Shared Flashcard Set


AFAA Personal Training Cert Cards
General Study card for the AFAA PT Exam
Not Applicable

Additional Fitness Flashcards




Target Heart Rate - % of Max HR
220-age = estimated max HR
Est Max HR x % (eg 70%) = Target HR

To find range calculate for 60 and 70%
Target HR - Karvonen Formula (HRR method)

More accurate and closer to % of VO2 Max
220-age = Est Max HR
Est Max HR - Resting HR = HRR
HRR x % (eg 60%) = Percentage of HRR
Percentage of HRR + Resting HR = Target HR

Calculate for both percentages 60 and 70% to find Target HR range (ACSM rec % between 40-85% of HRR)
Target Heart Rate - Gellish formula

Most Accurate, but also most complicated
206.9-(.67 x age)= Estimated Max HR

ACSM states that fitness professionals can choose between accuracy and ease of use when using HR formulas.
Rate of Perceived Exertion for determining Exercise Intensity
Method of assessing and recommending exercise intensity.

12-13 approx. 40-59% of HRR
16 approx. 84% of HRR

ACSM recommends exercising at RPE of 12-16 (meaning intensity subjectively somewhat hard to hard)

Is valuable because:
1.Can be used even if client is taking HR altering meds
2. Helps client "listen to their bodies"
3. Can provide and accurate gauge of approaching fatigue.
4. Is useful for clients who have trouble taking their HR.
ACSM Exercise. Recommendations
30 min moderate intensity 5 days a week for total of 150 min per week
20-25 min vigorous intensity 3 or more days per week for total of 75 min per week

***For weight loss or weight loss maintenance 50-60 min moderate intensity per day 4-5 days a week for a total of 300 min per week***
Muscular Strength
Max force a muscle or muscle group can generate at one time.
Muscular Endurance
Capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions (eg push-ups, sit-ups) or to sustain a fixed, static muscle action for an extended period of time.
Muscle Power
Explosive aspect of strength and is a product of strength and speed of movement. Power = (force x distance)/time. Especially important for improved athletic performance.
Muscle Stability
Ability of muscle or muscle group to stabilize a joint and maintain its position without movement. In other words perform a sustained isometric contraction.

Especially important for spinal stabilizers - erector spinal, middle trapezius, rhomboids, and abdominals.
Closed Kinetic Chain (CKC) Exercises
Tends to be associated with functional training. Feet are generally on the floor or are connected to a resistance such as a leg press machine. CKC exercises usually resemble activities of daily living.

Are multi-muscle, multi-joint, and weight-bearing exercises that resemble body movement patterns in everyday, real life activities
Open Kinetic Chain (OKC) Exercises
Isolation-type exercises (eg knee extensions)

Experts often recommend moving away from these type exercises to more functional training exercises.
Carbohydrate Requirements and Grams to calories
National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board Requirement - 45-65% of calories from carbs per day

Athletes that exercise aerobically for more than 90 minutes per day need 8-10g per kg of bodyweight (multiply weight in lbs X .45 to calculate weight in kg)

There are 4 calories in every g of carbohydrate
Fiber Definition and Requirements
Fiber is the primary indigestible type of carbohydrate

AHA and US Dept of Agriculture Recommend 20-30g per day of fiber or 14g per 1,000 calories
Protein Info and Requirements
There are 4 calories in each g of protein

Complete - animal or fish based foods supply essential amino acids

Incomplete - plants lacks one or more amino acid, but combining grains and legumes, 9 essential amino acids can be obtained without eating animal protein sources

RDA - .8g for each kg of bodyweight. Convert lbs to kg by X .45 example 160lbs X .45 = 72kg 72 x .8 = 57.6g protein per day

ACSM Endurance Athlete Recommendations - 1.2-1.4g/kg of bodyweight

ACSM Strength Trained Athletes - 1.6-1.7g/kg of bodyweight
Fat Info and Requirements
Fats have 9 calories per gram. Approx 120 calories per tablespoon.

To calculate fat consumption Estimate total calories consumed per day and multiply by 30%. Divide the result by 9 to figure g of fat per day.

