Shared Flashcard Set


AFAA Primary Group Ex. Cert Self-Study Outline
Section IV: How to Teach-Basics; Chapters 17, 19, 20, and 21

Additional Fitness Flashcards




General Principles of Exercise Training
  • The FITT Principle: Training Variables
  • The Principle of Overload
  • The Principle of Progression
  • The Principle of Specificity: SAID
  • The Principle of Reversibility
  • The Principle of Overtraining


F.I.T.T. Principle

Frequency: refers to the number of exercise sessions.


Intensity: refers to the difficulty of an exercise.


Time: refers to the duration or length of each exercise session.


Type: refers to the mode or activity performed.


Will one FITT variable effect the other?

How? Give an example?

  • Yes
  • Exercise intensity will decrease duration of the exercise session.
  • Different exercises apply different stresses on the body so all can not be done at the same intensity.
Principle of Overload

To achieve desired training improvement/effect, the body must be overloaded beyond its normal level or present capacities.

Principle of Progression
  • Exercise program should provide gradual increase or progressions in frequency, intensity, time and/or type of exercise.
  • Proper progression includes a systematic change in overload  overtime, designed to maximize fitness gains while keeping the risk of overtraining and related injuries low.
  • For program progressions allow for initial conditioning phase (4-6 wks), improvement phase (4-5 mnths), and maintenance thereafter.

S.A.I.D. Principle

(a.k.a. Specificity of Training)


Specific Adaption to Imposed Demands


  • The body will adapt to the type of physiological stresses placed on it.
  • In order to improve in a particular area of fitness or sport, the precise movement or movement pattern should be rehearsed.
Principle of Reversibility
  • If training workload is discontinued or decreased, detraining in performance will occur.
  • Cardirespiratory fitness decreases after 2-3 weeks.
  • Muscular fitness decreases after 2-3 months.
Principle of Overtraining
  • The body needs time to recover and the musculoskeletal system needs time to rebuild from the stress of vigorous exercise.
  • When body is trained without sufficient recovery time, overtraining will occur.
  • If training volume /intensity is too high or too rapidly increased.

A complete physical fitness program should seek to improve and maintain both __________and __________ of health and fitness.


Health-Related Components

and Skill-Related Components

List the health-related components of physical fitness.
  1. Cardio-Respiratory Fitness
    •  Ability of body to take in, transport, and utilize oxygen
  2. Muscular Strength and Endurance
    • Strength is the max weight a muscle can lift.
    • Endurance is the number of reps a muscle can handle.
  3. Flexibility
    • Muscle suppleness and range of motion.
  4. Body Composition
    • Absolute and relative amounts of the structural components of the body- fat, fluid, muscle/tissue, and bone.
Skill-related components of physical fitness.
  1. Agility
    • ability to change body's position and direction with quickness and accuracy.
  2. Balance
    • ability to maintain equilibrium.
  3. Coordination
    • ability of the body to utilize the senses and body parts in a harmonious relationship to perform a task smoothly and with accuracy.
  4. Power
    • ability or rate at which one can exert strength to perform work quickly.
  5. Reaction time
    • the time required to initiate a response to a given stimulus.
  6. Speed
    • ability to move the entire body quickly.




Outline the 2008 Physical Activity Guidlines for Americans which reinforced the 1996 US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity on Health.
  • All adults should avoid inactivity.
  • Adults should perform at least 2.5 hours/wk of moderate-high intensity aerobic physical activity or 1.25 hours/wk of vigorous activity.
  • For more health benefits, adults should perform 5 hrs/wk of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or 2.5 hours/wk of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity.
  • Adults should perform moderate or high intensity muscle strengthening activity on all muscle groups on 2 or more days per week.

Which other organization's training

 recommendations does AFAA support?


American College of Sports Medicine



AFAA FITT-at-a-Glance


Cardiorespiratory Fitness

  1. Frequency
    •  3-5 days per week
  2. Intensity/Volume
    • Intensity
      • HRmax: 64-94%
      • HRR: 40-85%
      • RPE 6-20 scale: 12-14(mod/hard) 15-16 (hard)
      • RPE 10pt scale: 4-6 (mod) 7-8 (hard)
    • Volume: ≥ 1,000 kcal/wk
      • moderate= 40% to < 60% HRR (or VO2R)
      • vigorous= ≥ 60% to 85% HRR(or VO2R)
  3. Time
    • 20-60 minutes of coninuous/itermittent aerobic activity.
  4. Type
    • Activity that is continuous, rhythmic and utilizes large muscle groups (ex. dancing, walking, running, jogging)

AFAA FITT-at-a-Glance


Muscular Strength and Endurance

  1. Frequency
    • Minimum of 2-3 non-consecutive days/wk. for each major muscle group; vary groups to maximize results. (arms, shoulders, chest, abs, back, hips and legs)
  2. Intensity/Volume
    • To the point of muscle fatigue while using proper form. (8-25 reps to 1-4 sets)
  3. Time
    • 20-60 minutes
  4. Type
    • Activity the creates overload to the musculoskeletal system (external, gravitational, isometric resistance); multi-joint exercises.

