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Characteristics of farming
10th Grade

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Agriculture, or farming, is a primary industry.

Farmers cultivate crops and rear animals to produce food and other products.

Is affected by many of the same issues as any other industry.

Large commercial farms - small subsistence farms.

All work to supply the constand demand for agricultural produce.


Inputs - physical (sun, rain, land), Human (labour), Capital (money for livestock, feed, wages, equipment)

Processes - activities that turn inputs to outputs. E.g. planting and caring for crops)

Outputs - The products that the farmer sells, or uses. E.g wheat, meat, wool etc.

To make a profit, the costs of the input must be less then the money made from the output.


Farming can be:

- sedentary or nomadic

-subsistence or commercial

- arable, pastoral or mixed

- extensive or intensive


Sedentary or nomadic - Sedentary is where it stays in the same location. Nomadic is where it moves.

Subsistence or commercial - Subsistence is where the products are used to feed the family. Commerical is where they sell products for proffit.

Arable, pastoral or mixed - Arable grows crops, pastoral rears animals, mixed has both.

Extensive or intensive - Extensive is where little amount of product is made from a large area, intensive is where a lot is produced from a small area.


Physical factors

Weather and climate, slope or releif of the land, soil fertility, water and drainage.

These are all natural, and the farmer must work with these conditions.

A farmer can intervene; he could use green houses to prevent the frosting.


Human Factors

Government policy - E.g. loans, taxes etc.

Labour - Bigger farm require more work

Finance - Money is needed for wages, equipment, feed etc.

Like physical factors, it depends on where the farm is located.


Physical factors determine what type of farming takes place in a certain loaction.


Weather and climate is the most influential fator when choosing what to farm.


Arabale - South east, warm summers, low flat fertile land.

Market - Human factors such as finance is important. East Anglia, flowers etc.

Hill Sheep - North and West, highland areas, cool summers, high rainfall. To steep for crops.

Dairy - South-west, warm and wet, falt or hilly, not too steep.

Mixed - Warm, not too wet, soil needs to be fertile and flat.

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