Term

Definition
Turing Test Approach
Cognitive Modeling Approach
Laws of Rational Thought Approach
Rational Agent Approach 


Term
Main Features of the Cognitive Modeling Approach 

Definition
Attempted to create an agent modelled on the human brain. Based in psychology 


Term
Classify each approach according to whether they are based on thought or action and on human standards or ideal standards and justify (Cognitive Modeling, Turing test, Rational Agent and Laws of Rational Thought) 

Definition
Cognitive Thinking human
Turing Acting human
Rational Thought Thinking rationally
Rational Agent  Acting rationally 


Term
Discuss the relative advantages/disadvantages of the Turing Test approach 

Definition
 Pro: Empirical, does not define intelligence
 Con: Limited to symbolic tasks, human based, cannot have original thought, cannot create perfect ruleset



Term
What is meant by a rational agent? 

Definition
An agent that behaves optimally 


Term
Does a rational agent always do the right thing? Explain. 

Definition
Yes, as it performs the optimal action based on a set of given beliefs and goals. 


Term
What is meant by a percept? 

Definition
One unit of sensory input tracked by an agent about its environment 


Term
Explain classifying an environment by fully observable v partially observable 

Definition
Fully observable environment is one in which agent can perceive its complete state. 


Term
Explain classifying an environment by single v multiagent 

Definition
 Environment is multiagent if performance measures depend on other agent's behavior. If an environment is multiagent, it is classified cooperative or competitive



Term
Explain classifying an environment by deterministic v stochastic 

Definition
In deterministic, next action of agent determined solely by current state and action of the agent. Stochastic (aka nondeterministic) environments are those where past actions/conditions/states impact current behavior. 


Term
Explain classifying an environment by episodic v sequential 

Definition
Episodes are single actions independent of each other based on a single percept. Episodic environments are where the results of one episode don't effect other episodes, and thus an agent does not need to plan ahead wrt episodes. Sequential is when one action may influence future actions. 


Term
Explain classifying an environment by static v dynamic 

Definition
Static environments are only changed by an agent's actions. Semidynamic environment is one that is static but where the performance measure is timedependent 


Term
Explain classifying an environment by discrete v continuous 

Definition
Discrete environments have a discrete number of combinations of environment states, actions and percepts. 


Term
Explain classifying an environment by known v unknown 

Definition
Unknown environments are those where the agent does not know the rules of play. Unknown does not always mean partially observable. 


Term
What are the 5 types of agents as identified by Russell and Norvig? 

Definition
Table Lookup
Simple Reflex
Reflex with memory
Goalbased
Utilitybased 


Term
Describe a Table Lookup agent and explain its advantages and disadvantages. 

Definition
 Table Lookup  Look through table for option based on table of percepts
 Pro: Simplest, can be used with other agent types
 Con: Size of table, construction of table, not autonomous



Term
Describe contributions to AI from external fields 

Definition
Math  logic, numerical representations of conditions
Linguistics  Symbols, how data is represented/interpretted
Psych  Understanding of human mind, thoughts, processes
Philosophy  the mind body problem 


Term
What is meant by an 'autonomous agent'? 

Definition
An agent that can act under its own control 


Term
What is meant by 'utility'? 

Definition
The measure of the desirability of a state 


Term
What is meant by a 'performance measure'? 

Definition
A criterion for success, used to evaluate environmental states that result from an agents actions. Should be objective but can be qualitative or quantitative. 


Term

Definition
(defun fname (paramlist body)) 


Term

Definition
atom(INPUT) returns nonNIL if INPUT is an atomic entry 


Term

Definition
(cond (test sexpressionsequence)
(test sexpressionsequence) ...
)



Term

Definition
(cdr dottedpair) cdr stands for "contents of decrement register" Returns right pointer of dotted pair 


Term

Definition
(car dottedpair) car stands for "contents of address register" Returns left pointer of dotted pair 


Term

Definition
(set s1 s2 ... ) Binds value of s2 to s1, ... Returns rst value bound 


Term

Definition
(setq s1 s2) (set (quote s1) s2) 


Term
LISP  Compare varieties of 'equal' 

Definition
 (eq s1 s2): T if s1 and s2 point to the same object
 (eql s1 s2): T if s1 and s2 point to the same object, or if same number (and same type), or same characters
 (equal s1 s2): T if s1 and s2 evaluate to same value
 (equalp s1 s2): Same as equal, but returns T if s1 and s2 are same number regardless of type



Term

Definition
 (mapfnname appliedfn lists)
 lists must have same numbers of elements
 Must be 1 list for each argument of appliedfn