AFAA FITT-at-a-Glance




  1. Frequency
    • Minimum of 2-3 days per week
  2. Intensity/Volume
    • To the end of range of motion, to the point of tightness without discomfort performing 1-4 reps.
  3. Time
    • 15-60 seconds per static stretch.
    • Can vary 5-10 mins or entire 60 mins class
  4. Type
    • Activity that focuses on elongating muscles and moves joints safely through a full range of motion.
What does BMI stand for and what measurement consitutes an individual to be defined as obese?

Body Mass Index


> 25% is considered overweight.

> 30% is considered obese.




Instructor Professional Responsibilities

may include what seven (7) items?

  • Personal Liability Coverage
  • Training & Certification
  • CPR/AED & First Aid Training
  • Facility Pre-Exercise Participation Screening (PAR-Q)
  • Medical Clearance & Pre-exercise Testing
  • Environment Monitoring
  • Emergency Plan Response
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire

Medical Clearance Recommendations


High-risk Participants

  • Conditions
    • Men & women of any age with 1 major cardivascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease signs/symptoms or diagnosed with cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease.
  • Requirements
    • Medical Exam, Medical Clearance, and Exercise Testing.

Medical Clearance Recommendations


Moderate-risk Participants

  • Conditions
    • Men & women, ≥2 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors* but w/o symptoms.
  • Requirements
    • Medical exam and clearance prior to exercise.


* Risk factors include age, family history, cigarette smoking,hypertension, unhealthy cholesterol levels, prediabetes, obesity and sedentary lifestyle.


Medical Clearance Recommendations


Low-risk Participants

  • Conditions
    • Men & women w/o symptoms and have ≤ 1 CVD risk factor.
  • Requirements
    • No Medical Clearance

List 10 Exercise Danger Signs


(participants should STOP exercise and the instructor should assess the need for emergency response procudures).

  1. Nausea/Vomiting
  2. Dizziness/Unusual Fatigue
  3. Tightness or pain in chest area
  4. Loss of muscle control (staggering)
  5. Severe Breathlessness/Gasping
  6. Allergic Reaction, Rash or Hives
  7. Blurred Vision
  8. Acute Illness
  9. Mental Confusion
  10. Acute Musculoskeletal Injury
List five (5) signs or participant complaints that would require exercise modification or cessation of exercise (not emergency response) until the signs disappear.
  1. Labored Breathing
  2. Excessive HR elevation
  3. Evidence of strain/holding breath or unusual redness
  4. Musculoskeletal Pain
  5. Lack of proper body control
What should an instructor know about the effects of drugs and/or medications on exercise response?
  • Certain prescriptions/nonprescribed medications may have side effects during exercise.
  • Individuals should consult their physician before starting an exercise program.
List six (6) symptoms of Overtraining
  1. Fatigue
  2. Anemia
  3. Amenorrhea
  4. Over-use or stress related injury
  5. Increased HRR
  6. Slower recovery HR
  7. Decrease in strength performance
  8. Constant muscle or joint soreness on effort or motion, leaning toward pain.
List AFAA recommendations to avoid Overtraining
  • Vary class type/intensity.
  • Limit number of high-impact advanced classes.
  • Always perform adequate warm-up and cool-down.
  • Limit amount of active demonstration by verbal cueing and use instructor assistants.
  • Ingest a nutritious diet with adequate total cals, carbs, protein, and water.
  • Be aware of and correct muscle imbalances.