Consume less than 10% of calories from Saturated fat and less than 300mg/day from cholesterol

Total Fat Intake should be less than 20-35% of total calories
AHA recommends no more than 300mg of cholesterol per day

High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) - good cholesterol. Having a high HDL of 60mg/dl or more provides protection from heart disease. Exercise, losing weight, reducing fat intake by to less than 30% of calories, decreasing sat fat, and smoking cessation all help raise HDL.

Low density Lipoproteins (LDL)- bad cholesterol should be less than 100mg/dl. Decrease fat intake to less than 30% of calories, decrease high cholesterol foods, cut back on trans fat, and sub monounsaturated fat for sat fat. Increasing soluble fiber, decreasing body weight, and increasing soy protein can also help.

Total should be less than 200
HDL should be more than 40
LDL should be less than 130
Triglycerides should be less than 150
Skinfold Analysis
-all measurements taken from right side of body with client standing
- caliper directly on skin surface 1cm away from thumb and forefinger, perpendicular to skinfold, and 1/2 between crest and base of fold
- maintain pinch while reading and read within 1-2 sec
- take duplicate measurements at each site and retest if not within 1-2mm
- rotate through meaurement sited or allow time for skin to regain normal texture and thickness
- meticulously identify the site using anatomical landmarks
Skinfold Sites Women
Standardized sites

1. Triceps
2. Suprailiac
3. Thigh
Skinfold Sites Men
Standardized Sites
1. Chest (pectoral)
2. Abdomen
3. Thigh
Weight in kg/height in m squared

BMI 25-29.9 kg/m squared overweight
BMI >= 30 kg/m squared obese
Waist to Hip Ratio
> fat in abdomen rather than extremities = higher risk for heart disease, diabetes, and metabolic disorders

Calculate by dividing waist circumference/hip circumference

If >= .95 for men under 60 or
>=.86 or women under 60 client is obese

If older clients 60-69 have a ratio of >= 1.03 for men or >= .90 for women client is obese
Girth measurements
Girth (circumference) measurements

Place tape on right side of body for extremities. Client stands erect and relaxed.
Take 2 measurements at each site (should be within 1/4 in of each other)

Abdominal- horizontal level with umbilicus
Waist - horizontal narrowest part above umbilicus
Hips - maximum posterior protrusion of buttocks
Thigh (proximal) - just below fold of buttocks
Upper arm - midway between ace onion and olecranon processes
Forearm - max circumference with elbow extended and palm supinated
Calf - max circumference between knee and ankle

Girth > 102cm men and > 88cm women is a risk factor or CHD (coronary heart disease)
3 min Step Test
- no active warmup, but stretching of the gastrocnemius, hamstring, and iliopsoas is encouraged. 1-2 cycles of stepping is also allowed as practice
- 12 inch step
- metronome set at 96bpm
- step for 3 min telling client when it is 1, 2, and 10 sec.
- at end of 3 min client sits down immediately and HR is taken within 5 sec. Take HR for 1 min. (ECG, hearrate monitor, or stethescope is recommended by ACSM)
Rockport Walking Test
Appropriate for older or sedentary clients

- light warm-up with rhythmic limbering and static stretching
- most vigorous walk he/she can maintain for 1 mile
- course needs to be smooth and flat, ideally 1/4 mile track.
- as client walks announce distance with each remaining lap
- after 1 mile immediately palpate pulse for 10 seconds and multiply by 6 then allow client to cool down
-norms are for 170lb man and 125lb woman if client weighs significantly more fitness will be over-predicted, significantly less under-predicted
- VO2 max can be estimated using a generalized equation

- precede test with a warm-up consisting of static stretching and walking on treadmill
- find exact pace client can walk vigorously for 1min
- have client walk pace for 1 mile and record time
- immediately palpate pulse for 10 seconds then multiply by 6 and then allow client to cool down
Static Strength Test
performed on dynamometers
- can be used to asses grip strength and back and leg extensor strength
- hand grip most widely used
- have client stand with elbow flexed holding dynamometer in one hand
- have client exhale while squeezing as hard as possible for 2-3 seconds
- allow 3 trials for each hand and compare to norms
Dynamic strength test (1RM test)
Frequently performed 1RM test = bench press (anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps) and the leg press (upper leg muscles)
- 1RM found through trial and error
- warm-up client with static stretches and limbering movements for muscles going to be used
- familiarize client with equipment and start them at a weight he/she can comfortably lift (50-70% of perceived capacity).
- progressively add 2.5-20kg until weight can be lifted with proper form for only 1 rep
- allow client to rest 3-5min between trials
- divide 1RM weight in lbs by client bodyweight in lbs to find % ranking

