on VOR receiver. With the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) centered, the omni−bearing selector should read 0 degrees with the to/from indication showing “from” or the omni−bearing selector should read 180 degrees with the to/from indication showing “to.”


AIM 1−1−5.




1−1−5. Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN)

developed by the military and naval forces to more readily lend itself to military and naval requirements.


FAA has integrated TACAN facilities with the civil VOR/ DME program. These integrated facilities are called VORTACs.



AIM 1−1−6




1−1−6. VHF Omni−directional Range/Tactical Air Navigation


a. A VORTAC is a facility consisting VOR and TACAN, which provides VOR azimuth, TACAN azimuth and TACAN distance (DME) at one site.


b. Transmitted signals are each identified by three−letter code transmission




AIM 1−1−7




(describe, chart symbol, effective range, limitation/error)


1−1−7. Distance Measuring Equipment



a. paired pulses sent out from the aircraft / received at the ground station. The ground station (transponder) transmits back to aircraft on a different frequency.


The time required for the round trip exchange is  is translated into distance (nautical miles)


b. Operating on the line−of−sight principle,

DME furnishes distance at distances up to 199 NM at line−of−sight / is SLANT RANGE distance and not actual horizontal distance.



AIM 1−1−9.




1−1−9. Instrument Landing System (ILS)


The ILS is designed to provide an approach path for exact alignment and descent of an aircraft on final approach to a runway.


Three parts:

Guidance: localizer (horizontal) , glide slope (vertical).

Distance: marker beacon, DME.

Visual: lights: approach, touchdown, centerline, runway



may substitute for the OM (outside marker):

(a) Compass locator; or

(b) Precision Approach Radar (PAR); or

(c) Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR); or

(d) Dist Meas Equip (DME), VHF Omni−directional Range (VOR), or Nondirectional beacon

(e) RNAV system with Global Positioning System (GPS)


AIM 1−1−17




(describe, errors, RAIM, VFR ops)


AIM 1−1−17. Global Positioning System (GPS)


GPS determines precise position. 24 satellites ensures at least five satellites are always visible. A minimum of four is necessary for receivers to establish an accurate 3D position.


RAIM - Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring determines if a satellite is providing corrupted info

1 satellite, + 4 req'd for navigation, must be in view.

fault messages: not enough satellites avail or signal inconsistency.


VFR Operations

> VFR pilots should integrate GPS navigation with electronic navigation, plus pilotage and dead reckoning.

> RAIM capability, database currency, and antenna location are critical areas of concern.

> with panel mount and hand units use a syst cross-check w/other nav techniques.

> Check database currency. It is not recommended to use a moving map with an outdated database in critical airspace.


AIM 1−1−17.


VFR Waypoints


AIM 1−1−17. VFR Waypoints (w/GPS)



> [Virtual position in 3D space identified to create a flight course] - to assist VFR pilots with position awareness while navigating visually in aircraft equipped with RNAV (area navigation receivers) - computer Nav systems such as FMS (flt mgt syst's), GPS?


> VFR waypoint names consist of five letters beginning with the letters “VP” / retrievable from navigation databases - The VFR waypoint names are not pronounceable / are not for use in ATC communications.


> On VFR charts, stand−alone VFR waypoints will be portrayed using four−point star symbol


> VFR waypoints collocated with visual check points on the chart will be identified by small magenta flag symbols - will be pronounceable based on the name of the visual check point and may be used for ATC communications.


> Each VFR waypoint name will appear in parentheses adjacent to the geographic location on the chart.


> Pilots may use the five−letter identifier as a waypoint in the route of flight section on a VFR flight plan - similar to how a VOR would be used in a route of flight.


> VFR waypoints intended for use during flight should be loaded into the receiver while on the ground.







(describe, Charts, errors, types)


1-1-2 Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB)


> transmits nondirectional signals - can “home” on the station.

> used with ADF (automatic Direction finder)

> transmit cont 3-letter ID in code x during voice transm. Voice unless “W” (w/o voice) in the class designator

> disturbs from lightning, precipitation static, etc.


ADF recvrs have no “flag” to warn of err's bearng info

Be sure to cont. monitor NDB's ID





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