In terms of hydrations and rehydration

AFAA recommends:

  • Generally....
    • hydrate 8-12 oz of fluid before class
  • ACSM suggests....
    • monitor urine color
    • hydrate during and after exercise (2 cups/ 1pd of weight loss)
  • Prior to Exercise
    • hydrate with beverages several hours prior.
    • consume beverages/foods to stimulate thirst.
  • During Exercise
    • develop customized fluid repacement plan
    • consume beverages with electrolytes and carbs
  • Post Exercise
    • replenish electrolyte deficits
    • consume normal meals/beverages to restore

Describe appropriate exercise attire

that AFAA recommends

  • Breathable Fabrics
  • Comfortable clothes that do not restrict movement
  • Shoes with proper design, support, and cushioning
According to AFAA, a group exercise instructor should generally teach at what class level?
Intermediate with explanations on how to modify

Instructors should evaluate an exercise

 from which two (2) viewpoints?

  1. Effectiveness (benefits acheived)
  2. Potential Risk (injury quotient)

Write the EXACT wording

of each of the AFAA 5 Questions.

  1. What is the purpose of this exercise?
    • Muscular strength or endurance, cardorespiratory conditioning, warm-up or activity preparations, skill developments, and stress reduction.
  2. Are you doing that effectively?
    • Proper range, speed, or body position against gravity.
  3. Does the exercise create any safety concerns?
    • Potention stress area, enviornmental concerns, or movement control.
  4. Can you maintain proper alignment and form during the duration of the exercise?
    • Form, alignment, or stabalization.
  5. For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate?
    • risk-to-benifit ratio, participant level of fitness, participant limitations.

List fourteen (14) exercises that AFAA does not recommend (due to the high-risk potential). 

Explain an appropriate modification.




  • Sustained unsupported foward spinal felxion (spinal ligaments)
  • Sustained unsupported lateral spinal flexion (spinal ligaments)
  • Repetitive or weighted deep knee bends (knee ligaments)
  • Bouncy (ballistic) toe touches (back, hamstings, claves)
  • Rapic head circles (cervical spine)
  • Full plough (cervical spine)
  • Full cobra ( lumbar spine)
  • Hurdler's Stretch (medial knee alignment)
  • Rapid Windmills (lumbar spine)
  • Suspine double leg lifts (lumbar spine)
  • Prone double arm & leg lifts (lumbar spine)
  • Forced Splits (ligaments in hip and knee joints, groin area)
  • Weight bearing pivots on unforgiving surface (ankles and knees)
  • Plyometric moves on an elevated surface (compression concerns)

List ten (10) basic postures used in group exercise classes.

  1. Standing position
  2. Squat/Lunge position
  3. Bent-over position
  4. Seated position
  5. Supine positon
  6. Prone position
  7. Side-lying positon
  8. Kneeling position
  9. Hands/elbows and knees positon
  10. Moving positions
Correct Standing Alignment cues:
  1. Feet should be shoulder width apart.  Wider for greater stability.
  2. Toes pointed in same direction as the knees.
  3. Legs straight or bent without locking.
  4. Pelvis in neutral alignment.
  5. Abdominal muscles engaged and rib cage lifted.
  6. Spinal Column in ideal alignment.
  7. Shoulder blades are slightly down, not rounded or pulled back.
  8. Head held high with ears inline with shoulders.
  9. From a side view from head to toe should be aligned.
Correct Squat and Lunge Alignment cues.
  • Toes and knees pointed in the same direction.
  • Knees do not extend past the toes.
  • Hips are at or above knee height.
  • Abdominal muscle are engaged.
  • Shoulders are kept down away from ears.
Correct Bent-Over Alignment cues:
  • Position may be performed by flexing at the hips or spine.
  • When flexing from the hips, engage the back and abdominal muscles to support the torso in neutral.
  • When flexing from the spine, one or both hands are placed on thighs, ankles, floor or other stable object.
Correct Seated Alignment cues:
  • Maintain spine in neutral alignment.
  • Knees are bent at a 90 degree angle (if seated) or held straight, slightly bent of folded (if on the floor).
  • Shoulders are down, scapulae neutral, neck relaxed.
  • Toes and knees pointed in the same direction.
Correct Supine Alignment cues:
  • Lie on back and maintain a neutral spine by engaging the abdominals and place spine in neutral.
  • Some participants will need to keep one or both knees bent with feet on the floor to maintain neutral spine position.
Correct Prone Alignment cues:
  • Lie face down with face looking down or turned to one side.
  • Maintain a neutral pelvis and spine by engaging the back and abdominal muscles.
Correct Side-Lying Alignment Cues:
  • Stack hips and shoulders to maintain a square alignment.
  • Use top arm as a support by placing hand on floor in front of the body.
  • Rest head on bottom arm to keep neck alignment or use an elbow if elevated.
  • If in an elevated position keep spine in a straight line rather than slouch.
  • Knees and hips can be extended of flexed for stability.
Correct Kneeling Alignment cues:
  • Performed on two knees with torso upright or half-kneeling on one knee with other leg in a 90 degree position.
  • Kneel on one knee with the other foot in front, placed far enough away that the front knee is at no more than a 90 degree angle.
  • Remain upright or hinged at the hips, keep spine in neutral position.
  • Abdominal and back muscles should be engaged.
  • Shoulders should be down with neck in neutral alignment.
Correct Hands/Elbows and Knees Alignment cues:
  • Place hands or elbows on the floor directly under shoulders.
  • Kneel with knees directly under hips.
  • Keep shoulders and hips square.
  • Keep neck in neutral alignment.
  • Engage the abdominal muscles to maintain neutral spine alignment (avoid arching lower back).
Correct Moving Alignment cues:
  • Alignment will vary according to specific requirements of the exercise movement.
  • Participants should control their range of motion in order to maintain posture and alignment throughout all movements.