- potential for injury
- tendency to perform valsalva maneuver
- lack of portability of equipement
- intimidation factor
- not appropriate for beginners/deconditioned clients (best for strength athletes)

If 1RM seems to risky a 6RM could be found instead and then 1RM could be found from that number
Ex if client can bench press 80lbs 6 reps you can look up that number in 1RM table to find their 1RM
Muscular Endurance Test
Push-up, YMCA Dynamic Bench Press, Sit-up Test, and partial curl-up test are most common

- measures upper body (pec major, anterior deltoid, triceps)
- disadvantage performing even 1 pushup for deconditioned clients can require max effort
- client assumes proper push-up position women -knees men - toes
- repeat as many push-ups as possible while breathing (allowing client to stop if pain/discomfort is felt)
- count # of push-ups performed with proper form without rest. Chest should come within 3 in off floor (your fist or nerf ball or fowm roller could be used as a guide)
- test ends when proper form can no longer be maintained or when client can no longer perform another rep

Dynamic Bench press
- standard external barbell of 35lbs women and 80lbs men
- barbell is lifted to a metronome of 60bpm (30 reps per min)
- test concludes when client can no longer keep pace, break form, or can't complete another rep

Sit-up test
- trunk muscles
- perform as many sit-ups (full - elbows touching knees) as possible for 1 min while feet held in place
- disadvantage - can aggravate existing low-back pain and relies on an exercise not recommended for training

Partial Curl-up
- mod of sit-up test
- client lies supine with knees at 90 degrees, arms at sides, palms down, and fingers pointing toward feet and fingertips touching a piece of masking tape
- a second piece of masking tape is placed 10cm away. Low back remains on floor
- metronome set for 50bpm and start timer
- test is 1 full min at a rate of 25 per min
- goal is for trunk to flex 30 degrees with each rep
- client performs as many full range as possible to a max of 25 or at end of 1 min without pausing
-alt protocols for hand placement - across chest with head activating a counter when trunk reaches 30 degrees, placing hands on thighs and curling up until hands reach kneecaps
Other Muscular Fitness Tests
Isokintetic Testing
Anaerobic Power Tests
Isokinetic Testing
- used in rehab settings
- measures muscle tension through full ROM at a constant speed
- involves expensive specialized equipment (not widely used in commercial facilities)

Anaerobic power test
- measures short-term, power-generating capabilities and primarily used for performance athletes and for research purposes
- example - sargent jump and reach test (measuring vertical jump), standing broad jump test, running sprint test, and cycling "sprint" test (eg the Wingate power test)
- are very intense and last 1 min or less
- not appropriate for the general mixed population interested in health-related fitness
ROM possible around a joint
is specific to each joint and its surrounding muscles
Soluble Fiber
fruits, vegetables, seeds, brown rice, barley, and oats.

Appears to lower cholesterol levels and retard entry of glucose into blood stream
Insoluble Fiber
cellulose, and found in whole grains and on the outside of seeds, fruits, and legumes.

Key in promoting more efficient elimination and may help prevent colon cancer.

Examples of whole grains - whole wheat bread, oatmeal, brown and wild rice, and barley
Glycemic Load
Calculate - g of carbohydrate X glycemic index
Carbohydrate loading
pre-event practice used by endurance athletes to max load their muscles with stored glycogen. When prepping for a marathon of other events >90 min athletes should
1. cut back on exercise and rest muscles
2. continue to eat a high-carb diet (60-70%) for 3 days prior to event to super saturate the muscles with glycogen to avoid "hitting the wall" or "bonking"
Hitting the Wall
muscles Fehaving inadequate supply of glycogen (carb) for work resulting in excessive fatigue and desire to quit
inadequate supply of glycogen to the brain leading to light-headedness, lack of coordination, and weakness
Female Athlete Triad
Eating Disorder, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis
BMI > 30kg/m2

Waist Girth >102cm Men >88cm women

Waist-hip Ration >=.95 men >=.86 women

32% of Americans considered obese
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