Term

Definition
 (cons a b)
 Cons cell (dotted pair)  More primitive than list
 Syntax: (lobject . robject)
 Consists of a "left" pointer lobject and a "right" pointer robject (to Sexpressions



Term
Internal representation of cons cells and lists 

Definition


Term
Discuss the relative advantages/disadvantages of the Cognitive Modelling approach 

Definition
 Pro: Thinks like a human, can be conducted through multiple avenues (introspection, experiments, brain imaging)
 Con: Requires understanding of how people think



Term
Discuss the relative advantages/disadvantages of the rational agent approach 

Definition
 Pro: More general than Law of Thought, more applicable to scientific analysis
 Con: Finding a perfect/best COA is not always possible, and is impossible in any complex environment



Term
Discuss the relative advantages/disadvantages of the Laws of Rational Thought approach 

Definition
 Pro: Formal, provable, mathematical approach
 Con: difficult language to use, limited computational resources



Term

Definition
Performance
Environment
Actuators
Sensors 


Term
What are the 5 components that define a problem? Describe each. 

Definition
 Initial State  State from which problem solving begins
 Action  a step the agent can carry out
 Transition model  results of the action
 Goal test  tests to see if it is the goal state
 Path cost function  computes cost of path from initial state to current state



Term
What is a 'multistate problem'? Describe the conditions that lead to this kind of problem. 

Definition
When an agent has limited knowledge of the results of its actions or the state it is in. This can result when actions don't have the desired results 


Term
What is the difference between and implicit and explicit search graph? What are the pros and cons of each? What determines which is used? 

Definition
Explicit generates the entire tree and stores it, implicit dynamically generates the tree. Explicit can be result of previous searches, but is memory and computationally expensive. Implicit is more efficient in space and time, and only maintains nodes that have been visited. 


Term
List several factors that influence whether to perform goaldirected or datadirected search, and what their influence is. 

Definition
 Branching factor: move in direction of smaller branching factor
 Are actions reversible: cannot do goaldirected if not
 Number of targets: move in direction that has greater number of targets



Term
What are the ramifications of tree v graph representations for search algorithms? 

Definition
Trees allow infinite paths and have large storage requirements, making graphs preferable. 


Term
What distinguishes a local search algorithm from other types? 

Definition
Local looks in the immediate area or notably limits the number of states checked to find the closest solution or closest best solution 


Term
LEARN HOW TO TRAVERSE TREE IN DFS, BFS, steepestascent hillclimbing, and A* 

Definition


Term
Explain how uniform cost and BFS are similar. Explain how they are different. 

Definition
UCS is like BFS but finds cheapest path to goal by selecting a node in the fringe with the cheapest cost. UCS uses a priority queue. 


Term
What distinguishes recursive best first search from A*? 

Definition
RBFS assigns a back up value to each node, and it only maintains the most promising path to the goal at any given time. 


Term
Briefly describe how simulated annealing search works. 

Definition
Simulated annealing works by always selecting random moves, and then committing if the move improves the situation. If the move is not desirable, it will be selected based on a mathematical formula. 


Term
Briefly describe how genetic search algorithm works. 

Definition
 Start with k generated states
 Spawn a new generation
 Choose best chromosomes of the new generation
 Randomly combine pairs of good chromosomes
 Continue creation and combination of chromosomes until solution or some preset limit reached.



Term
What does it mean for a heuristic to be 'admissible'? What are the ramifications for A*? 

Definition
An 'admissible' heuristic is one that never overestimates the cost from n to g. A* is not optimal if the heurisitic is not admissible. 


Term
What is 'dominance' and how does it influence the choice of a heuristic? 

Definition
h_{a} dominates h_{b} if h_{a}(n) ≥ h_{b}(n)
Dominating heuristic will expand fewer nodes and be more accurate, making it the preferred choice. 


Term
How does 'problem relaxation' relate to heuristic function creation? Give an example. 

Definition
A relaxed problem is one with fewer constraints, and the cost of the optimal solution to the relaxed problem is an admissible heuristic in the original.
EXAMPLE: The 8 puzzle 


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Breadth First Search 

Definition


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Depth First Search 

Definition
Complete if a graph, not complete if a tree. Not optimal because it may find a solution at the end of a path that is more expensive than another solution that it hasn't reached yet. 


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Uniform Cost Search 

Definition


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Depth Limited Search 

Definition
Not complete because there may be a solution beyond it's limited depth. Optimal iff the limit is deep enough. 


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Iterative Deepening Depth First Search 

Definition


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Best First Search 

Definition
Complete for graphs, not for nodes. Not optimal as it is only concerned with what looks like the best from a given node. 