AFAA recommends that every

group exercise class include:

  • Pre-class announcements
  • Warm-up period
  • Body of workout
  • Post-exercise period

Definition, Purpose, and Duration of



Deinition= preparation period for a specific workout


Purpose= increase core temp and prepare muscles and joints for movement


Duration= typically 8-12 minutes but can vary 5-10 minutes


List and descibe the two (2) common warm-up methods and discuss when the addition of preparatory stretches may be appropriate.


  1. Movement Rehearsal: performing lighter or less intense versons of movements or patterns that will be used in the upcoming workout.
  2. Limbering Movements: smooth, moderately-paced, non-weighted, full-range movements that increase joint mobility and core temperature.

Preparatory Stretches: gentle stretches

< 15 seconds is appropriate for pre-workout stretching.

>15 seconds is better used as post-workout flexibility.

List several considerations for a warm-up.

Intensity/Impact: keep participants below training HR.


Speed and Control: elliminate ballistic movements.


Range of Motion: progress from moderate-greater ROMs.


Sequence: In any order, however, cover the total body.


Spinal Issues: controlled movements in all ranges.


List the definition, purpose and duration of:


Proper Cardiorespiratory Training


Definition= To utilize continuous, rhythmical aerobic activities that target the large muscles to create increased demand for oxygen.


Purpose= to improve the heart, circulatory, and pulmonary systems.


Duration= Varies with class format/level.  20-45 mins for a 1 hr. class or 10 mins bout in each circuit format.


List and describe four (4) common

Cardiorespiratory Training Methods.

  • Continuous or Steady-State Training format in which class intensity gradually increases and held at a steady state for a majority of the workout.
  • Interval Training format includes timed bouts with periods of rest.
  • Intermittent Training format is less structured with random peaks followed by lower intensity movements.
  • Circuit Training format timed bouts performed in a station-to-station or sequential manner.

List several special considerations

for cardiorespiratory training.

  • Monitoring Intensity
  • Cross Training
  • Intensity Issues
  • Music Speed
  • Range of Motion
  • Repetitive Stress Issues
  • Cardiorespiratory Cool-Down



List the definition, purpose and duration of:


Proper Muscular Strength and Endurance Training


Definition= Involves working individual or groups of muscles against a resistance to the point of muscle fatigue.


Purpose= to improve the ability to perform everyday activities, increase muscle mass, increase metabolism, stronger bones, decrease risk of injury, improve posture symmetry, and improved athletic performance.


Duration= time varies, 45-60 total workout w/ warm-up and flexibility work, 15-20 w/o warm-up or flexibility work.


List and describe four (4) common

Muscular Strength and Endurance Training Methods

  • Muscle Isolation
  • Multi-Joint/Multi-Muscle
  • Torso Stabilization
  • Functional Training

Concentric Muscular Contraction= occurs when tension generated by a muscle is sufficient to overcome a resistance.


Eccentric Muscular Contraction= occurs when a muscle slowly lowers a resistance.


Isometric Muscular Contraction= describes a static (held) position in which tension is developed in the muscle.




List several special considerations for

Muscular Strength and Endurance Training

  • Muscle Balance
  • Range of Motion (ROM)
  • Speed and Control
  • Intensity
  • Torso Stabilization Exercises
  • Resistance Equipment Techniques
  • Muscle Conditioning Exercises in the Water

List the definition, purpose and duration of:


Proper Flexibility Training


Definition= focuses on joint mobility and muscle suppleness, flexibility, and the reduction of muscular tension.


Purpose= improves joint mobility.