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. A* Search 

Definition
Optimal (if heuristic is admissible) and Complete 


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Greedy Search 

Definition
Not optimal as the algorithm often commits to a path based on local values. Complete if a graph, not complete if a tree. 


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. Genetic Algorithm Search 

Definition
Not optimal or complete due to inherent randomness. 


Term
Is the following algorithm optimal? Is it complete? If not optimal or not complete, explain. SteepestAscent Hill Climbing Search 

Definition
Not optimal as it only looks at local values, and not complete as it can get stuck at local minima. 


Term
List several desirable characteristics of a knowledge representation scheme/language. 

Definition
 Concise
 Unambiguous
 Can add to it



Term
What does it mean for an inference engine to be 'sound'? 

Definition
It does not create spurious inferences. 


Term
What does it mean for an inference engine to be 'complete'? 

Definition
It can/does create/check all possible inferences. 


Term
What is an 'interpretation' with respect to propositional logic? 

Definition
The mapping of the value of a propositional sentence to true or false. 


Term
What is meant by a 'model' of a set of propositional sentences? 

Definition
A world where all the propositional sentences in the set are true. 


Term
What does it mean for a propositional sentence to be 'satisfiable'? 

Definition
It is true in at least one model. 


Term
Using model checking, show that P=>Q Λ ¬Q = ¬P 

Definition


Term
RESOLUTION IN PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC 

Definition


Term
Explain several problems associated with propositional logic as a knowledge representation scheme for real world problems. 

Definition
 Locational Info  Difficult to represent that something is only in one place at a time
 Relational Info  many real world relations preclude others (facing east means you can't be facing west)
 Actions  actions must have sufficient preconditions to prevent accidental simultaneous execution



Term
What 3 things are mapped to a model by an interpretation? 

Definition
 Constants to objects
 Predicates to relations among objects
 Functions to functions in the domain



Term
Explain why Ãx P(x) => Q(x) is valid in all models. Ã represents the universally qualifier. 

Definition
If an object is substituted for x that makes P(x) false, that particular implication will be true; if the object makes P(x) true, then Q(x) is true (by modus ponens) and the implication is true again. 


Term
What are the semantics of
UNIVERSALLY QUALIFIED(x) P(x) 

Definition
The semantics are that the sentence is true if P(x) is true for all x in the domain. 


Term
Characteristics of Database semantics 

Definition
 Closed world assumption
 Closed domain assumption
 Unique names assumption



Term
What are the semantics of F(x) where F is a function? 

Definition
Returns an object in the domain. 


Term
Steps to convert from FOL to CNF 

Definition
 Eliminate implication
 Reduce scope of NOT
 Standardize variables
 Eliminate existential
 Move quantifiers to left
 Drop prefix
 Convert into conjunctions of disjuncts
 Write as a set of clauses
 Rename variables so each clause has unique variables



Term
Why isn't propositionalization a good approach to proofs in FOL? 

Definition
KB becomes very large. FOL uses far fewer axioms because it uses general rules instead of a proposition for each and every individual case. 


Term
Discuss 2 ways to make retrieval more efficient during unification. 

Definition
 Using more efficient data structures: Linked list, predicate indexing, multiindexing in order from worst to best
 Using a more efficient search strategy for ASK



Term
Describe a Simple Reflex agent and explain its advantages and disadvantages. 

Definition
 Simple Reflex  exact cause and effect
 Pro: Simple, predictable
 Con: No internal representation of world, prone to infinite loops



Term
Describe a Reflex w/Memory agent and explain its advantages and disadvantages. 

Definition
 Reflex w/Memory  reflex based with knowledge of world
 Pro: utilizes knowledge, uses rules
 Con: No mechanism for making decisions



Term
Describe a GoalBased agent and explain its advantages and disadvantages. 

Definition
 Goalbased  incorporation of goals allows for decision making
 Pro: decision making, plans, more flexible than reflex based agents
 Con: slower than reflex as it must reason



Term
Describe a UtilityBased agent and explain its advantages and disadvantages. 

Definition
 Utilitybased  goal based with a a heurisitic about which decisions to choose
 Pro: chooses desirable way to goal
 Con: slowest, most complex



Term
Main features of the Turing Test Approach 

Definition
Describe experiment (1 AI and 1 human are asked questions by a human interrogator, and AI completes test if interrogator is unable to determine responses are from a human) 


Term
Main Features of the Rational Agents Approach 

Definition
Rational Agent  Agent acts intelligently, given a set of beliefs and goals, agent performs appropriate actions to achieve those goals 


Term
Main Features of the Laws of Rational Thought Approach 

Definition
Laws of Rational Thought  Thinking rationally, based in math and seeks the best answer. may run forever if no solution exists 