Duration= dependant on focus and goals of class, 5-10 minutes (end of cardio class) or entire 60 mins.


List and describe three (3) common

Flexibility Training Methods.


Static Stretches involves placing a targeted muscle or muscles in a position of elongation and holding the position.


Dynamic Stretching/Full ROM involves stretching with movement through a full range of motion.


Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretches involve an active contraction of a muscle prior to the stretch.


List several special considerations for

Flexibility Training


Intensity stretch to the end of the ROM or to the point of tension.  Do not overstretch.

Speed and Control avoid ballistic movements.

Range of Motion stretch remains within ROM.

Body Temperature should be increased prior to flexibility work due to previous workout, clothing or room temperature.


List the definition, purpose and duration of:


Proper Final Class Segment


Definition= closure of workout, which includes stretching, relaxation and stress reducing techniques.


Purpose= to promote mind, body awareness and facilitate the relaxation response, a state in which the heart rate and blood pressure decrease, muscles relax, and phsiological stress is reduced.


Duration= typically 5-10 minutes.


List and describe three (3) common

Relaxation Methods


Physical= focuses on bodily systems and sensations as effort to increase relaxation.


Mental Focus= uses imagination to create a greater sense of relaxation.


Combination Focus= combining both physical and mental focuses to achieve an even greater relaxation response.


List several special considerations for a

Final Class Segment

  • HR Monitoring
  • Saunas and Hot Tubs
  • Method Selection

Sample Exercises

  • Breathing (physical or combined focus)
  • The Contract and Relax method (physical focus)
  • Visualization (mental focus)
Resting Heart Rate (RHR)
  • The number of times your heart beats in one minute while in a state of rest.
  • Best measured before getting out of bed.

How does increased cardiorespiratory fitness

affect Resting Heart Rate?


The more conditioned your body is, the less effort is needed to pump blood through the body.


How do you calculate a participants

Age-predicted maximal heart rate (MHR or HRmax)

220-age= HRmax
ACSM recommends that healthy adults workout within what intensity range?

Determine the Training Heart Rate Range of 64-94% for a 55 year old male participant using the Age-Predicted Method and the Gellish Formula for HRmax.


Historical Formula: Estimated (HRmax) = 220-age

HRmax = 220-55(age) = 165 bpm

HR64%= 64% x 165 = 106 bpm

HR94%= 94% x 165 = 155 bpm

Target HR range (THRR) = 106-155 bpm


Gellish Formula: Estimated (HRmax) = 206.9-(.67xage)

HRmax = 206.9- (.67x55) = 170 bpm

HR64%= 64% x 170 = 109 bpm

HR94%= 94% x 170 = 160 bpm

Target HR range (THRR) = 109-160 bpm


Determine the Training Heart Rate Range of 40-85% for a 55 year old male with a resting HR of 58 bpm.


Use the Karvonen and the Gellish Formula for HRmax to calculate Traing Heart Rate Range (THRR).


Karvonen Formula

(HRmax-HRrest)x % desired low/high intensity + resting HR

HRmax= 220 - 55 = 165 bpm

HRreserve= 165 - 58 = 107 bpm

HR40%HRR=(107 x 40%) + 58 = 101 bpm

HR85%HRR= (107 x 85%) + 58 = 149 bpm

Training HR range (THRR) = 101-149 bpm


Gellish Formula for HRmax

HRmax = 206.9 - (.67 x 55) = 170 bpm

HRreserve = 170 - 58 = 112 bpm

HR40%HRR=(40% x 112) + 58 = 103 bpm

HR85%HRR=(85% x 112 + 58 = 153 bpm

Training HR range (THRR) = 103-153 bpm


How does the THRR and HRR differ?



Target Hear Rate Reserve (THRR)= maximum heart rate.

Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)= factors in resting heart rate to maximum.

Explain the Heart Rate Recovery Rate
  • Speed at which heart rate returns to pre-exercise level.
  • This is an indicator of sufficient cool down period.
The preferred anatomical site for pulse checking is _________ while a secondary is __________.
Radial and Cartoid

The AFAA-recommended counting time for heart rate is __________ seconds.


Once cued, begin counting beats at __________.


10 seconds



Rate of Percieved Exertion (RPE)
  • Participant self-determines how hard they are working on a 10 pt scale of 1-10.
  • Originally it was a 15pt scale ranging from 6-20.
Talk Test
  • Engaging in conversaton during exercise represents work at near a steady rate.
  • Anaerobic work takes place when individual is no longer able to talk .
How does abruptly stopping cardiorespiratory exercise affect exercise response?
Can cause blood pooling.

How does working above target heart rate

affect exercise response?

  • Work is being done anaerobically and inefficiently.
  • Activity level is too intense and work output will be shortened.
How does Stimulants affect exercise response?
Stimulants give you energy.
How does Cardiac medications affect exercise response?
  • Medications will slow the increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Protects the client from risk for exercise induced ischemia.

How does Pressure Response (multiple arm movements overhead) affect exercise response?

  • The heart rate and blood pressure are elevated disproportionately to the oxygen cost of the activity.

List four (4) ways choreography can increase the intensity of a cardio (aerobic) workout.

  • The feet and hands are closer to the ground, the less intense the movement.
  • The feet and hands are farther from the ground, the more intense the movement.
  • If movements are long lever and executed from the trunk (shoulders and hips), the intense the movement.
  • If movements are short lever and executed from the knees or elbow joint, the less intense the movement.
A pattern of beats in a muscal pattern/phrase.
Musical Phrase
  • Music grouped into 32 beats.
  • Keeps movements corresponding to the beats.
What are legal considerations when purchasing or creating music for Group Exercise?

Music must be legally approved by performing rights companies (ASCAP, BMI, or SESAC).


Low Impact Aerobics (LIA)


Define and give Choreography Examples


Low impact aerobics is identified by keeping one foot on or as close to the floor as possible.




Step Touch

Touch Step


Step touch while raising toes


Moderate-impact aeorbics (MIA)


Define and give Choreography Examples



Both feet staying on the floor, but the feet roll through a toe-ball-heel action every time.





Plie'/Releve' (up on toes)

Knee lifts with heel lifts

Any movement between LIA and HIA




High Impact Aerobics (HIA)


Define and give Choreography Examples


Both feet leaving the floor alternately or at the same time.  Impacts on the foor are high and when executed continuously for extended periods, can cause injury.










To lessen injury risk and maintain motivation in Type A participants, list three (3) types of workouts that provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high-intensity options for advanced training.


Type A= most committed and fit individuals in an exercise class.


Steptraining, Kickboxing, Cycling.


List four (4) motivational techniques to sustain a Type B participant for lifelone exercise adherence.

Type B= sensible, but not compulsive about fitness and have embraced it without compromising other aspects of life.  They see the big picture and are in it for the long haul.

  • Feedback
  • Support
  • Recognition
  • Encouragement

List eight (8) action steps an instructor should take to enhance exercise adherance for a novice/beginner Type C participant.


Type C= Novice/Beginner participant.  These participants need to feel welcomed, accepted, and comfortable.  Courtesy, sensitivity, and appropriate guidance are required to make this person comfortable.


Warm Welcome

Take Interest

Appropriate Guidance

Clear Expectations

Observe and Assist

Terminology Used

Music Awareness

De-emphasize Transitions


Practise What You Preach

Position for Success

Think Positive
Report Cards

Vary It Slowly

As a Fit Professional


I.                   General Principles of Exercise Training          

A.                 The FITT Principle: Training Variables

B.                 The Principle of Overload

C.                 The Principle of Progression

D.                The Principle of Specificity: SAID

E.                 The Principle of Reversibility

F.                  The Principle of Overtraining

II.               Health and Skill Related Physical Fitness Components

A.                 Health-Related Components

1.                  Cardio respiratory Fitness

2.                  Muscular Strength and Endurance

3.                  Flexibility

4.                  Body Composition

B.                 Skill-Related Components

1.                  Agility

2.                  Balance

3.                  Coordination

4.                  Power

5.                  Reaction Time

6.                  Speed

III.            Health and Fitness Training Recommendations

A.                 Health Benefits versus Enhanced Fitness Benefits

B.                 AFAA Fitness Training Recommendations

1.                  FITT-at-a-Glance for Cardio respiratory Fitness

2.                  FITT-at-a-Glance for Muscular Strength and Endurance

3.                  FITT-at-a-Glance for Flexibility

C.                 Prevalence of Obesity

IV.             Professional Responsibilities and Concerns

A.                 Professional Responsibilities

B.                 Instructional Concerns

V.                Exercise Evaluation and the AFAA 5 Questions

A.                 Exercise Evaluation

B.                 AFAA 5 Questions

C.                 Body Alignment

VI.             Group Exercise Class Format

VII.         Class Components

A.                 Pre-Class Announcements

B.                 Warm-up

C.                 Cardio respiratory Training

D.                Muscular Strength and Endurance Training

E.                 Flexibility Training

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